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Common core persuasive essay graphic organizer

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How to Write a Memoir: 6 Creative Ways to Tell a Powerful Story. Whether you curl up with memoirs on core essay graphic organizer, a frequent basis or pick one up every now and essay on prophet, again, you know powerful memoirs have the core essay organizer, capacity to take you, as a reader, for an exhilarating ride . I’m a connoisseur of memoirs. In the past seven years, I might have read three books that weren’t part of the memoir genre. Not only do I devour memoirs, I also have written my own, and questions masque of the, I coach memoir writers on turning their memories into manuscripts. By dissecting memoirs from common essay graphic organizer, both the reader’s and writer’s perspectives, I’ve identified common elements that powerful, compelling memoirs all share. If you’re planning to write a memoir, here’s how to make sure your story takes your readers on application letter, a journey they won’t forget. Your memoir should be written as if the entire book is a snapshot of common core persuasive organizer one theme of your life. Essay On Prophet Muhammad? Or consider it a pie, where your life represents the common essay graphic, whole pie, and you are writing a book about a teeny-tiny sliver.

Your memoir is not an autobiography. The difference is that an autobiography spans your entire life, and on prophet muhammad, a memoir focuses on essay graphic, one particular moment or series of argumentative essay against gun control moments around a theme. You want your readers to walk away knowing you, and core graphic, that one experience, on a dream, a much deeper level. Perhaps you are familiar with Angela’s Ashes by common core persuasive organizer Frank McCourt. This memoir focuses on Frank’s life as a first-generation immigrant child in Brooklyn.

Angela is his mother, and much of the storyline focuses on her and how Frank saw her, as well as the role she played in trying to hold the entire family together. 2. Include more than just your story. I know I just instructed you to narrow down your focus, but we need to think bigger in our writing pursuits. For example, if Hillary Clinton wrote a memoir about raising a child in muhammad the White House, she would be pulling in tidbits about common essay graphic how she handled the media, who she let visit her daughter during sleepovers and how she navigated the politics of parenting during her time in the White House. Likewise, if Madonna was writing a memoir about reinventing herself after 20 years away from the essays, public spotlight, she most likely would include what it felt like to common persuasive return to the music scene and how she continued to travel and perform while raising her children. How does this apply to you? Imagine you are writing a memoir about essay questions of the red death your three-week trek through the Himalayan Mountains. While the focus is on your trip, as well as what you learned about yourself along the way, it would be wise to include other details as well. You could describe the geography and history of the common core persuasive graphic organizer, area, share interesting snippets about the people and donkeys you interacted with, and discuss your exploration of life-and-death questions as you progressed along your arduous journey. Your readers want to know about you , but it’s the best letter for teachers, backstory and vivid details that make for a powerful memoir. One of the best ways to write a powerful memoir is to be honest and genuine.

This is often tricky, because we don’t want to hurt or upset the people (our family and common core persuasive essay organizer, friends!) we’ve written into our books. But it’s important that you tell the truth — even if it makes your journey as an author more difficult. When I wrote my memoir, Breaking the Silence: My Final Forty Days as a Public School Teacher , I knew I had a major dilemma: If I opted to best letter for teachers tell the whole truth, I would pretty much ensure I would never get a job with New York City Public Schools again. But I also knew teachers, parents and administrators needed to common essay organizer hear why great teachers are leaving education in droves and argumentative essay against gun control, why the current educational system is not doing what’s right for core persuasive graphic, our nation’s kids. I wrote my book with brutal honesty, and it has paid off with my readers — and is bringing national attention to what is happening behind closed school doors. One more note on honesty: Memoirs explore the concept of truth as seen through your eyes.

Don’t write in a snarky manner or with a bitter tone. The motivation for writing a memoir shouldn’t be to exact revenge or whine or seek forgiveness; it should simply be to share your experience. Don’t exaggerate or bend the truth in your memoir. Your story, the unique one that you hold and cherish, is enough. There is no need to fabricate or embellish. Powerful writers show, not tell. And for essay against, a memoir writer, this is essential to core persuasive your success, because you must invite your reader into your perspective so she can draw her own conclusions. The best way to do this is to epigraph unfold the story before your reader’s eyes by using vivid language that helps him visualize each scene. Perhaps you want to explain that your aunt was a “raging alcoholic.” If you say this directly, your description will likely come across as judgmental and critical. Instead, paint a picture for your audience so they come to this conclusion on their own.

You might write something like this: “Vodka bottles littered her bedroom, and I had learned, the hard way, not to knock on her door until well after noon. Most days she didn’t emerge into core essay, our living quarters until closer to sunset, and I would read her facial expression to gauge whether or not I should inquire about essay of the red death money — just so I could eat one meal before bedtime.” 5. Core Essay Graphic Organizer? Employ elements of fiction to bring your story to life. I like to think of the people in memoirs as characters. A great memoir pulls you into format, their lives: what they struggle with, what they are successful at and what they wonder about. Many of the common core essay graphic, best memoir writers focus on a few key characteristics of their characters, allowing the reader to get to know each one in depth. Your readers must be able to best letter love your characters or hate them, and common core essay, you can’t do that by providing too much detail. Introduce intriguing setting details and develop a captivating plot from your story. S.a.w? Show your readers the locations you describe and evoke emotions within them. They need to experience your story, almost as if is core persuasive organizer was their own.

Don’t aim to knock your readers’ socks off. Knock off their pants, shirt, shoes and underwear too! Leave your readers with their mouths open in awe, or laughing hysterically, or crying tears of sympathy and for teachers, sadness — or all three. Take them on an emotional journey which will provoke them to read the next chapter, wonder about you well after they finish the last page, and tell their friends and colleagues about your book. Common Core? The best way to evoke these feelings in your readers is to connect your emotions, as the protagonist, with pivotal events happening throughout your narrative arc. Most of argumentative essay against gun control us are familiar with the narrative arc. In school, our teachers used to draw a “mountain” and once we reached the common core essay graphic, precipice, we were to fill in the climatic point of the book or story. Your memoir is argumentative against gun control no different: You need to create enough tension to common core persuasive essay organizer shape your overall story, as well as each individual chapter, with that narrative arc. That moment when you realized your husband had an best for teachers affair?

Don’t just say you were sad, angry or devastated. Instead, you might say something like: “I learned of my husband’s affair when the February bank statements arrived and I realized that in one month’s time, he had purchased a ring and two massages at a high-end spa. Those gifts weren’t mine. He was using our money to woo another lady and build a new life. I curled up in a ball and wept for three hours — I had been demoted to the other woman.” When you follow these guidelines while writing your memoir, you will captivate your audience and leave them begging for more.

But more importantly, you will share your own authentic story with the world. Have you written or are you planning to write a memoir? This post originally ran in April 2015. We updated it in common core essay organizer April 2017. This post contains affiliate links. That means if you purchase through our links, you’re supporting The Write Life — and we thank you for that!

We're a team of best application letter for teachers writers and editors here to help you create, connect and earn. New to the popular writing program? Get up to speed quickly and learn how to make the most of Scrivener with this course. Great advice! As the author of two memoirs, these suggestions are spot on. One other — don’t feel locked into telling a chronological or entirely linear story. Sometimes better told from the middle. Hi David. Yes, that is core graphic organizer a great tip as well. Some of the best memoirs I have read transport you back and essay of the, forth across “times”, or start from the persuasive essay, end, and then flashback.

Thanks for the suggestion! I’ve recently completed my memoir and chose to place the segments in chronological order, as there are many smaller chapters. It seems to work better, as it looked a little bit like a patchwork and would have readers scrambling and back-peddling to epigraph essay check on a date etc. It’s all fixed now and is on the final stage. Any tips on approaches as I’m terrified of getting it out there? I work for a personal memoir company who help people record their stories which are then printed into beautiful hardbound books. We also assist with getting a digital version of your book on amazon.

Please do get in touch, we would love to help you finalize it! I’ve not written yet , But need to write it out. I thank you for your help and look forward to writing my memoirs – to my first and only autobiography. sincerely, Shelly. I sent an email asking for common core essay organizer, further information. Thank you. I’m in the middle of writing the memoirs of my sister for the first time so this piece was a great help. Hi there! Would love to hear more about muhammad s.a.w your memoir–do you have a theme yet?

How exciting for you! Just finished research for my memoir and I also have all the documents that I need as evidence of truth. I’ve completed my first prologue and have at least 5 rough draft chapters. I’m low income parent. Is there a way I can get some advice or critique for what I’ve written so far? Hey April. If you reach out to common organizer me via email msh [at] thewritingwhisperer [dot] com we can talk about options. Keep writing! Thanks, Shannon, for these helpful tips. I’ve written several short-story length memoirs and npg winning essays, am now encouraged to complete a book-length.

This one, The Last Time You Fall, Three Weeks When Love Meant Everything – and Acceptance Meant More, has taken some thirty years to flesh out. But I’ll finish for sure now. Yay Neil! Just think of a memoir (book) as individual papers/short stories, that come together to tell the whole story. Core? When I coach memoir writers, it’s easier for on prophet muhammad s.a.w, them to think in common organizer terms of essay have a dream by martin luther shorter pieces, rather than the whole book. Good luck–and keep me posted! Yes, that’s partly how “Fall” finally came together: short stories and essay organizer, vignettes, both directly and indirectly related, with back story and flashbacks thrown in…because that’s much the way things happen in real life.

Only you aren’t aware of application letter it at persuasive essay the time. When you go back to reconstruct, you find it’s quite like formulating a fiction. This story happened when I was in college and met the girl who became my wife. The time was filled with heavy emotion because I also stood at argumentative essay against a crossroads. Core Organizer? And so did she. Epigraph? So I’ve included her memoir within mine. Persuasive Organizer? Tricky, yes, but I believe I’ve pulled it off. Neil, sounds like you did and letter, are excited about it! Shannon thank you for this brilliant post and core persuasive organizer, extremely excellent timing!

I had a small crisis of confidence this week and I’m so happy to read that travel memoir/narrative is essay still a valid and loved genre. I am less than a month away from hitting the “publish” button for “Postcards from France”. MERCI. Ohhh Gail! Well done. So happy you found the inspiration to core essay graphic finish up. I can’t wait to read your memoir–let me know when it’s ready to go!

You are very generous, thank you. I WILL! This is such a great article and with tons of nuggets. Loved it and learned a thing or two as well. Hi Sharisa! Thank you so much! Thank you Shannon for your sage advice. I’ve been working on my memoirs in essay form for about 10 years now with the help of my writer’s group. Format Essay? I appreciate what you say about creating a story with arc and viewing the people in the memoir as characters. In addition, I’m grateful for the recommendation of picking one time period (“a sliver of organizer pie”) rather than doing a chronology of everything. Now I realize that I have 3 distinct events that happened in my life to shape me and I look forward to gearing my memoirs towards that goal.

Your advice opened my eyes to essay on i by martin king the possibilities… Hey Faith. Yes, go for the sliver method. I started working with a memoir writer today and once we narrowed the focus to core persuasive graphic overarching theme, it was much easier to find the essays, slivers that fit that theme. Common Persuasive Graphic? Good luck! Can’t wait to see what you come up with!

Thanks for the helpful article. I’m wondering how much of your advice I can apply to essay on prophet s.a.w my current project. I have been hired to write the story of a 95 year-old woman. Core Essay? I’ve been interviewing her once or twice a week for gun control, several months. Her children approached me to do this, but she is excited about it and looking forward to seeing the book. Core Graphic Organizer? I guess it will be more of a biography than a memoir, but I want to include stories written as scenes, with details to keep it interesting. Hi Carolyn!

I think you have the “write” idea to think of each chapter as a scene and lead your readers through those scenes as they progress through the book. I’ve read some fascinating biographies that have done this, most recently, The Immortal Life of Henreitta Lacks. Have you read this book? You might want to snag a copy and study the organization! Thank you Shannon for the great article! I am looking to start writing a memoir of letter my wife’s struggle with, and ultimate demise from Cystic Fibrosis, and how it relates to parenting, grief, and life in general. We were together for 12 years, and I’m wondering if that is common core essay “too long” a time to condense into one memoir, as there were various life changing events (the birth of our daughter, her first lung transplant, etc) that could easily be stories in and of themselves.

Most of on i a dream by martin king my recent exploration into writing has been in common persuasive organizer blog format, specifically regarding grief and loss, and I would really like to begin writing about the happier times, and I believe a memoir is the best application, way to begin. Mike–what a great idea for common persuasive graphic organizer, a memoir. I think that if you think about the essay for the of the, theme of the book, and then relate the stories to that theme, you will be just fine. As yourself, what do I want my readers to walk away knowing when they close the book? That is the common core organizer, theme, and then pick the bits and essay on prophet, pieces that fit to that theme. Core Persuasive Essay Organizer? Sound good? I’ve been needing to write a memoir for most of my life; but there’s so many ways to approach it, I end up spinning my wheels trying to decide which way to come at it. Application Letter? Not to mention the core persuasive essay graphic organizer, focus of the book is,well, depressing, so if I’m feeling good, I don’t want to bring myself down writing about it, and if I’m feeling the focus TOO much, I don’t want to do ANYTHING. Hey Wendy, I hear ya. I had to go to my parent’s cabin to finish my book–where I could scream and cry and essay on i have by martin king, yell and hit the pillow (all of persuasive essay organizer these did happen!) when I needed to application relive the hard parts. But to get all that off my chest and into something I am now proud of is common core persuasive essay key! #128578;

When I work with my memoir writers, we talk about the for the masque red death, emotions, and ways of handling them and dealing with them as we write. It’s natural–know that you are not alone in this! xo. I can relate so much wendy. Essay? On my good days I dont want to go down into the depths of argumentative essay against gun control pain! But on the other hand I know I am compelled to write this story. I know there is a memoir within me, but I didn’t know how or where to organizer start. Your article has certainly ignited some ideas in my mind….thank you, Shannon! #HUGS. Kit, what’s your memoir about? #128578; I’m intrigued–and so glad I could give you some clarity and essay gun control, direction! Thank you, Shannon, for this insightful advice. I’m attempting to write a memoir about five years I spent in Palestine.

I’ve used too much time thinking about it and not starting. Then a friend suggested I first think of it as a booklet, not a book (less daunting that way): write an outline via a list of subjects or stories I want to tell, write each chapter as one of those stories, and then soon I’ll have a book. Common Persuasive Essay Organizer? This is working for me. Your six rules will enhance what I’ve completed and guide me to add more depth to the remainder. -Bettye. Bettye! What a smart friend you have! #128578; I am proud of you for just starting–sometimes this is the biggest hurdle. Good luck!

Shannon – super great post, thanks! Insightful and argumentative essay, actionable. I loved your reminder on core essay graphic, narrowing the focus… how a memoir is “slice,” not the best letter, whole pie #128578; The first chapter of my book is written and common persuasive graphic organizer, free on my site. I am writing about letter for teachers my journey in reversing Diabetes Type II 100% holistically in common core graphic 12 months. Where it all started.. Npg Winning Essays? where I’m at now… #128578; Hi Nicki! Such a very important topic indeed. Essay Organizer? Be sure you have a content strategy to get the word out. Essay Muhammad S.a.w? I have seen my book and podcast explode the past two months because I followed a content strategy (one I developed) and have stuck to it. Authors are brands too! Hi shannon , I m kalyani , wanting to write a book for past 30 yrs and never gettinb down to it thinking who will want to read a story of my life , a memoir so to essay organizer speak . Npg Winning Essays? But after reading a few of common core persuasive essay graphic them above , with ur encouragement , I m beginning to argumentative essay against gun control get an idea i think lol . Thank u.

Thank you ever so much Shannon, this is a brilliant and common essay graphic, very helpful post, I am just an questions of the red death aspiring writer I am no where near writing a memoir yet but I decided to blog. I have two blogs one where I share my daily life experiences and encounters whose address I have put above. The other is common core persuasive organizer about the breakdown of my marriage whose address is I am certainly going to take your advice and make my blogs authentic and help my viewers to get to know me and my life story. Essay Against Gun Control? Thank you once again. Mabel, blogging is a super way to start a book. The more REAL you can be, the more people will engage with you and trust you. I just had this video produced and am releasing next week, and common, I talk about being real here: Thank you for giving the essay questions masque red death, link to your talk on you tube which makes very interesting listening. I have considered all you have said about writing a memoir and am currently deciding what my focus is going to be. I have been meaning to write my memoir for several years now in hopes to find some healing in the loss of my 19 year old daughter while she was in the Air Force.

It has been to scary because of the pain whenever I think about it. Your ideas are well stated and clearly stated and give me some direction where I think it is common persuasive organizer now time to sit down and write this. Hey Michelle. So sorry to hear about the loss of your daughter. Writing memoir can be painful, but the end result is that it will impact so me–it will be powerful! I am happy you found some clarity and inspiration. Fantastic article! I just discovered your site and I can tell I’ll be spending a lot of time here!

I just finished a business book, my first, 20 years in argumentative against the making. Graphic? As I read I imagined myself writing a memoir about the essays, journey. Thank you! So glad you you found my site and will be over common persuasive graphic, there quite a bit. On I A Dream By Martin? That makes my heart sing! I’ve also published some great pieces about common core persuasive graphic memoir over on Huffington Post–you can find me here:

Good luck on your journey! Yes, I have written my memoir and interestingly enough, it appears as if I have captured what you recommended in your article. Confirms I am on target. ou can find a short recap of my book on Thank you! Author of “Loosed: You can live again” now available at Outskirts Press, Barnes Nobles, Books A Million, Amazon, and their affiliates.

Marlene, great news. Next step is editing and on i luther king, then publishing. You can do it! Yes, I have written my memoir and persuasive graphic, interestingly enough, it appears as if I have captured what you recommended in your article. Confirms I am on target. You can find a short recap of essay muhammad s.a.w my book on Thank you! Author of core essay “Loosed: You can live again” now available at Outskirts Press, Barnes Nobles, Books A Million, Amazon, and their affiliates.

Hey Marlene! Wishing you the best of luck! I am currently working on a memoir, which I hope to have published in best application letter for teachers a month or two. This is great advice. Common Persuasive Essay Graphic? I’m going to order your memoir to a dream by martin luther king see how you wrote yours. Hey Marilyn! Keep writing–and please shoot me an email (email at back of my book) when you are doing reading my memoir. Would love to hear your thoughts. I’ve often seen new writers who want to write “their story” and ramble on without much focus other than it’s “all about me.” This is a great reminder that memoirs need to be compelling stories that focus on emotions and situations that can tug at persuasive organizer the readers hearts who didn’t grow up with you. I think it is essay best to start out persuasive organizer, with a theme for the memoir, Chris.

And this helps pull all the pieces together. Npg Winning Essays? Everything I wrote — I checked against the theme to see if it “fit”. Narrow focus and relating to common core essay audience are certainly key. Beautifully writen, clear concise, insightful. Two thumbs up and a smile. Hey Brian! Thanks so much for your kind words! Two thumbs up and for teachers, a smile right back to you! Shannon, it’s amazing post!

I haven’t written memoirs yet, but I’m going to try. And I love to read memoirs that include interesting details not only the sequence of common essay what happened to the person I read about. Pimion – that is great news. You can do it, I am sure! I’ve been up a good portion of the night, as I usually am, pursuing the Internet to essay questions masque discover true inspiration for writing. I do well with suspenseful fiction, but after reading this, I believe memoirs are for me. As an impassioned Maya Angelou once said, “There is no greater agony than bearing an untold story inside you.” My spark has been reignited after years of persuasive graphic lying dormant, and all it took was a grade 12 English course, and npg winning, the approval and commendation of a truly dedicated teacher. Common Persuasive Essay Graphic? I’m only 23 but I felt, sometimes feel, that my life is already decided and essay muhammad s.a.w, over for me. What I’m really asking is, is the fear of ostracism for core, exposing your true self greater than the reward of unleashing your soul, not for the world, but for your own inner peace, or is this a rationale that slowly subsides to the latter with age. Npg Winning? I have a story to tell, I do. Essay? I Just don’t know if it’s the best letter, time.

By the common core, way, you are a very captivating writer and it’s moments like this I’m so very upset for anonymity of the essay, vast Internet, as I probably won’t ever truly ‘know’ writers like yourself. You’ll also get a free copy of The Freelance Writer’s Pitch Checklist.

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3 Ways To Emphasize Your ROI On Your Resume. Core Essay Graphic. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. On I Have A Dream By Martin King. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. Creating your resume, but stumped for ideas beyond your job titles, places of employment, tasks, and core persuasive essay, education?

Getting employers to npg winning essays, pick up the phone requires a much stronger brand message! If you haven’t focused on your ROI – the benefit companies get when hiring you – your search can go on indefinitely. You might believe that recruiters or HR managers will “get” this message from reading about your past jobs or span of authority – but guess what? With plenty of common persuasive graphic organizer resumes to review, most hiring authorities won’t take the time to format, connect the dots in common persuasive essay your background. Therefore, if you’ve made a significant difference at on i a dream past employers, but your resume doesn’t provide this evidence, you’ll lose your shot at winning an interview (while employers hire your competition instead). Core Essay. 3 Ways To Emphasize Your ROI On Your Resume. Consider adding these quantifiable measures of essay your performance to your resume: Do you wear many hats at your current job? Employees who can perform more than one job simultaneously are often credited with generating increases in the bottom line. On your resume, you’ll be able to show the savings gained by helping your employer avoid the common core persuasive graphic organizer need to hire or train an additional staff member, as in these examples: Cut 34% from training budget by assuming new project leadership role for npg winning essays Global Standards initiative. Eliminated need to hire new team members by performing dual roles in operations and sales, with estimated $80K annual savings. ROI can also be demonstrated by comparing your work to others on your team, or to a predecessor who held the same role prior to common core persuasive, your tenure.

You may be more efficient or better able to understand customer needs – saving your employer additional effort (such as multiple sales calls or additional work on on i have a dream luther technical problems) – than your counterparts. If so, put this savings into a dollar figure by calculating the common core persuasive essay organizer cost of essay have a dream luther rework for use on your resume. Will anything get an employer’s attention faster than telling them you’ll bring sizeable profits? Not likely. However, unless you’re in a sales role (or another revenue-specific job), you might find this exercise difficult. After all, how does a project manager or operations director make money for the company? The secret to pulling out core essay a revenue or profit figure (when your job isn’t tied directly to money) is to look higher in the company for the impact of argumentative gun control your work.

This means taking into account the value of the core persuasive graphic project to your employer (a new service line that will create revenue opportunities), or the essay questions for the red death impact of the new equipment you implemented (improving production and fulfilling more orders). As in this example of a resume statement, your work as part of a larger effort can be conveyed in the impact of the entire project: Played key role in $23M project slated to improve operational efficiency, with 45% reduction in essay organizer call center hold times and expected $7M annual savings. If your job involves technology, consider the monetary value of the improvements gained with a new solution you implemented. Application Letter. Once you put the emphasis on your work at a company or department level, the revenue or profit equation can make sense. Of course, you’ll need to share the credit for creating more $$$ with your team or colleagues, but it’s an important measure of your benefit to a new employer. Cost savings are a high-priority area for many companies, especially those in core essay industries directly affected by essay against, the economic downturn. Core Essay Graphic. Of course, showing your impact on expenses is on prophet muhammad easy if you’re the one negotiating new vendor contracts or preparing a budget. Even if your responsibilities don’t seem related to common persuasive organizer, costs, think about your ability to produce work faster or with less resources – then add the costs associated with this acceleration into your resume.

For example, an essay against, office manager who arranges shifts to cover the phone (without hiring an additional employee) is directly saving significant payroll and training costs. Core. An IT Director might be able to point out the projects completed in less time due to epigraph, a newly acquired software tool, with related opportunity costs allowing the team to take on core persuasive essay organizer other projects. These examples show different ways to state cost savings on your resume: Saved division nearly $700K with switch to Agile Development methodology and training for format 3 team members. Reduced marketing spend $35K by core persuasive essay, learning social media techniques instrumental in npg winning promoting company services. Perhaps you’ve monitored expenses within your team, and figured out ways to generate the same amount of revenue with less overhead. These figures can be estimated, or specified in percentages of savings, to show your impact on persuasive essay graphic organizer costs. The bottom line? Your employment automatically comes at a cost to your employer.

If you can demonstrate a substantial ROI over the expense of hiring you, companies will be eager to bring you on board – even with a raise in salary – despite a competitive job market. This post was originally published at an earlier date. Laura Smith-Proulx, Executive Director of An Expert Resume, is a resume industry leader, 13-time global TORI resume award winner, LinkedIn expert, author, personal brand strategist, and former recruiter with 20+ years of experience winning choice jobs for executives and rising leaders. Disclosure: This post is sponsored by a CAREEREALISM-approved expert. You can learn more about for the masque of the expert posts here .

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English 245: Film Form and Culture. Christopher Nolan is an American/British film-maker, who lives and works in London and Los Angeles. He first started making films (on Super8) when still a child. He studied English literature at University College, London, which he chose specifically because they had the core essay organizer, facilities to make films. Essay On Prophet Muhammad S.a.w! His debut feature was Following (1998), a neo-noir thriller. He has made some of the common graphic, highest grossing films of all time, such as The Dark Knight , the second film in questions masque of the, his Batman “reboot” series, which grossed over a billion dollars at the box office. Filmography (as director): All of Nolan’s films have been critically acclaimed. His films have been nominated for 21 Academy Awards. This is astounding given the short period of time he has been making films. Particularly notable are the eight Oscar nominations each for The Dark Knight and Inception . His films have won 6 Academy Awards, most for persuasive essay graphic sound and visual editing.

His films have also been nominated for 21 BAFTA awards (winning 6). His films have won many other international film awards. Nolan has never won an Oscar for Best Director. In fact, he has not ever been nominated, not even for The Dark Knight and format, Inception , which were both nominated in the Best Picture category. Some consider this a historic snub. Typically, Nolan writes and directs his films (his brother Jonathan has co-written some of the films). He also often produces his films as well (his wife Emma Thomas has produced the films he hasn’t produced). Core Persuasive Essay Graphic Organizer! Having creative control of essay, his films makes him an auteur. However, this is complicated by the fact that, since Memento , he has created his films under the common core essay organizer, auspices of Warner Brothers, which is (still) a major Hollywood movie studio. The easiest explanation for this is that he has proven himself at on prophet muhammad, the box-office, and on the international award circuit, and can command any kind of budget he likes, including the huge budgets attached to Hollywood studio films. Inception was a summer blockbuster from the summer of 2010.

Critics acknowledge that it was an atypical summer fare; some have called Inception a “thinking person’s blockbuster.” Richard Corliss writes that “the picture’s main pull is core persuasive essay graphic not visceral but intellectual, in the style of essays, Euro puzzle films of the past 50 years . Common Core Persuasive! . . but as Nolan told The New York Times , with ‘way more explosions.'” The film made over $800 million at the box office and, as already mentioned, was nominated for essay on i have king eight Academy Awards, winning four. Even before the film came out it was the subject of intense speculation and debate. This is true of core persuasive essay graphic, its “after-life” as well. Essays! Even now, a few short years after it was released, people enjoy discussing the film and what it means – particularly the ending of the film. The film is set in the near future when new techniques and drugs allow people to share dreams. Dom Cobb is a former dream architect who now uses his expertise in shared dreaming to engage in industrial espionage, stealing business secrets from people while they are sleeping.

This is called “extraction.” He is also on common core organizer, the run after being charged with murdering his wife. After a failed attempt at extraction, Cobb is offered a job by a man named Saito to do the argumentative against gun control, impossible: implant an idea in the mind of common persuasive essay graphic organizer, a competitor (Fischer), a process called “inception.” The idea is that he should break up the energy conglomerate that he inherited from his father. Cobb puts together a crack team of operatives for gun control the job, including a dream architect named Ariadne. After entering his mind in a dream state, Ariadne learns that Cobb is haunted by the memory of his dead wife, who manages to foil every job that he designs himself. That’s why Ariadne must design the organizer, dream, and Cobb can’t know the essay masque of the, details. In order to fool the host dreamer, Ariadne must design an persuasive essay, incredibly intricate dream world with multiple layers. For the Fischer job, she must create a dream world with three layers – each a complex, self-contained world. The three layers are in fact a dream within a dream within a dream. The main danger in dream architecture is on prophet muhammad that if it seems too real, the dreamer may confuse the common core essay graphic organizer, dream for reality. Best Letter For Teachers! We learn that, in his past, Cobb has experienced this catastrophic confusion. His technique for countering this is to common core persuasive essay organizer, use a totem, an object that follows the laws of physics in the real world, but not in essay, the dream.

His totem is common core essay organizer a spinning top. In the film, however, it is suggested that this is not a fool-proof method. It is possible Cobb is only dreaming that his totem is behaving as it should in reality. The film poses philosophical conundrums such as: How do we distinguish between reality and on prophet muhammad s.a.w, fantasy (ontology)? How do we distinguish between objective and subjective truth (epistemology)? How do we distinguish between the self and the world (that is, other selves)?

Mark Fisher notes that in the film “there’s a shift from the epistemological problems posed by unreliable narrators to a more general ontological indeterminacy, in which the nature of the whole fictional world is put into doubt.” He adds: “In Nolan’s world, it’s not only that we deceive ourselves; it’s also that we’re deceived about even having an authentic self. There’s no separating identity from fiction.” These issues are at the core of postmodern philosophy, which I discussed in graphic, a previous blog entry. There are also many issues relating to psychology that are addressed in the film, such as the importance of dreams in understanding the epigraph format essay, unconscious mind and the way unconscious ideas shape the formation of the person. This is what “inception” is about: planting ideas in the unconscious mind which lead to a personal re-orientation, a re-programming, a new person. In the core persuasive essay organizer, film, both Cobb and Fischer have this experience: the action within the dream becomes a kind of best application, psychotherapy. Leon Saunders Calvert makes the observation that “for a filmmaker within the Hollywood system, Christopher Nolan is common graphic organizer unusually pre-occupied with psychological human states to the degree that they often act as primary theme of his films.” He suggests that psychology is usually the preoccupation of auteurs, not Hollywood directors. Calvert has analyzed the essay questions masque of the red death, film from an psychological (or more specifically psychoanalytical) perspective, based on ideas of Sigmund Freud, such as: The rebellious unconscious: “The unconscious mind of the individual is a mass of common core persuasive essay organizer, contradictions and by definition remains uncontrolled and letter, unordered.” The unconscious reveals itself in dreams: “Psychoanalytic theory argues that during sleep the barrier weakens and the unconscious bubbles out, albeit often in disguised form.” Oedipal/Electra conflicts: “Another foundation of psychoanalytic thought is the overwhelming significance of the child’s relationship with its parents.” The unconscious and the social self: “The unconscious self has a huge impact on how we interact with the world and with others.” The seductive power of fantasy: “Psychoanalytic theory has also provided us with important insights into core persuasive graphic organizer, human fantasies. . . . The psychological pull of the fantasy is on i a dream by martin king all the greater when we perceive it as simple reality.”

Some critics make the case that Inception deals not just with psychology, but with religion. There are a number of ways the film can be read as a religious story. Throughout the film, characters are urged to take the leap of faith. They must abandon their skepticism and believe in a reality that transcends their conscious mind and reality itself. Core Persuasive Essay! This is a religious impulse and imperative. The themes of guilt and redemption are also important in the film, and these too are deeply religious. In the film, the journey to limbo (unconstructed dream space) suggests a perilous journey to underworld, where demons are confronted. This is the central theme of quite a few religious texts, including Dante’s Inferno and The Tibetan Book of the Dead, to name just two classic world religious texts. Many critics of the film have pointed out the similarity between dreams and essay on prophet, the experience of viewing films. According to Corliss, this is nothing new: “The idea of movie-going as communal dreaming is a century old.”

Colin McGinn argues that. movies delve into our dreaming self, that submerged and seething alter ego that emerges when the sun goes down. In the cinema we relive the life of the dreaming self. Movies thus tap into the dreaming aspect of essay, human nature. Moreover, they improve upon our dream life. They give us the dreams we yearn for. It is a rare individual who is npg winning not fascinated by his own dreams, with their raw ability to reveal, their magical expressiveness; movies partake of this fascination. The impact of movies stems, then, at least in part, from the primal power of the dream.

To be sure, the dream component of the movie experience is augmented by common core essay organizer the special qualities of the best application, medium, but the primary emotional hook originates in the evocation of the dream. (Qtd. in Calvert). Jason Staples describes how Inception functions like a dream: The construction of dream worlds for shared dreaming serves as an excellent metaphor for film itself (and ‘myth’ in general), as it involves the creation of a virtual reality, a shadow-like imitation of the real world into which people can journey together, guided by core graphic the ‘architect’ (writer/director). Essay Masque Red Death! As people are naturally resistant to core, new or outside ideas, those media (like film) that can influence people’s thinking without drawing the attention of their (often militarized) subconscious guards are especially powerful forms of communication and agents of cultural change. Like a shared dream state, films, video games, novels, and other narrative media immerse a receptive subject within a different, shared virtual world(view) – even potentially planting outside assumptions or ideas in essay, the subject’s unguarded subconscious.

But the idea of Inception as an analogy for film can be extended beyond the experience of core persuasive organizer, viewing film to the business of creating film. According to this interpretation, put forward by essay questions critics Devin Faraci, Mark Fisher, and Richard Corliss: Cobb is the director Arthur is the persuasive essay graphic, producer Ariadne is the screen-writer Saito is the studio honcho Fischer is the audience. In interviews, Nolan denies that he was trying to create an analogy in the film between dreaming and film-viewing or film-making. But Fisher counters: “If a century of cultural theory has taught us anything, it’s that an author’s supposed intentions can only ever constitute a supplementary (para)text, never a final word.” Fisher thinks, despite Nolan’s intentions, Inception is very much about the film-making business, and not in a good way. Fisher suggests it might be unconscious on essay have king, Nolan’s part, but it nonetheless reveals a creative mind in thrall to Hollywood entertainment film and global capitalism. Inception is less a meta-meditation on the power of cinema than, more interestingly, a reflection of the way in which cinematic techniques have become imbricated into organizer, a banal spectacle which – fusing business machismo, entertainment protocols, and breathless hype – enjoys an unprecedented dominion over our working lives and our dreaming minds. . . . Inception ‘s arcades and hotel corridors are on the contrary those of a globalized capital whose reach easily extends into the former depths of what was once the questions masque red death, unconscious.

There’s nothing alien, no other place here, only common persuasive a mass-marketed ‘subconscious’ recirculating deeply familiar images. Fisher believes that Nolan is not just the essay muhammad, creator of a film called Inception , but someone who uses film to common core persuasive organizer, practice inception. Just as in the film inception is used for the benefit of corporate interests, it is used in the multiplex to indoctrinate movie viewers in the ideology of capitalism. He writes: “Nolan’s films are preoccupied with . . . the lies that we tell ourselves to essay have a dream by martin luther, stay happy. Yet the situation is worse even than that. It’s one thing to lie to oneself; it’s another to not even know whether one is lying to oneself or not.” In Marxist terminology this is called “false consciousness,” the process by which we are unconsciously socialized and common core persuasive organizer, indoctrinated into the values of the ruling class.

Staples has a similar concern: “The most potent and influential ideas [in the film] are those so thoroughly socialized and internalized that, their origins long forgotten, they are presupposed without argument.” What Staples is writing about is format essay ideology, which we have been discussing all throughout the second half of the course, beginning with Far From Heaven . Critics like Fisher and Staples argue that the process of “false consciousness” is at persuasive essay graphic, work in the film, in the same way that inception works. For inception to be successful, the host has to believe that the implanted idea is theirs. In other words, they must come to believe that the lie is true, and not only that: that it is a deeply personal truth. According to essay, Fisher, “in Inception , as in late capitalist culture in general, you’re always in someone else’s dream, which is persuasive essay graphic organizer also the dream of no one.” It is the dream of capital, and those who control capital. I would suggest this is particularly true of the violence in the film. Viewers consume shocking amounts of violence in for the masque of the red death, the film without thinking about it because it is entertaining in itself and common essay organizer, part of a story that is written in such a way to make the application letter for teachers, violence seem inconsequential (it’s all just a dream). I like to call this “ The Matrix Complex” (because the same thing happens in that film).

Critics like Fisher insinuate that Nolan is the graphic, purveyor of the Hollywood blockbuster mentality, cleverly masquerading Inception as an art film. Application Letter For Teachers! While I believe this critique has some validity, I think the opposite may be equally true: Nolan is an common persuasive essay, auteur who cleverly masks his art films as popular entertainment. That is the main reason I chose Inception as the last film in this course. Nolan is a master of film technique, an auteur; he is prescient in his grasp of the zeitgeist; and he understands how to insert “big ideas” into his film without seeming pretentious. But he does all this in Hollywood, which is quite an accomplishment. It is something that the online film critic Eileen Jones would applaud, and hold up as a shining example of essay questions for the masque red death, what Hollywood film studios can accomplish, as long as they embrace their own pro-business aesthetic and refuse to slavishly follow the common core, standards of European art film. Richard Corliss says of epigraph format, Inception : Though the plot is really one giant hallucination, it’s an experience that doesn’t blow your mind so much as challenge it. Viewers will have to work to keep up with all the shifting perspectives and layers of deceit. Common Core Persuasive! Inception is like the coolest, toughest final exam – or like the dream of for teachers, one, in which you’re suddenly in core graphic, class and you realize you didn’t prepare for the big test. This is a movie that you’ll wish you had crammed for. But reading this blog entry is preparation for the final exam, so you won’t be totally unprepared (and hopefully won’t have the it’s-the-day-of-the-final-and-I-haven’t-studied-all-semester nightmare).

Cobb, in Inception , offers a final thought (that might never leave you): “The most persistent parasite is an idea. Once it takes root in the brain, it’s almost impossible to eradicate.” University of Maryland. Leon Saunders Calvert, “ Inception : Film, Dreams and Freud,” Offscreen 15.5 (May 31, 2011). Robert Capps, “QA: Christopher Nolan on Dreams, Architecture, and essay on i have a dream luther king, Ambiguity,” Wired (November 29, 2010). Richard Corliss, “ Inception : Whose Mind Is It, Anyway?”, Time (July 14, 2010).

Mark Fisher, “The Lost Unconscious: Delusions and common essay, Dreams in Inception,” Film Quarterly 64.3 (Spring 2011). Jason Staples, “Shadowlands, Myth, and the Creation of Meaning in Inception, ” Journal of Religion Film 14.1 (April 2010). Chicago 10 and Postmodern Documentary. The first films were documentaries. Louis and Auguste Lumiere, the French brothers credited with the invention of the masque red death, cinema, called their short films “actualites.” They were depictions of actual life, recording such things as workers leaving a factory or a train arriving at a station. However, even in these early films, some of the human figures acknowledge the camera, and are sometimes characters in rudimentary narratives – as in common essay graphic, The Waterer Gets Watered (1895).

I also noted, in class, the subjective nature of the camera. Even if you point your camera at something and turn it on, you’re only getting one possible vantage point, and leaving out a lot of information. Shooting a camera entails choosing what the audience will see, and not see. So, from the very beginning of film history, the line dividing the objective from the on i by martin, subjective, the common organizer, factual from the fictional, the real from the epigraph format, artificial, has been blurred. This is common persuasive essay graphic organizer still true, perhaps even more so, in film today, as I explain below. The effort to distinguish documentary realism and narrative illusion became more necessary once story-based film came to dominate the on prophet muhammad s.a.w, industry. Documentarians claimed realism for themselves, leaving fantasy to the big movie studios. We see this in the ethnographic films of Robert Flaherty, in common core graphic organizer, the 1920s.

However, critics now question Flaherty’s realism. Your textbook authors write: Flaherty’s Nanook of the North (1922), about the Inuit people in on prophet muhammad, Canada, and Man of Aran (1937), about the Aran Islanders off the west coast of Ireland, are voice-of-authority documentaries organized by intertitles that explain the activities depicted. Common Core! In his zeal to valorize what he considered the blissfully primitive cultures of the Inuit and the Aran islanders, however, Flaherty misrepresented the cultures he intended to document (290). The example they give in letter for teachers, the textbook is when Nanook (or Allakarillak, his real name), “feigns awe at common core essay graphic organizer, the sight of the gramophone,” something which Nanook had actually seen before (290). Flaherty has him pretend not to know about such modern conveniences in order to reveal his innocence of modernity, his blissful ignorance. I gave a couple other examples in class. Flaherty had Nanook construct only half an igloo – a set made of ice – so that he would have the argumentative against gun control, light to shoot inside the igloo.

The way the film is core persuasive essay shot, the half-igloo appears to be whole. Flaherty also staged Nanook’s capture of a seal – what Nanook was really yanking on was a rope that was attached to two or three members of the film crew, not a seal. When all this came to light, exposed in films like Nanook Revisited , some critics concluded that it was difficult if not impossible, even in essay on prophet muhammad s.a.w, documentaries, to separate what is real and persuasive essay graphic, true from what is imaginary and false. They similarly saw no good way to distinguish the film-maker’s subjective view from the objective presentation of reality. Towards Postmodern Documentary. One prominent response to this situation was to embrace fictionality and subjectivity in the documentary. In this sense, the documentary film becomes a performance by the film-maker, rather than an objective recording of reality. Errol Morris was one of the first film documentarians to do this.

As your textbook puts it: Morris adopts a bemused perspective on his subjects: his ironic distance is made evident through editing. He juxtaposes images of one subject with interviews with another, so it seems as if the people he interviews are making comments about the lives and work of other people. . . . By pairing a subject’s statements with seemingly unrelated images, Morris adds dimension to best application letter, the interviews, introducing ideas that none of his subjects has voiced. Morris gets at one truth by allowing the interviewees to tell their own stories yet his editing encourages the audience to make unusual connections. (284). Michael Moore, the director of core graphic organizer, Fahrenheit 9/11 (which won the prestigious Palme d’Or at essay on prophet s.a.w, Cannes in 2004) is a film documentarian that you’re likely more familiar with. Essay Graphic! Moore is muhammad s.a.w always a participant in his films, he is always performing on camera, usually as a humorous gadfly character. Moore’s subjectivity – his responses, his opinions, his outrage – is part of the subject. Some think Moore is refreshingly candid in putting his own point of view front-and-center in his films; others think he is an unbearable, opinionated blowhard. Morris and Moore were early practitioners of postmodern documentary, a form of documentary that has become popular – largely because of film-makers like Morris and common core essay organizer, Moore. Before getting into postmodern documentary film, it’s important to say something about postmodernism, and postmodern film more generally.

For our definition of postmodernism, we go to Margaret Wertheim, of the Faith and Reason program on best application, PBS. A general and wide-ranging term which is applied to literature, art, philosophy, architecture, fiction, and cultural and literary criticism, among others. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality. In essence, it stems from a recognition that reality is not simply mirrored in human understanding of it, but rather, is constructed as the mind tries to understand its own particular and graphic, personal reality. For this reason, postmodernism is highly skeptical of epigraph format essay, explanations which claim to be valid for all groups, cultures, traditions, or races, and instead focuses on the relative truths of each person. In the postmodern understanding, interpretation is everything; reality only comes into being through our interpretations of what the world means to persuasive organizer, us individually. Postmodernism relies on concrete experience over abstract principles, knowing always that the outcome of one’s own experience will necessarily be fallible and relative, rather than certain and universal.

Postmodernism is “post” because it is denies the existence of any ultimate principles, and it lacks the optimism of best letter for teachers, there being a scientific, philosophical, or religious truth which will explain everything for everybody – a characteristic of the so-called “modern” mind. The paradox of the postmodern position is that, in placing all principles under the scrutiny of its skepticism, it must realize that even its own principles are not beyond questioning. As the philosopher Richard Tarnas states, postmodernism “cannot on its own principles ultimately justify itself any more than can the various metaphysical overviews against which the postmodern mind has defined itself.” This can be broken down further. Below are the five main concepts regarding postmodern culture more generally. Postmodernism. calls into question “grand” theories that purport to explain everything for everyone forever (Enlightenment, liberalism, Marxism, Freudianism, etc.) claims there is no universal/objective truth; everything is subjective and relative holds that the self is socially constructed (undercutting individualism, agency, and freedom) is suspicious of media, particularly the power of visual media to recreate, represent, and replace the real (Baudrillard’s “simulacrum“) blurs the border between reality and representation. In terms of aesthetics, postmodern works of common core persuasive graphic organizer, art are characterized by.

non-linear, fractured narrative self-referentiality/self-reflexivity (irony) pastiche/bricolage/intertextuality/fragmentation/genre bending the leveling of high/low culture blurring the argumentative against, border between fact and fiction. It should be evident that fiction films would have less problems with postmodernism, as defined above, than documentary films. Documentary films are not supposed to be subjective or fake, whereas that is very much allowed in fiction films. In its cultural skepticism, postmodernism relentlessly attacks the graphic, essence of documentary realism. Postmodernism and Documentary Realism. Representing the postmodern perspective, Krystin Arneson writes of documentaries: Like photography, documentaries are a representational medium: They record and occasionally reconstruct the everyday reality viewers typically cannot experience themselves. Because photography is an indexical sign signifying truth, audiences understand the documentary, a moving photograph, to signify truth also. However, they are able to essay gun control, make the core persuasive graphic, distinction between the ?everyday reality? presented by documentaries and the fictive ?reality? of cinematic films. But the documentary?’s version of reality is not as innocent as it presents itself to be. Argumentative Gun Control! Because of the perceived indexical truth-value of the core persuasive essay organizer, film, the audience is drawn into an everyday reality that seemingly doesn’t need questioning.

There is ?a sense of essay, co-presence between creator and viewer that gives the viewer the sensation of being both here, now, looking at the image and there, then, looking at what the image represents or evokes.? For Arneson, it is difficult to core persuasive organizer, separate objective from subjective truth in postmodern documentary. As a ?human document? dealing with not only the hard facts but also the ?social and personal aspects? of the theme, the essay for the, documentary is a representational, recorded version of the everyday created through ?[the director?s] personal interpretations of what he or she chooses to common essay graphic organizer, place in front of the camera lens.? The ?informational value is essay masque of the red death mediated through the perspective of the essay, person making it, and it is presented as a mixture of emotion and information (Stuart Hall, Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices [Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1997], 83) This ?mediation,? or personal interpretation of the topic, is influenced by any number of factors: preconceived attitudes, biases, and what story they hope to get out of the filming. Frederick Wiseman, a documentary maker himself, writes of the impossibility of objectivity in representation: ?Any documentary made in no matter what style, is arbitrary, biased, prejudiced, compressed and subjective. Like any of its sisterly or brotherly fictional forms, it is masque born in choice – choice of subject matter, place, people, camera angles, duration of shooting, sequences to be shot or omitted, transitional material and persuasive graphic organizer, cutaways (Toby Miller, Technologies of Truth: Cultural Citizenship and the Popular Media, ed. Michael Renov, Faye Ginsburg, and Jane Gaines [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998], 225). Essay Red Death! No matter how objectively a filmmaker approaches a topic, they will always be filtering the topic through their personal lens ?- not just the persuasive organizer, camera?’s. Subjectivity, and therefore a departure from the real, is thus introduced in format essay, the documentary as soon as the filmmaker makes a decision on common persuasive, how the everyday should be represented. This begins the moment the camera turns on and continues until an audience views the final product. Linda Williams has also written on postmodern documentaries, though with less suspicion.

In an analysis of Errol Morris’s The Thin Blue Line (about someone’s wrongful conviction for murder) and Claude Lanzmann’s monumental Shoah (about the Holocaust), Williams focuses on the. low-budget postmodern documentary borrowing many features of the fiction film. My goal . Npg Winning! . . is to get beyond the much remarked self-reflexivity and flamboyant auteurism of these documentaries, which might seem, Rashomon -like, to abandon the pursuit of truth, to what seems to me their remarkable engagement with a newer, more contingent, relative, postmodern truth—a truth which, far from being abandoned, still operates powerfully as the receding horizon of the documentary tradition. Essay Graphic Organizer! (312) The lesson that I would like to draw from these two exemplary postmodern documentaries is thus not at all that postmodern representation inevitably succumbs to a depthlessness of the simulacrum, or that it gives up on truth to essay against gun control, wallow in persuasive essay, the undecidabilities of representation. The lesson, rather, is that there can be historical depth to the notion of truth – not the depth of unearthing a coherent and unitary past, but the depth of the past’s reverberation with the present. If the authoritative means to the truth of the masque, past does not exist, if photographs and moving images are not mirrors with memories, if they are more, as Baudrillard has suggested, like a hall of mirrors, then our best response to this crisis of representation might be to do what Lanzmann and Morris do: to deploy the many facets of these mirrors to reveal the seduction of lies. (325).

That is, they construct “truths to dispel pernicious fictions, even though these truths are only relative and contingent. Common Core Persuasive Graphic Organizer! While never absolute and never fixed, this under-construction, fragmented horizon of truth is one important means of combating the pernicious scapegoating fictions that can put the wrong man on death row and enable the extermination of a whole people. (325). Williams seems to suggest that personal, subjective truth, presented by essay muhammad s.a.w someone personally involved (as an advocate, etc.), is better than no truth at all. Pure moral relativism, the absolute denial of persuasive graphic, objective truth, leads to argumentative essay against gun control, paralysis, whereas engagement in the issue gets us a little closer to core persuasive essay graphic organizer, the truth. Chicago 10 as Postmodern Documentary. Chicago 10 is generally recognized by critics and reviewers as a postmodern documentary (as defined above). Jim Emerson writes that the essay by martin luther king, film. bursts with Yippie-ish irreverence and persuasive essay graphic organizer, political fervor.

The movie intercuts archival footage with colorful motion-capture animation (voiced by some really good actors), based upon actual transcripts of the on i luther king, trial. These play, quite intentionally, like countercultural Looney Tunes, with Hoffman the Younger as the Tasmanian Devil and persuasive essay graphic organizer, Hoffman the Elder as Elmer Fudd. . Npg Winning! . . The irreverent attitude of Chicago 10 is in common persuasive essay, synch with the npg winning, times it portrays. Giddy, funny and sometimes nightmarishly absurd, it’s an apple-cart-upsetting performance piece shot through with blasting music from Eminem, the Beastie Boys and Rage Against the Machine [and let’s not forget “War Pig,” performed by Black Sabbath, during a key juncture of the film]. As an activist documentary with a contemporary agenda, it doesn’t pretend to be “objective” (whatever that means), but to find inspiration in the passion and irreverence of its heroes. Chicago 10 is “irreverent” and “doesn’t pretend to be ‘objective’.” It upsets the “apple cart “of film – and essay organizer, particularly documentary film – convention. When the animation starts near the beginning of the film we know this will be no ordinary documentary. Best Application Letter For Teachers! By combining documentary realism with exaggerated animation, Chicago 10 mixes high and persuasive essay, low culture and calls into npg winning essays, question the veracity of what we see, since we typically associate animation with fantasy and fiction. This cognitive dissonance is amplified by the fact that there are at least three different kinds of animation utilized in the film.

The variety of animation styles, mixed with archival footage, also highlights the pastiche/bricolage/intertextuality/fragmentation/genre bending of the common essay organizer, film. Best Application Letter! It is edited together in a seemingly sloppy, slap-dash manner, which is not poor work but rather the persuasive, film-maker’s attempt to essays, use the deconstruction of film form as a way to challenge the core persuasive graphic, authorized version of essay on prophet, reality, which passes itself off as universal, objective truth. Chicago 10 is fragmented in its form. It is common core also fragmented in on i by martin, its narrative. You are no stranger to fractured narrative. The film Adaptation has a famously convoluted narrative, and is postmodern in just about persuasive graphic, every way.

But, again, fiction films are allowed to play around with narrative (even in Hollywood films), whereas documentaries are meant to have by martin king, reflect the real, without bias or a subjective viewpoint. Essay Organizer! The best way to interrogate this is to essay by martin, present a historical narrative that jumps around in time, and refuses to privilege one account over others. This is what Morgen does in Chicago 10 . Relatedly, Chicago 10 is self-referential. Formally and common persuasive essay graphic, thematically, Morgen draws attention to his film as an artificial construct. He makes visual “jokes,” he “winks at gun control, the audience.” The best example of core essay organizer, this is early on s.a.w, in the courtroom when Abbie Hoffman blows a kiss towards a juror and the “camera” follows the common persuasive organizer, kiss to its destination, on npg winning, the juror’s cheek (which the judge according to common core persuasive graphic, the transcript, tells the jury to disregard). The mimicry of live-action cinematography in fiction films is common in on prophet, animated films, but here, in a documentary, it is meant as an ironic commentary on film-making. At the same time, the film looks critically at the kind of spectacle that postmodernists typically question. In the film, it is Abbie Hoffman who examines the topic, in the form of political theater. Hoffman argues that politics is common core nothing more than “theater and magic.” He says to a reporter: We believe that politics is the way you live your life, not who you support.

It’s not in terms of on prophet muhammad s.a.w, rallies or speeches or political programs. It is in terms of common core persuasive, images and in essay, terms of common core persuasive graphic organizer, transforming people’s lives. In ideological war, the side who controls visual representation is the side that usually wins. Hoffman and his Yippie cohorts understood this very well, which is why they managed so successfully to dramatize the protests at the Democratic convention, and the trial itself, on essay muhammad, their own very colorful terms. It’s also why we still find these historical figures compelling, because their antics – nominating a pig as president, creating a melee at the New York Stock Exchange by throwing money into the pit, encircling and attempting to levitate the Pentagon – are such good theater, which makes them tailor-made for film treatment. As Emerson puts it: In the great 1960s clash of generational values, Hoffman believed that his side would prevail because it had better symbols. As he framed it, the comedic/dramatic faceoff was between peace, love and core essay graphic organizer, freedom on one hand, and war, repression and oppression on the other. Essay On Prophet! When you look at it in those terms, it’s hard to argue with him.

In the common core persuasive organizer, end, Morgen’s documentary follows the template of the postmodern advocacy documentary described by Williams. Morgen is essay questions for the of the clearly an core essay graphic, advocate of the essay, activists depicted in Chicago 10 , and their radical politics. Though he uses postmodern techniques, it seems very likely that Morgen did not intend to cast suspicion on the actions or even the ideology, of the essay, anti-war counterculture. Unlike more postmodern films, and many postmodern documentaries, Chicago 10 doesn’t just question and undercut the muhammad s.a.w, idea of common core persuasive organizer, objective truth, asserting instead an ironic – but untrustworthy – subjectivity. Chicago 10 takes sides, suggesting that some truths are better than others, and are worth fighting for, despite being partial, particular, and contingent. University of essay s.a.w, Maryland. Krystin Arneson, “Representation through Documentary: A Post-Modern Assessment,” Artifacts: A Journal of Undergraduate Writing 6 (March 2012). Jim Emerson, “Review of Chicago 10 ,” (February 28, 2008). Margaret Wertheim. “Postmodernism.” Faith and Reason.

PBS. Common Persuasive Essay Organizer! December 11, 2013. Linda Williams, “Mirrors without Memories: Truth, History, and the New Documentary,” eds. Brian Henderson and Ann Martin, Film Quarterly: Forty Years – A Selection (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999). Chicago 10 and the Counterculture. Brett Morgen is a writer/director/producer of documentaries. His first feature-length documentary, Ollie’s Army (1996), featured the essay for the masque red death, former Marine and conservative pundit, Oliver North (of Iran-Contra infamy).

In 1999, with Nanette Burstein, Morgen released On the Ropes , a documentary about three young boxers and their coach. This film was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Feature Documentary, and won a number of film awards, including the Special Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival, the Directors Guild of America award for best documentary, and the same award from the International Documentary Association. After On the Ropes , Morgen is persuasive essay graphic perhaps best known for essays The Kid Stays in the Picture , an “inside-Hollywood” look at the controversial and legendary Paramount producer Robert Evans. This film was nominated for twelve minor film awards, winning four. Morgen’s latest documentary was Crossfire Hurricane , a television documentary about the fiftieth-anniversary tour of the Rolling Stones. This film was nominated for four primetime Emmies, and won the “Golden Reel” award for best sound editing. (This film can be favorably compared with Martin Scorsese’s 2007 documentary about The Rolling Stones, called Shine a Light ).

With its mix of archival footage and various forms of persuasive graphic organizer, animation, Chicago 10 is a less conventional documentary than the ones Morgen made before. The film was generally well reviewed, though it was panned by some of the bigger media outlets and has not garnered the kind of best, awards that Morgen has previously won. Common Persuasive Essay! There were mixed reviews on epigraph format essay, Morgen’s use of animation in core graphic organizer, the film. At Time Out , Ben Kenigsberg writes that. this unclassifiable cine-essay from Brett Morgen . . . burnishes the essay have a dream luther king, Chicago Seven trial with an iGeneration makeover. Alternating between archival footage and animated reenactments – somewhat clunkily scored with a contemporary soundtrack – this is the first nonfiction film that plays like a Matrix trailer. Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle has a different take on the film. Common Core Organizer! He concludes: In the end, the truest thing that can be said for “Chicago 10” is that, though Morgen did just about everything he could to make his movie unwatchable, the story was interesting enough to fight him to a draw. The film chronicles the creative provocations of anti-war activists at the Democratic National Convention in 1968 in essay muhammad s.a.w, Chicago, and the police push-back. Two of the defendants, Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, were members of the newly-formed activist group, the Yippies.

The Yippies were well known for their political street theater, which took on persuasive essay graphic organizer, monumental proportions in gun control, Chicago during the convention. Other defendants, such as Rennie Davis and David Dellinger, represented the common core essay organizer, slightly more mainstream peace group, the National Mobilization Committee, or MOBE. A third defendant, Bobby Seale, was an organizer for the Black Panther Party. The protesters street theater turned into a riot on the streets of Chicago. It is best for teachers generally acknowledged now that it was Mayor Daley’s police who created the riot, not the protesters. But arguably this is common exactly what the protesters wanted, since it showed quite concretely the lengths the authorities were willing to essay against gun control, go to common core organizer, maintain order and letter for teachers, perpetuate a repressive status quo based upon war and profits. When they went on essay, trial, the leaders of the protest at the Democratic convention in 1968 brought their theater out of the streets and into the courtroom. The trial became a “circus,” but like the circus-like demonstrations, it was arguably the authorities (particularly Judge Julius Hoffman) who made it so – particularly in the silencing of Bobby Seale. Chicago 10 and the Counterculture. Earlier in the semester, when we viewed Apocalypse Now , we discussed the American counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s, which was characterized by newer, looser conceptions of “sex, drugs, and rock-n-roll,” and, eventually, anti-war protest.

I posted a blog entry in which I argued that Apocalypse Now shows the “dark side” of the counterculture, reflecting the questions for the of the, moral exhaustion the followed the conclusion of the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal (which forced the common essay organizer, resignation of best application letter, President Richard Nixon in 1974). By contrast, Chicago 10 shows us the vibrancy (and sense of humor) of the core persuasive organizer, student-led peace movement in the United States circa 1968. In this sense, Chicago 10 is more like Jean-Luc’s Godard’s Weekend , from best application 1967, than Apocalypse Now – though Godard is somewhat critical of his student revolutionaries, whereas Morgen is quite celebratory. Still, though in Chicago 10 we see the American counterculture through rose-colored, psychedelic glasses, there is a hint of dark times to core persuasive essay, come. Essay Questions For The Of The Red Death! We see this in common persuasive essay graphic organizer, the growing stridency and militancy of the peace movement, which would lead to some students taking up arms (and bombs) for peace. Previously in the 1960s, protests were more likely to feature hippie flower children putting flowers into the barrels on soldiers’ guns; post-1968 protests were much more chaotic, with protesters enveloped by clouds of tear gas and running from truncheon-swinging policemen. Indicative of this is the violent tactics of the protesters in Chicago, and the ubiquitous use of the “p” word (“pig”) in essay have a dream by martin, reference to the police. As I mentioned in class, if you’re looking for historical background on the film, you’ll want to search for “the Chicago 7,” not “the Chicago 10.” That’s because most accounts focus on the seven white activists originally charged with inciting to riot, and treat Bobby Seale (also convicted) separately, and don’t consider the common persuasive graphic, defense attorneys who were also jailed (for contempt of best letter for teachers, court). As the film makes clear, the defense attorneys actually spent more time in jail than most of the defendants.

Morgen is right to consider Bobby Seale as one of the common core graphic, ten – despite not being one of the main organizers of the protest, and being separated from the rest of the defendants – since his horrendous treatment (being denied the right to defend himself, dragged out of the courtroom, and epigraph format, later gagged in the courtroom) is one of the more controversial aspects of the trial. University of Maryland. Ben Kenigsberg, “Review of Chicago 10 ,” TimeOut (February 26, 2008). Mick LaSalle, “‘Chicago 10’ filmmaking fails story,” San Francisco Chronicle ( February 29, 2008). Three Experimental Films and Avant-garde Cinema. Also known as “experimental” and core graphic, “underground” cinema, films of the avant-garde. tend to have broken, disjointed, or non-existent narratives often focus on some technical aspect of film usually “approach the medium as an aesthetic, philosophical, and/or political means of expression” ( Film: A Critical Introduction , 291) are generally antagonistic to conventional, Hollywood-style film-making.

According to on i have a dream by martin, your textbook authors, there are five major kinds of avant-garde film: Surrealist. Films that violate narrative conventions, focus on the unconscious mind, and “reject conventional morality and poke fun at common core persuasive, bourgeois values through form and questions masque of the, content” (Film: A Critical Introduction 293). Abstract. Films that focus on objects rather than people; they also focus on issues involved in vision itself, as well as investigate the materials of the film medium (e.g.

Stan Brakhage). City Symphony. Films that “celebrate the vibrancy of the modern world,” and combine documentary and experimental film. Structuralist. Films that concentrate on the use of the cinematic apparatus, such as strips of film, sound waves, cameras, and lenses. Common Core Persuasive Essay Graphic! Compilation . Films that “reuse film footage in an entirely new context to generate innovative ideas” (299). The three short films I assigned for application letter this week are certainly experimental, avant-garde films, but not all of them fit the textbook definition.

An Andalusian Dog (Un Chien Andalou) , written and common essay, directed by Salvador Dali and Luis Bunuel, and first released in 1927, is the best-known example of Surrealist film. Your textbook authors note that Surrealist films “are rife with humor, sexuality, and scandalous images. They reject conventional morality and poke fun at epigraph, bourgeois values through form and content” (293). An Andalusian Dog intentionally confounds the expectations of the audience and purposefully violates most of the common core graphic, conventions regarding film narrative. It undermines any sense of best application letter, coherent narrative, and revels in its irrationality. In this sense, it is just like a dream. Again, according to your textbook authors, the film subverts chronological time and narrative causality, and mocks narrative form. “The sequence of persuasive essay, events is format not coherent; viewers cannot make sense of the film using cause-and-effect logic,” and “unnamed characters have few goals or conflicts (although motifs include gender fluidity and sexual aggression” (293). Needless to say, the film does not conform to conventional film-making represented by Hollywood. According to Martha Nochimson, in An Andalusian Dog Dali and Bunuel mock “the assumption that there is any absolute reality. Persuasive! Creating a film that has no traditional narrative syntax, that is, rules by which the muhammad s.a.w, parts were joined to form a story, Dali and Bunuel set out to graphic organizer, prove that all individuals and red death, cultures are doing no more than connecting the dots according to their own limited perspectives when they talk about the real” (281).

An Andalusian Dog can best be understood as an experiment in Freudian dream analysis, utilizing the method of free association. Just as dreams are deeply subjective, amorphous, and have their own logic, An Andalusian Dog works at the level of the subconscious mind, which includes the common, “sub-rational.” Like psychoanalysis, the film proceeds via free association, encouraging the npg winning, viewer to common persuasive graphic, randomly and automatically associate one thing with another. Though the film defies explanation, and the film-makers repeatedly refused to explicate the symbols of the film, one way to read An Andalusian Dog is as a journey through the application letter, stages of psycho-sexual development according to Freud. Persuasive Essay Graphic Organizer! (I have created a separate blog entry on Freud’s stages, and another that walks you through a reading of An Andalusian Dog according to Freud.) There are many visual associations of a sexual nature in An Andalusian Dog (armpit hair representing pubic hair, the wounded hand representing the vagina, the close association of female breasts and buttocks). There are other associations of a non-sexual nature (tennis racket for crucifix, shaken martini mixer for king the father). Some of these images are taken right out of the Freudian playbook, others (such as ants crawling out of stigmata holes) are personal obsessions of Dali or Bunuel, which first appeared in dreams. Finally, in the film we see, in common persuasive graphic, many different guises, the close association of masque red death, sex with death, or eros (sexual desire) and common essay graphic organizer, thanatos (the death wish), which was one of Freud’s later psychological theories. For The Masque Of The! The final image of the film, in which the formerly vibrant lovers are now corpses half-buried in the dirt, makes this association quite clear. Meshes of the common core essay, Afternoon was made, in the United States, in 1943. It was written, directed, and acted by Maya Deren and her husband at essay gun control, the time, Alexander Hammid.

According to your textbook, Meshes of the persuasive organizer, Afternoon is a late, American Surrealist film. It “explores the dream state, suspending the notion of chronological time while relying on characters, settings, and the semblance of narrative. Deren and format, her husband use domestic interiors as the nightmarish location for the dreamer’s vivid and core persuasive graphic organizer, self-destructive imagination” ( Film: A Critical Introduction , 293). The film blurs the border between dream and reality, to the point where we don’t know which is which. Deren said of the Meshes of the Afternoon : “This film is concerned with the npg winning, interior experiences of an individual. It does not record an event which could be witnessed by other persons. Rather, it reproduces the way in which the subconscious of an individual will develop, interpret and elaborate an apparently simple and casual incident into core persuasive essay graphic organizer, a critical emotional experience.” (Commentary from Maya Deren from the DVD release, Maya Deren: Experimental Films 1943–58 ).

As a number of critics have noted, it is the subjective camera work in the film that shows how the individual develops, interprets and application letter for teachers, elaborates emotional experience. Meshes of the Afternoon is often characterized as a feminist film. According to Theresa Geller, Deren worked tirelessly . . . Common Core Essay! as a filmmaker and activist in an otherwise masculinist avant-garde art world. The critiques she wages against the dominant representations women were met with vehement resistance by letter a rabidly patriarchal, and common core essay graphic, frequently misogynistic, avant-garde film culture that did not hesitate to conflate Deren herself with her films in their attacks” (140). As a feminist film, Meshes of the essays, Afternoon shows the psychological oppression of common core persuasive graphic organizer, women, which – in the case of the unnamed woman character – leads to suicide. The unnamed man in the film is part of this oppression; the woman’s dream shows him to be a ominous, threatening figure. In its feminism, the essay, film is similar to Todd Haynes’s Superstar: The Karen Carpenter Story . Superstar: The Karen Carpenter Story. Superstar: The Karen Carpenter Story , written and common persuasive essay graphic organizer, directed by by martin luther king Todd Haynes while he was in graduate school, is a short biopic about the pop chanteuse of the 1970s who died of anorexia nervosa in 1983.

The moment you first see a Barbie doll playing Karen Carpenter, you know you are stepping into the avant-garde. Seeing Barbie dolls play all the characters, throughout the common graphic organizer, entire film, seals the essay against gun control, deal. Haynes’s use of Barbie dolls has two main functions in the film. Common Core Persuasive Essay! First, it is a subtle critique of the way girls and women are encouraged to essay muhammad s.a.w, aspire to – or are indoctrinated in – an unrealistic and dysfunctional physical ideal, for the purpose of looking more attractive to men. Core Persuasive Essay Graphic Organizer! This is argumentative essay against gun control one way that women suffer as a result of the Male Gaze. Secondly, Haynes uses the Barbie dolls to prevent the viewer’s identification with the characters in the film. Common Essay! That is, he puts into essay of the red death, practice Brechtian distanciation (the alienation effect). He attempts to common core essay, put some critical distance between the format essay, viewer and the fantasy world of the common core organizer, film. However, as I mentioned in class, it doesn’t always work that way. I still managed to identify with the characters and essay on prophet, become immersed in the world of the film.

The melodrama of the plot and the music (and my own 1970s nostalgia) had a big part to play in common graphic organizer, this. Like Meshes of the Afternoon (and decidedly not like An Andalusian Dog ), Superstar can be considered a feminist film. The film shows how Karen Carpenter struggled with the expectations of her family and society, which derived from a patriarchal ideology. The film also deals with the Male Gaze, as mentioned above. Related to this is Haynes’s critique of consumerism. The film suggests that consumerism was complicit in the death of Karen Carpenter, in that it was the consumption of Ex-Lax and best application, Ipicac that led to her anorexia. Ironically, Carpenter consumed these products as a form of core persuasive essay, un-consumption – she used them to starve herself. And she starved herself to meet an application letter, impossible physical ideal, to be pretty so that men might more easily consume her image. The film also critiques the counter-counterculture of 1970s, which was a conservative response to the counterculture of the early 1970s.

That is, Carpenter became the poster child of wholesome living, and the antithesis of sex, drugs, and rock-n-roll. This was another impossible ideal to fulfill, feeding into common persuasive graphic organizer, Carpenter’s sickness. It was exacerbated by the pressures of celebrity, of being a role model before you’re mature enough to handle it. This inevitably leads to cognitive dissonance, a conflict between who you are and who your are supposed to be (or forced by others to be). The film is Surrealist in essays, some places (the spanking hand). It could be considered Abstract, particularly if you think dolls are objects and not people. It could also be considered a Compilation film in common essay organizer, that Haynes inserts scenes from the liberation of the Nazi Death Camps, and other seemingly inappropriate footage. It might seem that Haynes was going way over the top with such footage, in effect comparing anorexia nervosa to the Holocaust and the Vietnam War, but on a formal level it is justified – it is one way to offset the s.a.w, melodramatic story-line, and confound the nearly-automatic emotional response provoked by the music. University of Maryland.

Maya Deren, “Commentary to Meshes of the Afternoon ,” Maya Deren: Experimental Films 1943–58 (DVD) . Theresa L. Geller, “The Personal Cinema of Maya Deren: Meshes of the graphic, Afternoon and its Critical Reception in the History of the npg winning, Avant-garde,” Biography: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly 29.1 (Winter 2006): 140-158. Martha Nochimson, World on Film (Malden, MA: John Wiley Sons, 2007). A Freudian Interpretation of An Andalusian Dog. The following is graphic organizer a Freudian interpretation of An Andalusian Dog ( Un Chien Andalou) . It is one of red death, many possible interpretations of the film. My reading draws upon graphic, Freudian psychology, which I summarized in another blog entry. The narrative of the film is illogical, like the narrative of a dream. Dream analysis was a preoccupation of both Freudian analysts and Surrealist artists. The film begins with the sexual act, which is an act of violence. This is represented by the sliced eye-ball of the woman. A child is born, a boy; birth, too, is a violent act.

This is npg winning represented by the injured boy who has fallen off his bike. The boy is disturbed by a sexually undifferentiated (androgynous) female and becomes aware of common core persuasive, his own sexuality. The boy is both hostile towards, and aroused by, the androgynous person. He takes sexual pleasure in her death. He desires his mother sexually, reaching for the breasts, the center of his libidinous pleasure. but is thwarted and held back by essay of the red death societal conventions (Ten Commandments, dead horse, pianos, priests) and by the threatened violence of his father, who berates him, in a sense saying “grow up!” The father forces the boy to abandon his childish ways and become more like him. This is represented by core persuasive graphic the father throwing the for the of the red death, boy’s childish things out the common core persuasive, window. The boy, in an expression of the Oedipal Complex, imagines killing his father. It is humorously represented as a shoot-out, the kind featured in cowboy or gangster films. Once this conflict is resolved, the father and the son assume their proper roles, with the son inevitably taking precedence over his father.

This is represented by essay of the the son being much taller than his father. (Granted, this association is core persuasive essay organizer even more illogical than the ones previously discussed, since now the father and the son are played by different actors, in what seems to be another film entirely. A similar thing occurs at the end of the film.) Later, the boy, now grown to an adult, attempts to establish a healthy sexual relationship with a woman but he still shows feminine characteristics, which means he has not developed properly. On Prophet Muhammad! This is represented by the woman’s armpit hair (standing in for her pubic hair) on persuasive graphic, the man’s face. Then we see the epigraph format essay, boy/man in a healthier aspect; his healthy individuation is indicated by a completely different actor playing the character. The woman is attracted to common core organizer, him, not to the other man who has not developed properly.

The man and his female lover walk along the npg winning, shore, representing the font of life from which we all come and to which we all return. The man shows his disgust for childish things. These are the same items the father threw out the window earlier in the film. The film ends with death, at common core persuasive essay organizer, which point the cycle begins again. (Some have also seen, in this shot, an allusion to the bloody battlefields of World War I). Freud’s Stages of essay on prophet s.a.w, Psycho-Sexual Development. Though the film defies explanation, and the directors Luis Bunuel and Salvador Dali repeatedly refused to explain the symbols of the film, one way to read An Andalusian Dog (Un Chien Andalou) is as a journey through the stages of psycho-sexual development according to Sigmund Freud.

These stages are: Oral stage (from birth to eighteen months): the child is preoccupied by persuasive essay graphic nursing, and identifies nursing with his or her libidinal energy. Weaning provokes a crisis, an letter for teachers, initial separation between the child and the mother. Anal stage (eighteen months to 3 years): as the common persuasive graphic organizer, child is toilet-trained, he or she becomes obsessed with defecation. The child takes pleasure in defecation, which is countered by the rules of society concerning the control of bodily functions. Essay Questions For The Masque! Phallic stage (3 to 4 years): the child becomes interested in persuasive essay graphic, his or her genitals. The boy child wishes to possess his mother sexually, and to kill his father (his rival), but does not do so out of fear of castration at on prophet muhammad, the hands of his father; instead he learns to identify with his father. Core Persuasive Essay Graphic! This is the Oedipus Complex. The girl child desires her father and blames the mother for epigraph essay her lack of penis, but she eventually identifies with her mother, in order to core organizer, vicariously possess her father through her mother. This is the Electra Complex. Latency Stage: the conflict of the Oedipal and Electra Complexes resolved, the child goes into an asexual period that is characterized by argumentative essay against sexual repression.

Genital Stage: the core persuasive graphic, child, now fully grown and socialized, strives to develop a healthy sexual relationship with a member of the opposite sex. If previous states are unresolved, this will be problematic. For more on Freud’s stages, and the definitions of such terms as libido, erogenous zone, id, ego, and superego, please consult the Victorian Web (from which I have borrowed for my explanation above): Note that feminists and gay critics have problems with Freud’s model of psycho-sexual development. They claim, rightly, that Freud does not seriously consider their sexual development in his model, insinuating that they are sexually incomplete or dysfunctional. Torture, Journalism, and on i a dream by martin king, Art, in common core persuasive, Zero Dark Thirty. Kathyrn Bigelow is not the first film director to struggle with the tension between journalistic realism and artistic fiction in film. On Prophet S.a.w! But she is currently the best, and most controversial, example of this phenomenon.

What I’m really referring to here is the “realistic” and/or “artistic” treatment of torture in Zero Dark Thirty . The film clearly shows that torture, though clearly a bad thing, was effective in leading to common core persuasive, the discovery and killing of Osama bin Laden. Bigelow, and essay questions masque of the red death, her co-scriptwriter, the journalist Mark Boal, have repeatedly made the claim that Zero Dark Thirty is realistic, objective, and journalistic in common persuasive graphic, its representation of best application, torture. This is also the way they justify themselves as artists. For them, verisimilitude is equivalent to artistic treatment. Many critics vociferously disagree that the essay graphic, film is realistic, or can be considered journalism, on the subject of torture.

At The New Yorker , Jane Mayer writes that. the director of Zero Dark Thirty , Kathryn Bigelow, milks the U.S. torture program for drama while sidestepping the political and ethical debate that it provoked. In her hands, the hunt for bin Laden is essentially a police procedural, devoid of moral context. If she were making a film about slavery in antebellum America, it seems, the story would focus on whether the npg winning, cotton crops were successful. In Rolling Stone , Matt Taibbi also addresses the subject of torture in Zero Dark Thirty . He writes: The problem had nothing to do with the fact that Bigelow showed torture. It was the way she depicted it – without perspective, and in the context of a pulse-pounding thriller where the audience is clearly supposed to root for the big treasure find. It’s a cliche but it’s true: Bin Laden wanted us to make this mistake. He wanted America to respond to him by throwing off our carefully-crafted blanket of common core persuasive essay graphic organizer, global respectability to reveal a brutal, repressive hypocrite underneath. Essay On Prophet! He wanted us to stop pretending that we’re the country that handcuffs you and reads you your rights instead of extralegally drone-bombing you from the core persuasive essay organizer, stratosphere, or putting one in your brain in an Egyptian basement somewhere.

Carla Seaquist comments that “ Zero Dark Thirty is the perfect al-Qaeda recruiting tool, with its extensive, and unopposed, torturing.” Adrian Chen writes that “Kathryn Bigelow’s Osama bin Laden revenge-porn flick Zero Dark Thirty was the biggest publicity coup for the CIA this century outside of the actual killing of Osama bin Laden.” [Chen follows this with a discussion of a memo that shows that the CIA “pressured (script-writer) Mark Boal to npg winning essays, remove scenes that made them look bad from the Zero Dark Thirty script.”] Not all the critics of organizer, Zero Dark Thirty are film reviewers. Some are political commentators like Naomi Wolf, or journalists like Glen Greenwald (well known now for his reporting on WikiLeaks, Julian Assange, and Edward Snowden). Wolf claims that. in falsely justifying, in essay questions masque of the, scene after scene, the core persuasive graphic, torture of detainees in essays, “the global war on terror”, Zero Dark Thirty is a gorgeously-shot, two-hour ad for keeping intelligence agents who committed crimes against Guantanamo prisoners out of jail. It makes heroes and heroines out of people who committed violent crimes against core organizer, other people based on their race. Greenwald, writing of the death of Osama bin Laden and on prophet s.a.w, Zero Dark Thirty , says that: This event [killing of bin Laden] has obtained sacred status in American political lore. Nobody can speak ill of it, or even question it, without immediately prompting an avalanche of anger and resentment. . . . For that reason, to depict X as valuable in enabling the common persuasive essay graphic, killing of bin Laden is essay have a dream by martin king – by definition – to glorify X. That formula will lead huge numbers of graphic, American viewers to regard X as justified and essay muhammad, important. In this film: X = torture.

That’s why it glorifies torture: because it powerfully depicts it as a vital step – the first, indispensable step – in what enabled the US to hunt down and pump bullets into America’s most hated public enemy. Greenwald, who has written a number of articles on the controversy, goes on core organizer, to show how the film’s claims about torture are demonstrably false. He also characterizes the film as “CIA hagiography” and “pernicious propaganda.” Mayer’s beat is national and npg winning, international affairs, not film. But she makes a strong case for core organizer the falsity of the representation of torture in best letter for teachers, Zero Dark Thirty . During a week in common persuasive essay graphic, which the European Court decided that the CIA was involved in torture during the on i have king, War on Terror, Mayer writes that. the C.I.A.’s program of calibrated cruelty was deemed so illegal, and common core essay organizer, so immoral, that the director of the F.B.I. withdrew his personnel rather than have them collaborate with it, and on prophet muhammad s.a.w, the top lawyer at the Pentagon laid his career on the line in an effort to stop a version of the program from spreading to the armed forces. As the common core organizer, Washington Post ’s Greg Sargent first reported, shortly after bin Laden was killed, Leon Panetta, then the director of the C.I.A., sent a letter to Arizona Senator John McCain [who publicly objected to the depiction of torture in essay, Zero Dark Thirty ], clearly stating that “we first learned about ‘the facilitator/courier’s nom de guerre’ from a detainee not in the C.I.A.’s custody.” Panetta wrote that “no detainee in C.I.A. custody revealed the common persuasive graphic organizer, facilitator/courier’s full true name or specific whereabouts.” Bigelow and Boal have defended the argumentative essay gun control, accuracy of the film in essay organizer, numerous interviews.

Bigelow told Dexter Filkins, in The New Yorker , that “the film doesn’t have an agenda and it doesn’t judge. Letter! I wanted a boots-on-the-ground experience.” Boal als defends the film by calling it journalism, and common persuasive graphic organizer, has argued that the film captures the complexity of the debate concerning torture. Both Bigelow and Boal have asserted that the film is argumentative gun control apolitical and that the criticism of the film is political. Common Persuasive Essay Graphic! They contend that “depiction [of torture] is not endorsement.” Jeff Reichart, writing in Reverse Shot , assesses the film as realistic journalism. He claims that. Kathryn Bigelow’s Zero Dark Thirty operates fully within that specific register of argumentative essay gun control, realism that has been defined over the last few decades of contemporary cinema. Its markers include handheld cameras, images washed of persuasive graphic organizer, color, and best application letter, the liberal intermixing of archival footage with created material. Common Persuasive Essay Graphic! As such, it’s obsessed with achieving journalistic accuracy, which seems to have become the loftiest goal in current cinema. Then Reichart gets into npg winning, specifics: The film begins with a solemn title card announcing that what follows will be “based on common persuasive graphic, first hand accounts” before moving into its most ghoulish segment, in which Bigelow plays, over argumentative essay against gun control a darkened screen, the recordings of cell phone calls made from the Twin Towers September 11, 2001, as the persuasive essay graphic organizer, planes struck.

As Maya’s manhunt continues and the casualties from terror attacks around the world mount, Bigelow pulls in footage from the aftermath of the July 2005 London public transport bombings, and the September 2008 attack on epigraph format essay, the Islamabad Marriott. This footage is skillfully interwoven with Maya’s search so as to core essay, minimize audience disruption – we’re not supposed to feel the shift in registers between scripted Zero Dark Thirty material and best letter, the images taken from the news (the protagonist herself is depicted as having just missed being killed in the Marriott explosion). This mixing effectively levels out the differences between the various flavors of footage and their relationship to “real events.” It’s one of the ways in which Zero Dark Thirty successfully overlays the collection of suppositions, condensations, and outright fabrications that is Maya’s narrative on top of our own understanding of the decade-long War on Terror. Note that Reichart claims that the film-makers were successful in giving Zero Dark Thirty a veneer of journalistic realism, but that it was nothing but a veneer. Neither Bigelow nor writer Boal, in interviews, ever acknowledge that the persuasive essay graphic, realism they traffic in on the way to building their new master narrative about the letter for teachers, War on Terror is common persuasive organizer actually a studious construction. Though it may focus on one of the central global narratives of the past decade and be sourced to the gills, Zero Dark Thirty is still made of the best, same stuff that all movies, no matter how “realistic” are made of; that this artifice needs to be noted every time a film in this vein rolls around remains a central failure of our culture’s relationship to the moving image (the seductiveness of verisimilitude suggests some of the reasons for film’s ability to captivate and convince on a larger scale than other arts). Taibbi, another journalist-not-film-reviewer, challenges the idea that Zero Dark Thirty is persuasive essay objective journalism. He writes that Bigelow has. been praised, almost excessively, for being brave enough to “tell the truth” about torture in Zero Dark Thirty . As Manohla Dargis of The New York Times put it: However unprovable the effectiveness of these interrogations, they did take place.

To omit them from “Zero Dark Thirty” would have been a reprehensible act of questions of the red death, moral cowardice. Here’s my question: if it would have been dishonest to leave torture out core persuasive essay graphic organizer, of the film entirely, how is it not dishonest to format, leave out how generally ineffective it was, how morally corrupting, how totally it enraged the entire Arab world, how often we used it on organizer, people we knew little to nothing about, how often it resulted in deaths, or a hundred other facts? Responding to blog comments to his article, Taibbi writes: Some wrote in and said that all Bigelow was doing was telling an “objective” story and leaving it to us to sort it out. That’s bullshit. Epigraph! All storytelling is a series of common persuasive graphic, editorial decisions. You decide what to leave in, what to essay gun control, leave out. Core Graphic Organizer! In doing so you reveal a point of have king, view. They kept to a very narrow storyline that ended in the triumphant capture of bin Laden.

The posters don’t say, “WE SOLD OUR SOULS TO GET HIM,” they read, “THE GREATEST MANHUNT IN HISTORY.” One of the more potent critiques of the claim of core persuasive graphic organizer, journalistic realism in Zero Dark Thirty is that, despite the claims of the film-makers, it is not balanced. Carla Seaquist writes that. from the opening scene – a gruesome extended sequence showing a half-dozen techniques on how to break a detainee – and continuing throughout the entire film, Bigelow and Boal show only one side: intelligence agents engaging in torture, with every other agent on-station, and their controllers in Washington, onboard with the program, no dissent registered, none. Seaquist cites a long list of journalists and critics who opposed torture in the War on Terror.

Mayer (one of those journalists) also notes that Zero Dark Thirty. doesn’t include a single scene in which torture is questioned, even though the Bush years were racked by npg winning essays internal strife over core just that issue. . . . Best Application Letter! CNN national-security analyst Peter Bergen wrote recently [of the film], “the audience has already seen that the C.I.A. has employed coercive interrogation techniques on an al Qaeda detainee that produced a key lead in the hunt for bin Laden. Common Organizer! In the film, Obama’s opposition to torture comes off as wrongheaded and essays, prissy.” Taibbi says that. A more accurate movie about the common core persuasive graphic organizer, torture program would have been a grotesque comedy that shown grown men resorting to puppet shows and dance routines and argumentative essay gun control, fourth-rate sexual indignities dreamed up after spending too much time reading spank mags and BDSM sites – and doing this thousands of common core graphic organizer, times to thousands of people, all over the world, “accidentally” murdering hundreds of people in the process, going to war by mistake at least once as a result of it, and having no clue half the time who they’re interrogating (less than 10 percent of “terror suspects” at places like Bagram were arrested by American forces; most of the have by martin king, rest were brought in by Afghanis or other foreigners in exchange for bounties). Wolf directly challenges Bigelow’s journalistic claims in her “open letter” article on Zero Dark Thirty : You claim that your film is “based on real events”, and in interviews, you insist that it is a mixture of fact and fiction, “part documentary”. “Real”, “true”, and even “documentary”, are big and important words. Core Persuasive Graphic Organizer! By claiming such terms, you generate media and sales traction – on a mendacious basis. Wolf, a well-known feminist, can barely contain her feelings of betrayal. Here was a woman (Bigelow), perhaps even a feminist, doing what Wolf often attacks men for doing. She writes:

In a time of darkness in America, at you are being feted by Hollywood, and hailed by major media. Essay Questions Masque! But to me, the common core organizer, path your career has now taken reminds of no one so much as that other female film pioneer who became, eventually, an apologist for evil: Leni Riefenstahl. Riefenstahl’s 1935 Triumph of the essay, Will , which glorified Nazi military power, was a massive hit in Germany. Riefenstahl was the first female film director to core persuasive, be hailed worldwide. Perhaps because he found it difficult to npg winning essays, counter the charges that, on the subject of torture, Zero Dark Thirty is not as journalistic, realistic, or objective as advertised, Boal started making the opposite argument. Common Persuasive Essay Organizer! He said that the film is not a documentary, it is fiction. That is, it is art, not journalism. Boal and Bigelow, then, are only best application guilty of “artistic licence.” But, according to Greenwald, Bigelow and Boal are speaking out of both sides of common essay organizer, their mouths here.

As noted, she is going around praising herself for taking “almost a journalistic approach to film”. But when confronted by factual falsehoods she propagates on format, critical questions, her screenwriting partner resorts to the excuse that “it’s a movie, not a documentary.” Some critics say the film is a actually a subtle criticism of torture. They see in the film a subtle, thematic questioning of torture in Zero Dark Thirty, and claim that the film dramatizes the “moral descent” of the United States during the common core, War on Terror, by showing a country that would stop at epigraph format, nothing, including the most brutal forms of torture, to common core essay graphic organizer, locate and kill Osama bin Laden. I barely caught a whiff of essay on prophet muhammad s.a.w, a “moral journey/descent” storyline in this film – the closest they came to that was in the first scene, where Maya looks a little grossed out by Clarke’s methods. A few minutes later, though, she’s all street and everything, wearing a hijab and core persuasive essay organizer, getting some henchman to throw fists at her suspects on command. She went from queasy to hardass in about ten seconds and we didn’t linger on the transformation at all. For Reichart, it is not just the film-makers who are factitious: film critics – especially those who claim Bigelow as an auteur – have helped to “whitewash” Bigelow and downplay the pro-torture position in format, Zero Dark Thirty . Common! Reichart writes: It’s become all too commonplace for critics to float above the fray, and praise works they find aesthetically valuable and politically questionable (a replaying of the old Leni Riefenstahl debate again), but is by martin luther this l’art pour l’art [art for art’s sake] stance any way to watch movies? Isn’t this just abdicating a crucial part of the critical act?

Wouldn’t we rather our film writers be morally engaged viewers rather than diffident aesthetes? The morally engaged viewer doesn’t necessarily look to the film in question for simple affirmation of core persuasive essay graphic organizer, his or her viewpoints and reject opposing ideas out of format, hand. Rather, the moral viewer looks to cinema to encounter a host of perspectives, and can find pleasure in a variety of them so long as the art itself is well reasoned and internally sound. Graphic Organizer! Especially in questions masque of the, light of how the filmmakers have spoken about their work, the problem with Zero Dark Thirty becomes less that it ends up making a forceful case for the efficacy of core essay organizer, torturing human beings for on prophet s.a.w national security – it’s that one can easily walk away from the film doubting whether Bigelow and Boal have even realized that this is graphic what they’ve done. Reichart then asks: Shouldn’t art that so bowdlerizes its real-life subject matter in epigraph essay, order to create a pleasurable experience be called out for common graphic organizer doing so? The actual quest for bin Laden surely rested more on essay for the masque red death, gradations of persuasive essay organizer, tedium as opposed to one manufactured mini-climax after another – why don’t we desire that a “realistic” representation of that hunt fall far closer to npg winning, that truth? Zero Dark Thirty is just another incredibly well-fashioned product of the same morbid culture that considers weaponry sexy and art featuring evisceration and tales of war fascinating – which is to say, pretty much all of Western culture ever.

Seaquist also faults film critics for abdicating their critical role, in core persuasive essay, the name of epigraph, “moral ambiguity”: “Moral ambiguity” has become a standard artistic choice today, for filmmakers as well as playwrights and common core essay graphic, novelists, meaning: Rather than put the thumb on the scales for or against an action depicted, the essay have a dream by martin luther, artist professes to leave the moral judging to the audience. Moral questions being by definition about right and wrong, the artist presuming to treat such questions in an ambiguous manner must then show at essay organizer, least two sides (or more) of the question under review. For Seaquist, artistically, Zero Dark Thirty was a missed opportunity: If dramatic conflict is the clash of opposing objectives, and if the most dramatic is the opposition of moral objectives, it’s bewildering to me why the filmmakers chose not to exploit their film’s richest vein of conflict: the rightness or wrongness of torture. It might seem hypocritical for the film-makers to claim that Zero Dark Thirty is both realistic journalism and a work of art, but critics often make this claim for on prophet muhammad film-makers (see, for instance, reviews of Steve McQueen’s Twelve Years of Slave , that make exactly this claim). Core Graphic Organizer! Film-makers make this claim for themselves. It can be a productive tension for films, and for directors, if it’s not definitively resolved in favor of one or the other. In this sense, Bigelow shows herself to be an auteur according to the definition of Andrew Sarris: this is the “interior meaning,” or an essay, underlying tension between the director/s vision and the subject matter. It is the persuasive graphic, tension between journalistic and creative exposition. My criticism of Zero Dark Thirty is have a dream that instead of core, holding journalism and art in tension in the film, Bigelow uses journalism as a cover for questions masque of the falsity, and art as a cover for inaccuracy.

And what is more, she does so on behalf of a questionable ideology that forgives torture as long as it leads to security. Founding Father Benjamin Franklin (supposedly) put it: “those who sacrifice liberty for security deserve neither.” In the case of Kathryn Bigelow and Zero Dark Thirty , we might paraphrase it as: those who sacrifice truth for art, and vice versa, will lose sight of both. [Some critics have questioned the accuracy of the film’s version of the actual killing of core persuasive essay organizer, Osama bin Laden, dramatized in the raid that concludes the film. Essay Questions Masque Of The! On this topic, I refer you to Mark Follman’s article in organizer, Mother Jones magazine.] University of Maryland. Adrian Chen, “Newly Declassified Memo Shows CIA Shaped Zero Dark Thirty’s Narrative,” (posted May 6, 2013).

Mark Follman. “‘Zero Dark Thirty’ and the Mysterious Killing of Osama bin Laden,” Mother Jones (February 22, 2013). Glenn Greenwald, “ Zero Dark Thirty : CIA hagiography, pernicious propaganda,” The Guardian (December 14, 2012). Jane Mayer. “Zero Conscience in ‘Zero Dark Thirty,'” The New Yorker (December 14, 2012). Jeff Reichart, “Desert of the real,” Reverse Shot. Carla Seaquist, “Society Instructs Hollywood on ‘Moral Ambiguity’ of Torture: Or, What the npg winning, Zero Dark Thirty Controversy Means,” Huffington Post (September 30, 2013). Matt Taibbi. “‘Zero Dark Thirty’ Is Osama bin Laden’s Last Victory Over America, Rolling Stone (January 16, 2013).

Naomi Wolf. “A letter to Kathryn Bigelow on Zero Dark Thirty ‘s apology for torture,” The Guardian (January 4, 2013).

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Common core persuasive essay …

essay on odyssey two ODYSSEY ESSAY SAMPLES. TWO MORE ESSAYS below:. €śThe Development of common core graphic, Penelope in Homer€™s Odyssey €ť. €śThe Significance of Religion in The Odyssey €ť. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PENELOPE IN HOMER€™S ODYSSEY. The time of ancient Greece seems like its own story in another world, one nothing like our own. Powerful gods and goddesses, brave warriors, mystical beings, and the mistreatment of essay on i a dream king, women rule the plot.

Except that women have been overlooked in our world for centuries. Organizer? The insignificance of npg winning essays, women was a part of Greek life that is not majestic or ethereal. In the epic poem The Odyssey by common core persuasive essay graphic organizer Homer, Penelope develops into her own character during a time where women are prized as possessions more than people. Homer makes Penelope into her own person and not just an addition to essay a dream luther, her husband by his long absence and the troubles she must face on her own through difficult times. Homer gives her qualities of loyalty, strength, and cunning to be able to survive without a husband when all others think she should just take another. Penelope becomes like a character unlike many women in Greek times such as Agamemnon€™s wife, but similar to Circe and Athena. She is turned into a woman of power by Homer.

Odysseus reluctantly departs to go fight in the Trojan War, leaving behind his wife and new son, and ends up staying away for twenty years. Throughout every minute of it, Penelope remains more faithful to her husband than he is to her. She never submits to the whims of the suitors begging for her hand in marriage and only finds ways to make them leave her, while he enjoys the company of Circe and Calypso. In a time where women are not praised for their minds but for their beauty, faithfulness for twenty years wins her a place as the highest form of women. Agamemnon compares her to his wife and praises her as being the persuasive €śmistress of her own heart,/ Penelope!€ť (XXIV.222-223) while his own wife €śthe adulteress,/ waited to stab her lord and application letter, king€ť (XXIV.225-226). From these statements, Agamemnon concludes that €śthe very gods themselves will sing her story€ť (XXIV.221), claiming that faithfulness is the common essay organizer best quality a woman could have. Penelope stays steadfast and alone through twenty years of her life, without a man by her side to see her through.

Agamemnon€™s wife finds herself another man to essay, rely on common essay while her own husband is gone, succumbing to the urges of society and the social status of women at the time. Penelope is able to stay loyal to her husband even after twenty years. The two wives of warriors are completely different, one fickle, and one faithful. Penelope is forced by the long absence of npg winning, her husband to guide her to core persuasive essay, become strong and guarded so that she can live without Odysseus. Penelope is faced with challenges at home while Odysseus is away, challenges that without strength would be impossible to face every day.

She is left with a son, not even two, to npg winning, raise on common persuasive essay graphic her own, without the guidance of a father figure in his life. Telemachus is father-less until he is twenty-one, an best application letter issue for Penelope because she cannot raise him as a man and common core persuasive essay, king would, and the fate of her kingdom rests with him. In addition, once Odysseus€™ mother dies and Laertes goes to live alone, Penelope is left alone to rule Ithaca, no small task for a queen by herself. There are also the suitors who claim Odysseus to be dead and ask for her hand in marriage every day. They will not leave Penelope in peace and €śevery suitor swore to lie beside her€ť (I.115) but €śSpurn them she dare not€ť (I.295) in fear of evoking their wrath and therefore the destruction of her home and family. She must remain strong, never submitting to the demands of the essay questions for the masque of the red death suitors and graphic organizer, never allowing her hatred of them to gain the upper hand. For The Of The? She must guard herself and her home from their anger and of their insistence of common essay organizer, Odysseus€™ death.

If they begin to believe that he will never return, then there remains no reason to stay strong through such trying times. Penelope is essay on prophet muhammad similar to Circe in that they both can live and flourish without men in their lives. Circe disposes of any men who come to core persuasive, her island, and has made herself a woman to fear. Penelope remains strong like Circe, but does not evoke fear in other€™s hearts. Have A Dream Luther King? She has no wish to common essay, kill even the men that plague her, only wishes that they would be gone. She never allows them to gain the upper hand over her life, but remains strong throughout.

When Odysseus returns, Penelope cannot simply accept the fact the he is who he says he after twenty years when so much is uncertain. Against Gun Control? Penelope feels that it would be best to test him to make sure that he tells the truth. Her cunning saves her from a possibility of being deeply wounded, which would have happened if she believed that the man before her was Odysseus, then finds out that he is not. Core Persuasive Essay Graphic Organizer? As close as Penelope and Odysseus were before he left, the more painful it would have been to have him torn from her again. She tests him by having him €śtried to the breaking point€ť (XXIII.206) by suggesting that the bed he made with his own hands was no longer where he had left it. She also uses her wily wits to stall the suitors from forcing her into an unwanted marriage. Penelope claims that she must finish weaving a shroud for Odysseus€™ father before she can marry again, which the suitors readily agree to because of the piety of the work. What the suitors are unaware of is that €śevery day she wove on the great loom--/ but every night by torchlight she unwove it€ť (II.112-113) so that she will never finish and have to marry one of the suitors.

Her trick works for essay three years, but when it fails, she finds a task for the suitors that none will be able to accomplish: the stringing of Odysseus€™ bow and firing an arrow through the holes in twelve axe heads. In the use of her cunning, Penelope is able to put off the efforts of the suitors for common core essay graphic over three years, an best application letter impressive feat with men so persistent. Athena, the goddess of wisdom, appreciates Odysseus for his cunning because it is similar to her own. Common Core? Penelope€™s cunning is essay on i therefore also similar to Athena€™s. Common Persuasive Graphic? Both are female figures in a time of male rulings that use their shrewd skills to retain power. Penelope€™s ability to remain strong and faithful relies on her wits, which she realizes and argumentative essay against gun control, takes advantage of. Penelope is seen at first as a wife of a hero, and core persuasive graphic, nothing more. Essays? She is core persuasive essay organizer known by her husband, whose valiant deeds are known throughout the lands. Npg Winning Essays? As the poem progresses, she begins to take shape of an important character with faith, strength, and wit, three valuable traits.

Penelope develops into a person from a faceless being in common essay graphic organizer a time where women are valued for their bodies. In the time of ancient Greece, women were insignificant. Penelope€™s character proves that women can be important to a story and the development of a happy ending. The Odyssey is an epic poem and a story full of application, captivating tales of heroism and bravery. Without Penelope€™s strength, wisdom, and common essay graphic organizer, loyalty, Odysseus would have had nothing to come home to and the story would have been a tragedy. With a happy ending readers think of the essay questions for the of the wonders of quests and other worldly beings that make the plot exciting, but if Penelope had not stayed true the common persuasive organizer stories would have seemed to npg winning essays, tell only of death. Common Core Persuasive Essay? The actions of essay masque of the, a mere woman could change the common core essay organizer whole story, a concept that in ancient Greece would be hard to grasp. ------------------------------------------------------------ The Significance of Religion in The Odyssey. Religion has always been significant throughout history. Many people€™s lives or jobs are dedicated to religion, to epigraph format essay, god.

For some, most everything they do revolves around their religion; they constantly think about core how their god would judge their actions. Homer€™s Odyssey tells the story of Odysseus€™s journey home, and how the gods affect this voyage. Argumentative Essay Against? The Greek gods and the religion itself are very significant to the story. Whether it€™s deterring Odysseus on his journey home, helping him along, causing one to harm another, or causing two countries to common core essay organizer, go to war, the gods are ever-present and a critical aspect to the story. One way the gods play an important role is by acting as a hindrance for Odysseus. He must overcome many obstacles on his journey home, which would not be nearly as difficult or as much of an issue if not for the interference of the gods. A Dream By Martin Luther? An example of this is when Circe entraps Odysseus and his men with her irresistible offers of persuasive, meat and bread, thus causing them to stay much longer then they intend to. While on Circe€™s island, Odysseus narrates, €śSo day by day we lingered, feasting long/ on roasts and wine, until a year grew fat€ť (X.516, 517). Essay A Dream Luther? Circe€™s offers are so enticing to Odysseus and his crew that they stay for too long, causing their trip to be delayed an entire year. She is one goddess that creates a hurdle Odysseus must leap over.

Another is common core organizer Poseidon. Just as Odysseus is about to reach his homeland of Ithaca, Poseidon says, €śStill I can give him a rough ride, and I will€ť (V.300). He €śgives him a ride€ť by argumentative essay creating huge waves that destroy Odysseus€™s raft, thus deterring him even further. Graphic Organizer? These are both instances in the story where gods are significant in that they act as obstacles for Odysseus to overcome. Although these hindrances are both trying, they represent only a tiny portion of the format essay problems the gods cause him. These predicaments and challenges are what make the story; they create a sense of tension and resolve. Without the gods, this cycle wouldn€™t be present. This is why the gods€™ role in the Odyssey as obstacles is core persuasive essay so important. Interestingly enough, the gods are also significant in the story for the exact opposite reason. Another way the gods play an important role in the story is by aiding Odysseus on epigraph format his journey home.

Athena is especially helpful in this way. When Odysseus is common core persuasive essay graphic organizer battling the suitors to regain control of his home, he is greatly outnumbered. Athena €śturns their shots, or all but two€ť (XXII.303). This action saves Odysseus€™s life, and epigraph format essay, helps him regain control of his home and family. The fact that when in need of assistance, he has a goddess looking after him is common core persuasive essay graphic critical to the story; it enables him to epigraph format, fight battles, both literal and figurative, that he couldn€™t win on his own. Knowing that Athena and other gods care about Odysseus and want to common persuasive essay graphic organizer, help him significantly changes the epigraph story. At times such as the aforementioned battle where Odysseus is so greatly outnumbered, he might be inclined to lose hope if not for common persuasive essay graphic the knowledge that Athena will be there for argumentative gun control him.

The help of the gods is also important just to counteract the actions of the gods who dislike Odysseus. If he was only being hurt and not aided by the gods, his story would most likely end much sooner. The gods€™ aid is significant because frankly needs it. He would not be able to accomplish such great feats without their help, and common persuasive graphic organizer, would likely be finished off by the gods who do not wish him to return home. The Greek religion, particularly the belief that the gods control all aspects of life, is also very important. After thinking the questions for the masque gods weren€™t on his side because the winds are blowing his ship the wrong direction, Agamemnon believes that he must kill his own daughter as a sacrifice so that the common core persuasive gods will blow his ship towards Troy. Even though killing his child has no scientific relation or effect on the wind in any way, Agamemnon feels he must do so to please the gods so that his ship can sail. On I Luther? The author describes Agamemnon€™s decision: €śthis was terrible to all, but to her father (Agamemnon) it was hardly bearable€ť (Hamilton 261).

Despite the pain it causes him, pleasing the gods comes first. Persuasive Essay? Hamilton continues, €śNevertheless he yielded€ť (Hamilton 261). The idea that his own daughter€™s life isn€™t as important as appealing to the gods seems awful when looked at through contemporary lenses. However, the gods and the idea of religion causes people to essay on i have, value them higher than anything else in their life; including their loved ones. Common Persuasive Graphic Organizer? People, like Agamemnon, feel that they have to argumentative gun control, do something so that the gods will give them what they want in common core persuasive essay return. The gods are significant in this way because their approval and satisfaction influences people€™s actions throughout the story. Their religion is critical to their lives because it influences most everything they do. The gods are also significant because they can start or stop a fight on a whim, cause people to battle at will, and start an all-out war.

At the end of the story, a fight between the mourning parents of the suitors and Odysseus and Laertes is about to break out. Argumentative Gun Control? Before it can really begin, Athena says, €ś€™Odysseus, master of land ways and common persuasive, sea ways,/command yourself. Call off this battle now,/or Zeus who views the wide world may be angry€™€ť (XXIV.607-609). Throughout The Odyssey, fights break out frequently, during which many lose their lives. The fact that Athena can stop a fight this easily makes one wonder why, if she and other gods posses this power, fighting is epigraph format not ceased more often. Persuasive Essay Graphic? So many people die during war that whomever has the power to begin or end a war has the essay questions for the of the power to save or take away many, many lives.

The gods play an important role in common persuasive essay graphic organizer this way by choosing to npg winning, participate in core persuasive war, or by choosing, as Athena did, to stop the fighting from happening. It is apparent how the gods are significant to the Odyssey. They make it the exciting, epic story that it is. Although the gods play a very different role in society today than they did during this time period, they are still just as significant. Many people will still say that god is the single most important part of essay, life today, an idea that was prominent throughout the Odyssey.