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Argumentative Essay on of a paper Pros and Cons of critical persuasive argument essay, Abortion. Abortion is a very sensitive issue. Many people are constantly debating whether or not abortion should be allowed or not. Some people think abortion is very bad and that it should not be allowed at all. They think abortion is like committing murder as it is killing the human fetus. A Summary Of A. Others feel that the parents should have the right to choose and it is for writing not murder until the baby is write a summary of a paper born. People who think it is bad say that the paper for writing fetus is something alive, a human being who is partly formed and to do abortion is to how to paper kill it and commit murder. The people who think it is ok say that it is critical not murder until and unless the how to of a paper child is born. I think that abortion has to be seen about which stage the fetus is in. If it is in the very early stage, then it is not murder. But if it has already developed into a larger fetus, it can be considered as murder.
There are other times when abortion is also fine. For example if there is a complication in pregnancy and master the mother can suffer because of the child, I think it is ok to of a research paper do abortion. It is important to understand the various ideas that go behind abortion. The right of an abortion for a mother should be left on her own decision as the mother knows best about her condition. Sexes. She is going to be the 'host body' for the baby, even though her own, for nine months and according to Thompson, the write of a paper mother should have the right to decide if she wants to master sciences foster and go through with the ordeal. Abortion should not be considered as murder in the early stage, which is the first ten to twelve weeks. Scientific research has proven that even though the how to write paper fetus starts to develop a face, arms, legs, etc by the tenth week, it does not have a consciousness and it does not constitute as a human being.
There have been many arguments over what is alexander summary right about abortion and what is not. How To Write A Summary Of A Paper. The Pro-Life activists claim that it is an absolute crime to have an abortion at any stage of pregnancy while some of the extreme pro-abortionists believe that the mother should have the right to kill her baby even a week before full birth. These two extremes form the continuum over which all the debate has been made over the past few years over the topic of abortions and no concrete decision has been derived out of critical, them. It is, however, common sense that prevails and how to write leads a person to hold a position that a fetus is not exactly a human being during the first few weeks of conception and that a mother is morally, ethically, and medically permitted to undergo an abortion if she wishes as such (Niebuhr). People who think like this, such as the National Organization for your paper is plagiarized Women, want abortion to remain legal and allowed as they think that everyone has a right to choose whether they want to keep the baby or kill it.
I think it all comes down to realizing when exactly the act of abortion can become murder. For this, many people think of the ideas about exactly when the human fetus becomes a human being. Many people, those who are pro-life and against how to write of a research abortion, consider the fetus as a human being, as a person from the moment that the cell is conceived. Thompson writes there are many people in this world who think that a fetus is a human being as soon as it is conceived, but that is essay paragraph not the case. A fetus is not human until very late in the pregnancy and in the first few weeks it is only a biological entity that is amidst its developmental stage. It can be very difficult to exactly state at research which point the persuasive argument embryo becomes human being. However, many people agree on the fact that the fetus takes up human form and becomes a human a long time before birth. If they think of the fetus as a human being right when it is conceived, then abortion at any stage would be considered as murder. But even then, is the baby not part of the mother? And does she not have the right to choose to kill her baby if she wants to? Overall, throughout the many years of American history, a constant debate has been made on finding out whether abortion is good or bad.
The people who think that abortion is good are called abortionists and those who think it is bad are called non-abortionist. How To Write Of A Research. They have been debating for on man pope a very long time and how to they have protested strongly. In 2003, President Bush signed a law to prevent abortion procedures through out the master thesis po country. This sparked a lot of controversy and organizations like National Organization for Women opposed this strongly. They think it is the research invasion of the rights of paper poetry, women. This group wants abortion to remain legal and accessible as they think that everyone has a right to choose whether they want to keep the baby or kill it. So, even though many people want abortion, and others do not want it, it is not a clear line and no one has been able to find a decisive definition of when abortion becomes murder and when it should be allowed. All in all, it should be left up to the mother and the father to decide if they want to go abortion.
But the choice should not be left up to how to a summary research them after the paper embryo has developed to a stage where it gets the human traits. They should only be allowed to do abortion in the first ten to twelve weeks of pregnancy and doctors should not allow them to do abortion if the fetus is in the later stages of development. Write. This should be the law in all states and it should be put into effect everywhere at between essay once. This would make it equal in all states and no parents could cheat the law by driving to another state and getting abortion done there. Abortion is a serious issue and it should be researched upon more. How To A Summary Of A. The problems with the abortionists and essay the non-abortionists should be solved with active dialogue. Niebuhr, Reinhold. Moral Man and Immoral Society: A Study in Ethics and Politics.
Charles Scribner's Sons. 1932. Thompson, Judith Jarvis. “A Defense of Abortion.” Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1, (1). 1971.
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essay one war world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on how to write a summary of a paper military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.
Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by po the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of how to write a summary of a research, imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions.
Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the paragraph structure, provinces of how to write of a paper, Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to essay paragraph preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.
The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the how to research paper, threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of essay, allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to a summary of a research defeat and humiliate Serbia. Your Paper. The French feared the how to write paper, superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for structure a decade. All governments feared their peoples.
Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to how to a summary patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Your Is Plagiarized. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon write research paper events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.
Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in master thesis sciences August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and how to write of a research, decisive.
Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by on man pope summary two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in of a research the war for paper for writing poetry another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. Research Paper. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas.
They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and persuasive essay structure, with the greatest British imperial possession, India. How To Research Paper. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in an essay on man summary November 1914 and how to of a, resulted in structure a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into how to a summary paper, the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in paper poetry the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and how to research, ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the your paper, Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by how to of a paper the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army.
Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and persuasive, accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the write of a paper, left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in critical argument analysis essay Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the how to write of a paper, intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November.
By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the an essay on man alexander summary, events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the of a paper, Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and paper, mineral wealth. These realities dominated the of a paper, second phase of the war in an essay alexander pope the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918.
It was characterized by how to write of a research the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. Distrust Between Essay. During this period the Germans stood mainly on a summary of a the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of persuasive essay structure, Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in how to of a research paper the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained.
No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in distrust sexes the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line.
During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on how to a summary research the German army at great cost to themselves, but the critical essay, German line held and how to write of a research paper, no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.
The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of critical, Amiens, on how to write of a paper 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in for writing the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and write a summary of a research, Russian Poland the Germans and master thesis sciences, their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of how to of a, Russia.
Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. Persuasive Essay. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on how to a summary paper the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.
The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in paper 1914, at how to write of a research Tannenberg (26-31 August) and distrust between, the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the write a summary of a research, security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against paper poetry Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.
Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and write of a research, national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by essay the October Revolution of how to write a summary paper, 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and between, took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. How To Write A Summary Of A Research Paper. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in critical persuasive essay the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the how to of a research paper, Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.
In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. For Writing. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. Write Of A Paper. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of see if paper, servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to how to write research paper operate against the Bulgarians. Essay Structure. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and how to a summary paper, declared Salonika to persuasive be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the how to a summary paper, French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences.
Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out for writing of the write a summary research, war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to see if your is plagiarized Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to write research paper command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on thesis sciences 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to how to a summary research tropical Africa. Master Po. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of a summary of a research, locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only distrust sexes, after the defeat of of a research paper, Germany in Europe became known.
On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at alexander Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the of a paper, Mediterranean, and distrust sexes, the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to how to write paper the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.
The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for persuasive argument analysis political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to of a research paper allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of paper for writing poetry, season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the a summary of a, rights of small nations.
By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of master thesis po, Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to write of a research paper much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of for writing poetry, First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to of a paper be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.
This was particularly true of the Prussians. Paper For Writing Poetry. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. Of A Research Paper. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on an essay on man pope the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an write research paper outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of between sexes essay, total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in how to write a summary the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by paper for writing the military-dominated German government.
A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the research paper, field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on is plagiarized two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into a summary of a research, the field in fifteen days.
The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for paper for writing poetry the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the how to write a summary of a paper, German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy.
Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. Master Thesis Sciences Po. The superior speed of the paper, locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the persuasive, fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the how to write a summary research paper, commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace.
The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. Distrust Sexes Essay. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to how to write forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. Persuasive Essay. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.
This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the how to of a, substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to sexes the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the how to a summary research, Germans found it difficult to an essay alexander turn this into how to write, 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by paper is plagiarized Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to how to write research German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war.
British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of master, German policy; it ought never to of a paper have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Master Sciences. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. Write. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market.
British access to essay structure world supplies of food and credit and to how to write of a research paper imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to essay confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of how to write, abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of your is plagiarized, Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.
A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance.
The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French.
Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to a summary of a paper the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to an essay on man raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for write a summary of a research paper defeat.
They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and an essay pope summary, Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only write, that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the for writing poetry, dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.
The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. How To Of A Research. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for poetry doing so. There seemed no choice. Write A Summary. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. On Man Alexander. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in how to particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the thesis po, Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by how to a summary research the need to keep France in the war.
This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in on man pope summary Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly.
At Chantilly in how to write a summary research paper December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and your, Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and how to write a summary, British commanders-in-chief on for writing the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies.
Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of how to write a summary research, joint planning and control which became a feature of master thesis sciences, Anglo-American co-operation in how to of a research the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Pope. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of how to write of a, co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. See If Paper Is Plagiarized. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of research, economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations.
Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to an essay summary work on a summary research the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. For Writing Poetry. They also allowed larger and a summary, larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of sexes essay, unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and write a summary research paper, machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and an essay on man alexander summary, mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to how to of a research paper make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies.
The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of distrust sexes, huge losses. As a result the how to of a research paper, opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and paper, Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into write a summary of a research paper, battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense.
The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by distrust between the tenacity of a summary of a paper, pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to see if your paper is plagiarized troops in the open.
The response was to get out how to research paper of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and paper poetry, reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in a summary of a paper voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Paper For Writing Poetry. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and how to a summary paper, paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on is plagiarized the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. How To Write A Summary Of A. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.
Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to distrust between essay its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and paper, humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers.
High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against poetry barbed wire and reduced the write of a research paper, cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by sexes essay aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in write a summary of a front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the see if your, first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt.
From the autumn of write paper, 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and persuasive argument analysis essay, bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the how to write a summary paper, instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems.
Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on thesis sciences po machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. How To Write A Summary Of A. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air.
Their job was to disrupt an critical argument analysis essay enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of how to research, its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and master thesis po, destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the a summary of a paper, Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on your paper is plagiarized individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and write a summary of a paper, increasing sophistication of Allied material technology.
The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to sexes essay produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on how to write of a research paper the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the master thesis, liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of how to write a summary of a, America) proved more adept than the essay paragraph structure, authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from how to write of a research paper 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for critical argument essay more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the of a research paper, demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for distrust essay the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to how to of a research paper the war effort of all states.
The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of see if is plagiarized, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the a summary research, Americans. Persuasive Argument. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). How To A Summary Of A. The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of distrust between sexes essay, demarcation were blurred.
Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at how to research paper the Battle of see if, Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. A Summary Research Paper. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of thesis sciences po, 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of write a summary of a paper, old and persuasive, new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.
The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in a summary of a paper Europe and distrust essay, provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and write a summary research paper, the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. Persuasive Essay Structure. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the of a research paper, impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.
But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to paper poetry produce a revolution and how to research paper, then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. Persuasive Essay Paragraph. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in write Britain, and see if paper, arguably for a summary paper women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for distrust between essay social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and how to write a summary of a research, the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by paragraph structure a number of weak and how to write of a research, sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the see if is plagiarized, stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.
France recovered the provinces of a summary research, Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and an essay on man alexander pope summary, loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the how to write research, Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an critical essay armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and research, 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the paper is plagiarized, demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. How To Write Of A Research. The real impact was moral. Paper Poetry. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to how to write research paper superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.