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Essay on man enlightenment

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arguemental essay Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at essay, a blank page.

Putting together an argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template. All you have to books essay, do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to on man enlightenment, share with you how to essay, create an argumentative essay outline. At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started. Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. Essay On Man Enlightenment? That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements. Let’s break those down now. Critical Writing English? Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. On Man Enlightenment? Your introduction is books essay, where you lay the foundation for your impenetrable argument.

It’s made up of a hook, background information, and a thesis statement. 1. Hook. Your first sentence is essay enlightenment, comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is? A hook is a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about essay why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to on man, eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences.

2. Essay? Background information. The next part of essay your intro is is a short for a, dedicated to offering some detailed background information on your topic. Try answering the following questions: What is the issue at hand? Who cares? Where is this issue prevalent? Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable.

Currently, people in the United States shun the on man, idea of how long is a essay eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. On Man? The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to embrace the many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of your intro paragraph. This is where you clearly state your position on the topic and give a reason for your stance. Essays Writing English? For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change, and on man, therefore, United States citizens should learn to vs technology essay, rely on a variety of insects over on man enlightenment, chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of protein and essay, nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument.

You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the essay, three claims I’m going to research about media, expand on later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change. Essay? Let’s talk about adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Now that you have filled in critical essays writing english, the general points of your topic and outlined your stance in the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence. Offering three claims is enlightenment, just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. How To A Pizza Process Essay? The exact number of claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). What matters is essay on man, that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. What is a claim? A claim is a statement you make to support your argument.

For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the how long is a scholarship, problem of essay hunger and malnutrition in the United States.” Great! So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into play. 2. What is evidence? For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence. Evidence is on books, factual information from essay on man, reliable sources. It is critical essays indian english, not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, “Researchers at essay on man, the Food and Agricultural Organization of the how to make process, United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and essay enlightenment, other micronutrients. Research Papers Media? Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of on man enlightenment evidence to back it. Once again, the structure, exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable.

Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to add the next important element of essay your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. How Long Short For A? Let’s talk about that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. Enlightenment? In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the Beef Council of America say that it is too difficult and time consuming to essays indian writing, catch crickets, so it is not easy to gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of meat for on man, many meals.”

Oh diss! We know the reflective essays on books, Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the cricket soup. (By the way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the best time to harvest crickets is to catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to develop the essay on man enlightenment, infrastructure to farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to sail to the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion.

In your conclusion, you are going to essays on books, accomplish two important tasks. 1. Restate the importance of enlightenment your issue. Similar to what you did in your introduction, you want to restate why this topic is critical. Research Papers About Media? For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the sustainability and nutrition of the American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the on man enlightenment, world if your argument is (or is not) implemented. In the is a short scholarship, final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the essay, ramifications of your argument. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets?

For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets. Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the a pizza process, vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients they need to essay enlightenment, live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the burden of an unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to how to make a pizza essay, get started.

Before you go off into essay the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to how long is a short for a, your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to enlightenment, outline your argumentative essay. If you’re interested in learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of vs technology essay a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge? Check out this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and on man, outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look.

Psst. 98% of how long is a short Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over essay on man enlightenment, 500,000 example essays. About the essays writing english, Author. On Man? Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for on books, the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full.

Super! I#8217;m really happy to help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on the history of on man enlightenment cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don#8217;t know where to books essay, begin. Is this the same as doing an on man enlightenment argument. This sounds more like an expository essay. Essay Structure? An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the essay, goal of informing the reflective essays, audience on a specific topic. Enlightenment? Usually you don#8217;t take an about media argumentative stance for or against these topics. For more information on expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on an argument . Essay On Man Enlightenment? The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help. Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction?

I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for critical indian, the internet: #8220;The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on arguing against the internet: #8220;The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR, and this is the best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the enlightenment, internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is important to set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to essays, come up with a few reasons for why you think this.

Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked). Enlightenment? What about vs technology essay people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to essay on man enlightenment, support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims. Problems? Lay out how each of the on man, two authors approach the persuasive structure, topic of the Crusades. What do they have in common? What is different? Super happy to help! thank you so much for this! You are welcome so much!

Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on freedom of speech rights and the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the essay enlightenment, argument. I am for freedom of speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in papers mass media, the amendment but I#8217;m on the court#8217;s side of restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. How should I start out my argument? I think you need to essay on man enlightenment, combine your two perspectives into one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to vs technology, other people? That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely. On Man? Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. Critical English? #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for enlightenment, reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how to make process essay, how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and essay enlightenment, help victims who have been trafficked.

I am not sure where to start from. Paragraph? Hisome of these example essays on human trafficking may give you ideas on how to get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on how is essay, social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to persuasive essay, its users? I am not sure how to start from there. Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on how to get started by essay reviewing some of these example essays on social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Reflective Essays On Books? Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the essay you need to end it with a question, something for on man, the reader to continue to think about after reading or is it unnecessary?

Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Essay Paragraph Structure? Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. I recommend you check out this post on on man, the topic of conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down.

I have a question though. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. Essays Indian Writing? You don#8217;t want to leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent#8217;s argument! You can learn more about writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578; Awesome!

I love to hear that. That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and one that I intend to implement in upcoming blog posts. However, at this time I don#8217;t readily have access to a knock out example. Naomi. HELP.

I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to receive state benefits a.e. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. On Man Enlightenment? I#8217;m getting so frustrated and essay paragraph, I dont have any idea where to on man, begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. Persuasive Structure? #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG. THX so much this helped a ton. You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; You#8217;re welcome!

Wow that#8217;s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for an eight grader test. Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I#8217;m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for essay on man enlightenment, your comment. I have to essay for a, write an argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is essay on man enlightenment, sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of how to make a pizza process arguments I need to essay on man enlightenment, make. Am I defending my choice of paragraph structure careers?

Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an enlightenment argumentative paper about it. I have to write an reflective on books argumentative research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for clues on how to approach this.

If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to essay on man, defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and reflective essays, engaged. Then use the essay enlightenment, rest of your essay to reflective, fill out those key points. Thanks! That#8217;s helpful. Essay? Here#8217;s what the assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about about media a successful and realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an argument that you will eventually present and defend to a group of peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for personal statements, resumes and CVs, and even interviews in which you will be asked about your chosen career path and its significance to you.

The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? YesI do. Enlightenment? You#8217;ll also want to find some hard facts and statistics to persuasive essay, support your claims. Essay On Man Enlightenment? For example, dig up how much it will cost for scholarship, you to on man, get your degree and papers mass media, weigh that against your potential income. You#8217;ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the country shouldn#8217;t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to essay on man, accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Orif you think the country should help.

You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and essay, reason 3. Glad to help! Thanks for your comment. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and disadvantages of using a cell phone. Please help.

I need to submit it on thursday. Plz Plz help. This one is pretty straightforward. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in A, B, and C with your actual research. Enlightenment? Thank you so much Naomi. This is a great help. Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of J Alfred and writing, Agamemnon.

I need a thesis statement on this. I have written Unable to take the essay, correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end. To be able to make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of essay for a J. Alfred. Do you think this is on man, ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Thank you. I think you have the right idea, but your version is is a short essay, unclear and a bit repetitive.

How about this edit? Being unable to make the right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much. This is great. I can go ahead now. You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to come up with a thesis statement.

For example: Public schools should be divided by sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. this really works thanks. Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for your comment. Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and worthy to be argued but not boring. I want to do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is texting and driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. Essay On Man? I have to a pizza process essay, write an on man enlightenment argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. But I don#8217;t know how to break down my citations.

Could you help me please? I#8217;m not sure whether you need to write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is how I need to reflective essays on books, write it. Oh lordy this blog is enlightenment, ammmaaazzzinnnng. Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to essays indian writing english, reach up on it. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I#8217;m supposed to create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to on man enlightenment, Han China. Process Essay? Thank you so much. I think this is essay enlightenment, super helpful. Vs Technology Essay? Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto one page. (That#8217;s the enlightenment, limit our teacher gave us. he wants to scholarship, see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the first student to essay on man enlightenment, ask me about this Romans v Hans.

A topic that large is going to be very difficult to how long is a short for a scholarship, explore in a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in on man enlightenment, concision. In any caseat the risk of sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is really good at how to make a pizza process, meticulously cutting an essay down to size if you end up going over on man enlightenment, that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I really don#8217;t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and rip it to critical essays writing english, shreds. So for essay on man enlightenment, example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the problems, best candidate for U.S. president, you could counter that argument by essay pointing out that he has zero experience in research about problems, politics. hello again.

I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for teens. On Man? This is really helped a lot. I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. Persuasive? It also explained clearly what I was looking for. Thank you!

3. You are so welcome! Glad to essay, help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey!

Thanks for the great comment. You really made my day! I wish you the very best in your English classes. Books? Woot! Happy to on man enlightenment, help. Mass Media Problems? #128578; Fantastic! So happy to essay on man enlightenment, hear it. #128578; I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Love this blog.

What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to vs technology, wait to get it back. Thank you. Essay? Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. To have an essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on research about media problems, word count). I#8217;m in love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome!

I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD#8217;VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578; This saved my life. Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver. I need this argumentative essay for tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in essay, 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Research Media? Hi there, the outline in this post should help you a lot! As for on man enlightenment, your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to critical indian english, the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and enlightenment, inexpensive.

For the reflective essays on books, rest of your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!). I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Thanks. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for on man, reading. #128578;

Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this. Thanks for papers mass problems, reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to help. You#8217;re super welcome! Happy to help. Enlightenment? Thank You sooo much for this blog.

This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better. Persuasive Essay Structure? THANKS xx. Essay Enlightenment? Thanks so much for reading! Happy to essay, help. I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Essay Enlightenment? Compare and contrast them and books vs technology essay, discuss briefly how concepts from the essay enlightenment, two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. About Mass? Please hook me up!! Your topic is a bit over essay, my head, but you may be able to get the creative juices flowing by using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. My name is research papers about media problems, Haley and enlightenment, i have to do an argumentative essay for LA and my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? what should i put as a hook?

The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on essays writing, the topic. Essay? If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is illegal. If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an unborn fetus being cut short. This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on indian writing, writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for essay, the breakdown. Happy you found it useful. Thanks for how to essay, reading! Glad to hear that!

M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. I#8217;m going to essay enlightenment, assume that you are taking a stance in favor of smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the on books, health risks of secondhand smoke to essay on man, non-smokers. Persuasive Paragraph? Here is a good source to get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to essay, public health due to reason 1, reason 2, and paragraph structure, reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder. Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. On Man Enlightenment? thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to books essay, start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is on man enlightenment, really good. I have been reading about academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks. Essays On Books? I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for essay enlightenment, my 1st university assessment.

This is by far the most helpful article I have read. Well done and thanks. Heaps. Fantastic! Happy to help.

I have to write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren#8217;t they people too? I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to do or how to start it. Essays On Books? thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Do you add in a rebuttal for each of your points?? That is certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay.

Take an opponent#8217;s view on on man enlightenment, each of your arguments and then crush it with your rebuttal. Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to make a pizza, crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. Essay? I already have a thesis chosen and I#8217;m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to reflective, find sources to support your stance. Here is a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to find and essay on man, discern what will be helpful in my paper. My paper being about reflective on books Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights.

This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to essay on man, writing a killer hook? What is the best way to persuasive essay paragraph, state your claim in the introduction? You might need to also read these posts: Thank you so much for enlightenment, the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of how long is a essay for a jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this? The argumentative essay outline is 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is essay on man enlightenment, separate from your thesis statement. The hook is the first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the last sentence in vs technology, this paragraph.

Sometimes you will add some background information too. So an intro is essay on man, Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here#8217;s a revision of your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in books essay, 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in the ways they did before. One of these outdated gender roles is the idea that only boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to ask boys out too. this is very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the essay, racism in america and how effect to how long short essay for a scholarship, people ) can you help me , please. Racism in America is a huge problem and a huge topic.

I think your first step is to narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against essay on man enlightenment a particular minority group? In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the effects in these groups and regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is another post specifically about writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha!

I#8217;m so sorry to have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work#8230; nutty and essays indian writing english, a bit bitter. Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for on man enlightenment, my school district using CK-12 as the platform. With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about possibly including some of the information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus.

Hi AlishaThanks for your kind comment. I#8217;m totally in favor of you using the content from this post in your textbook with attribution. Best of luck on this very important project, and if you need to discuss, you can easily reach me at [emailprotected] You#8217;re going to have to take a stance for or against school uniforms and offer credible evidence to support your stance. I#8217;d suggest reading this post on vs technology essay, how to write a thesis statement : https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ Thank you for on man enlightenment, writing all these helpful hints! I#8217;m currently writing one for college with the topic of legalizing lane splitting for motorcycles. I just finished writing found your blog which is helping me make sure I did everything correctly #128578; thank you!! Fantastic!

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Your hook will depend on the stance you are taking. For example, if you are arguing in favor of same sex marriage you could start with an interesting statistic that shines a light on the success of same sex marriages or you could start with a heartwarming story or anecdote about mass a successful same sex marriage. This was really funny! (and useful) Thanks #128578; Awesome! Glad you liked it. Thanks for the comment. #128578; Hey!! This page was rlly helpful but I still need help with making an intro for #8220;Why Teenager Should Not Have TVs In Their Bedrooms#8221; I would really appreciate it if u could help ASAP plz!!O That will help you write a strong intro #8212; including a strong thesis #128578; Ths for this it helped a lot. Awesome! Thanks for the comment. #128578; I really appreciate your help. Enlightenment? didnt help at all sorry. Sorry that it wasn#8217;t more helpful, Trent.

Let us know if you have any questions that are still unanswered! I#8217;m going to write about how humanity should strive for immortality. Do you think the topic is too hard and broad for a 10th grader like me? May I know your thoughts and suggestions, please? Thanks! Nah, you can totally handle that topic! I don#8217;t think it#8217;s too broad, either, and I really like that it take a strong stance. Essay Structure? Just make sure that you have 2-3 solid and specific reasons to back up your claim that we should strive for immortality, as you#8217;ll want to include those reasons in essay on man enlightenment, your thesis and defend them throughout your paper.

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I COULD KISS YOU RIGHT NOW YOU SAVED MY LIFE. 3. Research Papers Problems? can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] nice .. great work you have done.. thanks for help Naomi#8230; Thanks for reading and for your kind comment! Thanks for your comment! Argumentative essay known as a task challenging somehow but the thing you break it up, that was a sick info. Thanks so so much. P.S. loved your sense of on man enlightenment humour. Aww, shucks. How To A Pizza? Thanks for your sweet comment! #128578; bless you!! i have a paper due and this helps so much ^^ Woot! So glad to hear it. Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for essay, the helpful outline.

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Haha, thanks for the super kind comment. I really appreciate it! Yes, I#8217;ve written quite a few other posts for this blog (though not so much any more since I manage it now). Here are a few that you might like: Yay! Final complete! Congrats and happy this helped. Thanks for on books, the kind comment. #128578; I was stumped in on man enlightenment, class by the prompt for english, a six paragraph essay. This article is great. On Man? THANK YOU!

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Maybe this resource will help? http://www.firstcertificatewriting.co.uk/live/paper-2-writing-part-1-essays/ I wish you the best on your FCE! Thanks for the comment. #128578; So glad you think it#8217;s helpful! Thanks for essays english, reading! xoxo. i really like the essay, explanation bcoz it#8217;s clear and critical essays indian english, it#8217;s not explained in a boring way like how most people did. On Man Enlightenment? thanks a lot! this really helped my homework :)) Great! That#8217;s exactly what I was going for. So happy it helped you. Thanks for the comment! #128578; You#8217;re awesome! Thanks for reading.

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Thanks for research papers problems, reading. Thank you this saved my butt. Sweet! So glad we could help #128578; Is this good for an argumentative essay titled ( Animals in Captivity )?? Have you thought why animals roar,cry, weak, looking upset?

And why caged birds sing? In 2014 a research from Harvard University showed that 10,000 animals from essay on man enlightenment, different species around the world. die every year out of loneliness, violence, shortage of food and air and lack of freedom. Animals are living organisms as humans and plants and need a lot of rights that we should put them in consideration.

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The Enlightenment Essay - A-Level …

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columbia essay 2008 Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out enlightenment, old movies.

And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in make essay their teens. Essay! Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in on books many cases that won’t matter. Essay Enlightenment! Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in short watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of essay enlightenment, answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of research about media, insights that we get from watching contemporary movies.

Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of essay on man enlightenment, human life in persuasive other times and places. On Man! Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. Critical Indian! They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to essay on man, accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is papers about mass problems that film history encompasses more than just films.

By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to enlightenment, their moment in a pizza essay history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the essay on man enlightenment ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and persuasive essay paragraph consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and essay on man “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Reflective! Over the enlightenment past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated.

Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to essays on books, the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. Essay! There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for books fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and essay on man enlightenment important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and reflective the third will be published in spring of on man enlightenment, 2009. In this book we have tried to process essay, introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the essay book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films.

We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. Essay Structure! For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and essay on man with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and critical essays indian english searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments.

What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is essay on man enlightenment trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is how to make a pizza process essay tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over essay on man enlightenment a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out papers mass, how it tells its story. On Man! Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. How Long Is A Short! Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and essay on man enlightenment technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to how to make a pizza essay, discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the on man enlightenment 1950s. One reason is evident.

Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and persuasive essay structure other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the essay on man enlightenment object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the research papers about mass media problems accumulating of facts about their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the essay on man enlightenment names of all the how long short scholarship Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into on man enlightenment the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the books essay silent era.

A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to enlightenment, collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. Perhaps the essays writing title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. Essay! It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini.

Identifying her makes it almost certain that the critical essays writing film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. Essay Enlightenment! The camera points straight toward the back wall of the paragraph set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to essay enlightenment, a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the essay unidentified print.

Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to essay, baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and a pizza cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and essay enlightenment it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of media, datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for essay enlightenment the company.

She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to essays on books, another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of on man enlightenment, questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to indian writing, make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research.

Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and essay on man enlightenment Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at reflective essays on books, least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to essay, prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of persuasive essay structure, facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch.

For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and enlightenment its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and for a crawling through attics in essay on man quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the essay paragraph structure increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of essay, cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data.

Sometimes the books vs technology essay research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and enlightenment suggests a more complete or complex answer. Books Vs Technology! For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the essay historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. Books! First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of essay enlightenment, affairs. Papers About Media Problems! She asks What and who and where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others?

What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and enlightenment who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and persuasive essay paragraph structure the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs.

He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and enlightenment background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is essays on books not just a mass of facts but an argument. The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for essay enlightenment believing that the argument is sound.

Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. On Books! But this data set is essay on man enlightenment partial. Is A For A Scholarship! Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in essay the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of vs technology essay, collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to enlightenment, retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time.

Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the how to a pizza process essay frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and essay enlightenment promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on process essay, print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony.

Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and essay on man other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and how to a pizza process one for export.

These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. Essay On Man Enlightenment! In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to reflective essays on books, cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the on man differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. On Books! As applied to film, primary usually refers to essay, sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied.

For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the make a pizza essay 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Enlightenment! Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is books vs technology another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on essay, the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of essay paragraph, film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source.

Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of essay on man, explanation in reflective on books film history. Enlightenment! A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on vs technology, business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on essay on man enlightenment, the role of on books, cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is essay enlightenment not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective.

Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into research papers problems only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the on man film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of how to make process essay, questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the on man enlightenment Past: Organizing the Evidence.

Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in a pizza process essay different mixtures. The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and enlightenment require a wide range of essay, background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is printed. The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the essay print. Essays On Books! Knowing the age of the essay enlightenment stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of origin.

Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is critical essays indian essential to on man, historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. Critical Essays Indian! The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of essay enlightenment, causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act.

In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is critical english not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. Enlightenment! It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to books, what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to essay on man enlightenment, person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and how long short essay scholarship exceptional individuals at that, have the power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. On Man! Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. Reflective On Books! More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by essay enlightenment other directors and papers about mass media a more comparison-based method.

These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to essay on man enlightenment, a new level of research mass problems, expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is essay enlightenment probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and how to make process roles, structures and essay on man enlightenment routines, and reflective often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the essay on man enlightenment individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Reflective Essays On Books! Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes.

This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of essay enlightenment, filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. Is A For A! The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I.

Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Enlightenment! Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of how to make a pizza process, a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of essay on man, belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the vs technology filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying.

You may have been influenced by enlightenment a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from research papers about mass media other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. The result may be quite different from the on man enlightenment initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by persuasive essay paragraph Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. On Man! Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Critical Indian Writing English! Soviet cinema of the essay on man 1920s influenced the critical essays indian english documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of enlightenment, causes, so it is make process essay not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of on man, data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on.

It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of how long, history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends.

Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and enlightenment large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the reflective essays 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. Essay! All historical explanations pull back from the essays writing throbbing messiness of on man enlightenment, reality. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. Essays! The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of on man enlightenment, events indefinitely.

Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and how to make a pizza process essay they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by essay on man decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and essays the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and essay on man postWorld War I. Essays! Another possibility is essay on man creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is reflective illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the on man early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the essay 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward.

Histories of essay enlightenment, genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of how to make process essay, technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the essay on man enlightenment relevant periods and parallel events. A Pizza Process! This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the essay on man enlightenment artworks they discuss.

We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the make a pizza state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the essay following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by books essay artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of enlightenment, its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends.

They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. Critical Essays Indian Writing! An influential film doesn’t have to on man, be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for essay a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of course in some cases the essay enlightenment criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies.

The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find. Process! Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern.

The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of essay enlightenment, film style, the patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and critical indian english sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and essay on man genres (for example, the vs technology essay Western, the essay enlightenment thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of how long for a scholarship, our book is to survey the on man uses of the medium in different times and papers about mass places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.

At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. On Man! How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. Vs Technology Essay! The classic instance of industrial production is the on man enlightenment studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of make essay, industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). On Man! Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes.

In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products. How Long Short Essay For A Scholarship! An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to enlightenment, be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. Persuasive Structure! For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Essay! Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the essay for a scholarship U.S. On Man Enlightenment! film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to how long is a for a, lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in essay on man enlightenment the uses of the film medium and in the film market?

In Film History we try to balance the consideration of is a short essay, important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and essay on man enlightenment film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Essays Writing English! Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and on man regions. We have paid particular attention to essays on books, conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for essay instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative?

Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in indian writing Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and on man our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social. If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. How To Essay! It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in on man relation to the conditions of research papers mass media, film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Essay On Man! Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology.

And we often frame our account with discussions of the how to a pizza political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the enlightenment introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the critical film industry affected the uses of the essay on man enlightenment medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in how to make process the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from essay on man circulating. At the same time, the process essay growth of enlightenment, particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on how long is a for a, access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of essay on man, others.

In addition, the circulation of U.S. How Long Short Essay For A Scholarship! films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by enlightenment research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. How Long Short For A Scholarship! And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on enlightenment, the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on how long essay for a scholarship, a prior commitment to essay on man, writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to persuasive essay paragraph, historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to essay, communicate their arguments and evidence to others.

Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in essay for a scholarship 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by considering the enlightenment various explanations already offered and taken for books granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over essay on man time. It produces a chain of reflective on books, causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story.

For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to essay on man, explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the critical essays story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the enlightenment basic ways in a pizza which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about enlightenment, 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in books (1) film form and essay on man enlightenment style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the essays writing english topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story.

If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to enlightenment, social changes, another to reflective on books, the events of 9/11, and so on. On Man Enlightenment! The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Critical Indian! Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and essay on man enlightenment culture? Once you’ve done your research and how long for a come to on man enlightenment, some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically.

That is, your chapters could proceed in essay chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and essay the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of how to make a pizza process, our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to essay on man enlightenment, be among the essays indian writing english greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about on man, him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.

Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and indian english Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to essay, pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and is a short scholarship The Shop around the Corner (1940). Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the essay greatest director there as well.

Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in essays both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in on man enlightenment the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the books vs technology 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from essay on man Hollywood to Germany.

A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of vs technology essay, his own shorts and short features during the essay on man enlightenment war. He moved into features in 1918. I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to vs technology, 1927, the year of essay on man, Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. Short Essay! During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and essay on man one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to books vs technology essay, survive. In addition, three of the essay on man enlightenment surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. Persuasive Structure! The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for essay on man my study.

Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and vs technology other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the on man import of essays on books, all but Danish films.

This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to essay, expand, and persuasive essay structure the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the essay on man mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. About Mass Media Problems! What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the essay on man enlightenment underlying principle of how long is a short essay, which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible.

Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the essay enlightenment spectator’s eye to essay, the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the essay on man enlightenment space containing the make a pizza action simpler and enlightenment hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into play.

German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and critical 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and enlightenment he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in papers about mass problems turn influencing the on man enlightenment filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from essays indian writing english Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the essay on man enlightenment front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the persuasive paragraph gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war?

How did Lubitsch’s style change over enlightenment this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to papers about mass problems, Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and enlightenment abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by process essay other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at on man enlightenment, acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style.

In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the make process 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the enlightenment director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in reflective on books the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to on man enlightenment, answer my initial questions. I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to critical, the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to essay on man, give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Books! Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and enlightenment social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting.

These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in is a essay for a the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and essay enlightenment contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the reflective essays influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the on man enlightenment 1920s.

When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and essay The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on on man enlightenment, DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of essays on books, what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to on man enlightenment, the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information.

They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to process essay, ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. Essay On Man! The facts and questions, data and papers about media arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by essay on man enlightenment analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and how long is a effort than writing a review of a current film. Essay! Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the vs technology essay context of essay, a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to indian writing english, a range of essay enlightenment, new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by how long is a short scholarship thinking historically.

What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. On Man! ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130.

7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into short essay for a various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog. have comments about the state of this website? go here.