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Byron Wien: I Spoke To The Smartest Man In Europe, And What He Had To Say Was Terrifying. Blackstone's Byron Wien is up with a new blog post, wherein he relays a conversation he had with someone he only refers to school as The Smartest Man In Europe . Wien doesn't say who The Smartest Man In Europe is, but describes him as basically an incredibly brilliant, wordly, rich businessman. English 100 Final Essay? Many of you remember The Smartest Man from earlier essays; I have been writing about him annually for more than a decade. He has been a friend for thirty years, and during that period he has shown an almost uncanny ability to see major events affecting the financial markets before other observers. Among these were the fall of Japan as an economic power in the 1980s, the write high essays, economic changes in China and their significance the early 1990s, and the serious consequences of excessive borrowing in sheriff the developed world in the last decade.. His DNA endowed him with a certain amount of business acumen. Write High School? His ancestors operated canteens along the Silk Road, selling food, weather protection and supplies to interesting biology research articles travelers to India and China. He apprenticed in finance in New York, but returned to write high school essays Europe to take advantage of essay opportunities created during the post-war recovery there. Along the way he has acquired the ABCs of European wealth an airplane, a Bentley and a house on a Cap in the French Riviera. School? The depth and breadth of his art collection is impressive, but material things are not what gives him a high. He gets his thrills from identifying a problem, thinking it through and being right in determining how it gets resolved.

In his ninth decade, he is an inspiration to free essay download me. So what does TSMIE see now? Basically that massive amounts of debt will bring the decline of Western Civilization, but that in write high essays the meantime, before that happens, policy makers would pull every trick they could in order to stave off a catastrophic event. He started out by saying he had done some preparation for our visit. I think the title of your essay should be Dancing around the Fire of Hell. For years Ive been telling you that the u of t essays, accumulation of debt was going to be the high, ending of the developed world and for years you have been telling me my views are too extreme. The problem is you are an optimist and I am a realist. You go around with a smile on papers of computer science your face thinking that there are serious problems facing us, but that everything will turn out favorably because the policy makers will do what they have to do to avoid disaster, and so far you have been right. The developed economies and their stock markets have plodded along and investors havent made or lost much money in spite of the challenges. At a certain point, however, the temporary measures that the policy makers put in place to high school avoid financial catastrophe prove insufficient and thats where we are now.

Im not saying that it will happen tomorrow but events are falling into research papers of computer science place that will take the smile off your face. School Essays? After getting to the point where fiscal stimulus no long works, the world's central banks will go into overdrive (as is u of t essays, already happening) Before we experience widespread defaults the authorities will pull out every trick in the book to prevent catastrophe. Thats because there is a general belief that the European Union was a good idea. In order to compete against the United States and Asia, the European countries had to hang together. It was as much a geopolitical decision as an economic one.

There needs to be more cooperation among the European leaders. The first step is to create a coordinated banking system to write prevent a run on the banks. Deposit insurance wont do the job. Its too much to latest papers of computer expect the write high school essays, various governments to paper agree to a political union at write school this time, but there could be a banking union to prevent the European banking system from collapsing.. The next step will be for every central bank in the world to keep printing money. Ultimately this will bring on a higher level of inflation, but I think the sheriff, world is ready to accept that.

World leaders will agree that growth should be their objective and write essays inflation will be the price they will have to download pay for it. This may result in some instability among currencies. Before this happens there will have to write high be more suffering. Spain and 100 final Greece will default. Write School? There wont be outright financial disaster because by term sheriff the time the write high, defaults take place the banks will have sold most of the troubled sovereign debt on their balance sheets to the European Central Bank. Frances deficit will get worse as Hollande implements some of the programs he talked about in interesting biology articles his campaign.

Human beings and governments have an unlimited imagination and they will use it to high school essays delay the day of reckoning. In the longer term the crisis may turn out to be a good thing because the pain of what we are about to go through will prevent it from ever happening again. So what am I doing with my money? It is hard to hide in science stocks. Even Danone is reporting disappointing earnings; people are so worried they arent even buying yogurt. The French auto companies are in trouble.

I think gold is going much higher. I am buying energy stocks because I want to own something real. Preserving capital is my focus now, not making money, but I like IBM and Apple. Also some Swiss multi-nationals. Write Essays? If Obama wins in November the market will go down. A Romney victory will create a rally, but once he gets into office he will find there is 100 final essay, not much he can do to make things better.. I left The Smartest Mans office somewhat dazed. My optimism was clearly diminished by what he had to say, but I still believe that somehow disaster has a way of usually not happening. It seems clear that world leaders are going to do everything possible to avert a financial catastrophe and I think they have the resources to accomplish that goal. Write High School Essays? It does seem, however, that the developed world has to u of t essays resign itself to a prolonged period of slow growth.

For what it's worth, the story doesn't sound that different from a lot of the Austrian fairy tales about high school essays, printing and hyperinflation, but still, it's a well-written read. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. Byron Wien: I Spoke To The Smartest Man In Europe, And What He Had To Say Was Terrifying. Debt will lead to term a collapse. Get the write high school essays, best of Business Insider delivered to your inbox every day.

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Luther's 95 Theses, the Ninety-Five Theses Luther 95 Theses. On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther, German theologian and professor at Wittenberg, posted his Ninety-five Theses on the door of the castle church at write high school essays, Wittenberg and english 100 final essay, thereby ignited the Protestant Reformation. Le 31 Octobre 1517, Martin Luther, theologien allemand et professeur a Wittenberg, a affiche son Quatre-vingt quinze theses sur la porte de l'eglise du chateau de Wittenberg et ainsi enflamme la Reforme protestante. Our List of school, 2,300 Religious Subjects. Notre Liste des 2300 sujets Religieux. THE NINETY-FIVE THESES: LES QUATRE-VINGT-CINQ THESES: In the desire and with the interesting biology research articles purpose of elucidating the high school essays truth, a disputation will be held on the underwritten propositions at essay, Wittenberg, under the high essays presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Monk of the interesting Order of St. School Essays? Augustine, Master of paper, Arts and of Sacred Theology, and ordinary Reader of the same in that place. High School Essays? Dans le desir et le but d'elucider la verite, une dispute aura lieu sur les propositions souscrite a Wittenberg, sous la presidence de l'Luther Reverend Pere Martin, moine de l'Ordre de saint Augustin, maitre des arts et de la theologie et lecteur ordinaire de la meme dans cet endroit.

He therefore asks those who cannot be present and discuss the u of t essays subject with us orally, to do so by write high letter in free their absence. School Essays? Il demande donc a ceux qui ne peuvent etre presents et de discuter le sujet avec nous par voie orale, pour le faire par lettre en leur absence. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Au nom de notre Seigneur Jesus Christ. Amen. English 100 Final? Amen. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, in saying Repent ye, etc., intended that the whole life of believers should be penitence. Write? Notre Seigneur et Maitre Jesus-Christ, en disant: Repentez-vous, etc, a voulu que toute la vie des croyants doit etre la penitence.

This word cannot be understood of sacramental penance, that is, of the confession and satisfaction which are performed under the biology research ministry of priests. Ce mot ne peut etre compris de la penitence sacramentelle, qui est, de la confession et la satisfaction qui sont effectuees sous le ministere des pretres. It does not, however, refer solely to write essays inward penitence; nay such inward penitence is naught, unless it outwardly produces various mortifications of the flesh. English Essay? Il n'a pas, cependant, se referer exclusivement a la penitence interieure; nay penitence interieure est telle rien, sauf si elle produit exterieurement mortifications diverses de la chair. The penalty thus continues as long as the hatred of self--that is, true inward penitence--continues: namely, till our entrance into high the kingdom of heaven. La sanction se poursuit ainsi tant que la haine de soi - qui est, vraie penitence interieure - continue: a savoir, jusqu'a notre entree dans le royaume des cieux. The Pope has neither the will nor the power to latest papers of computer science remit any penalties, except those which he has imposed by his own authority, or by that of the canons.

Le pape n'a ni la volonte ni le pouvoir de remettre des penalites, sauf ceux dont il a impose par sa propre autorite, ou par celle des chanoines. The Pope has no power to remit any guilt, except by declaring and warranting it to have been remitted by God; or at most by remitting cases reserved for himself; in which cases, if his power were despised, guilt would certainly remain. Le pape n'a pas le pouvoir de remettre toute culpabilite, sauf en declarant et en justifiant qu'il ait ete remis par Dieu, ou au plus par des cas remettre reserve a lui-meme; dans lequel cas, si son pouvoir etait meprise, la culpabilite serait certainement rester. God never remits any man's guilt, without at the same time subjecting him, humbled in all things, to write high school the authority of essay download, his representative the priest. Dieu n'a jamais remet la culpabilite de n'importe quel homme, sans en meme temps, en le soumettant, humilie en toutes choses, a l'autorite de son representant le pretre. Write School? The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and no burden ought to be imposed on the dying, according to them. Term Paper Sheriff? Les canons penitentiels ne sont imposees que sur le vivant, et pas de charge devraient etre imposees a la mort, selon eux. Hence the Holy Spirit acting in the Pope does well for us, in write high school that, in use quotation his decrees, he always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity.

Ainsi l'Esprit Saint agissant dans le Pape fait bien pour nous, en ce que, dans ses decrets, il fait toujours exception de l'article de la mort et de la necessite. Those priests act wrongly and write high school, unlearnedly, who, in the case of the research articles dying, reserve the canonical penances for school essays, purgatory. U Of T Essays? Ces pretres agissent a tort et unlearnedly, qui, dans le cas des mourants, se reservent le penitences canoniques pour le purgatoire. Those tares about changing of the school canonical penalty into the penalty of 100 final essay, purgatory seem surely to have been sown while the bishops were asleep. Ceux ivraie sur le changement de la peine canonique en la peine du purgatoire semble certainement avoir ete seme tandis que les eveques dormaient. Formerly the school essays canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of interesting biology, true contrition. Write School? Jadis les peines canoniques etaient imposees non apres, mais avant l'absolution, comme des tests de veritable contrition.

The dying pay all penalties by death, and in essay, are already dead to the canon laws, and are by right relieved from them. Les mourants payer toutes les peines de mort, et qui sont deja morts aux lois canoniques, et sont soulages par le droit de leur part. Essays? The imperfect soundness or charity of a dying person necessarily brings with it great fear; and the less it is, the term paper greater the fear it brings. La solidite imparfaite ou de la charite d'une personne mourante amene necessairement avec elle une grande crainte, et moins il est eleve, plus la peur qu'elle apporte. This fear and horror is sufficient by itself, to say nothing of other things, to constitute the pains of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair. Cette crainte et l'horreur est suffisante par elle-meme, pour ne rien dire d'autres choses, de constituer des peines du purgatoire, car il est tres proche de l'horreur du desespoir.

Hell, purgatory, and write high school essays, heaven appear to free download differ as despair, almost despair, and high school essays, peace of mind differ. L'enfer, le purgatoire et le ciel semblent differer que le desespoir, presque de desespoir, et la paix d'esprit different. With souls in purgatory it seems that it must needs be that, as horror diminishes, so charity increases. Papers Science? Avec les ames du purgatoire, il semble que ce doit etre l'augmentation de charite qui, comme l'horreur diminue, donc. Nor does it seem to be proved by any reasoning or any scriptures, that they are outside of the write school essays state of interesting biology research, merit or of the increase of charity. Il ne semble pas etre prouve par tout raisonnement ou toute Ecritures, qu'ils sont en dehors de l'etat de merite ou de l'augmentation de la charite. Nor does this appear to write be proved, that they are sure and confident of their own blessedness, at least all of them, though we may be very sure of english 100 final, it. N'est pas non plus present semblent etre prouve, qu'ils sont surs et confiants de leur beatitude propres, au moins chacun d'eux, si nous pouvons etre tres sur de lui. Therefore the write school Pope, when he speaks of the plenary remission of term sheriff, all penalties, does not mean simply of all, but only essays, of those imposed by himself.

Par consequent, le pape, quand il parle de la remission pleniere de toutes les penalites, ne signifie pas simplement de tous, mais seulement de celles imposees par lui-meme. In Essay? Thus those preachers of write essays, indulgences are in u of t essays error who say that, by essays the indulgences of the Pope, a man is loosed and saved from all punishment. Ainsi, ces predicateurs d'indulgences sont dans l'erreur qui disent que, par les indulgences du pape, un homme est delie et sauve de tous les chatiments. For in fact he remits to biology research souls in purgatory no penalty which they would have had to pay in this life according to the canons. Write High Essays? Car en fait, il remet aux ames du purgatoire aucune penalite dont ils auraient eu a payer dans cette vie selon les canons. If any entire remission of all penalties can be granted to any one, it is certain that it is granted to none but the research science most perfect--that is, to very few.

Si toute remise entiere de toutes les penalites peuvent etre accordees a l'un, il est certain que ce n'est accordee a aucun, mais la plus parfaite - qui est, a tres peu. Write Essays? Hence the free essay greater part of the people must needs be deceived by write high school this indiscriminate and essay download, high-sounding promise of release from penalties. D'ou la plus grande partie de la population doit etre trompes par les besoins de cette aveugle et ronflants promesse de liberation de penalites. High School Essays? Such power as the paper Pope has over purgatory in high general, such has every bishop in his own diocese, and latest research of computer science, every curate in his own parish, in particular. Une telle puissance que le Pape a plus de purgatoire, en general, comme a chaque eveque dans son diocese, et chaque cure dans sa paroisse, en particulier. The Pope acts most rightly in granting remission to high school essays souls, not by the power of the use quotation keys (which is of no avail in this case), but by high essays the way of essay, suffrage. Le pape actes les plus justement dans l'octroi de remises aux ames, et non par le pouvoir des clefs (qui n'est d'aucune utilite dans ce cas), mais par le mode de suffrage.

They preach mad, who say that the essays soul flies out of purgatory as soon as the money thrown into the chest rattles. Ils prechent la folle, qui disent que l'ame s'envole du purgatoire des que l'argent jete dans les hochets poitrine. Research Of Computer Science? It is certain that, when the high school essays money rattles in the chest, avarice and gain may be increased, but the suffrage of the use quotation Church depends on high, the will of God alone. Il est certain que, lorsque l'argent des hochets dans la poitrine, l'avarice et le gain peut etre augmente, mais le suffrage de l'Eglise depend de la volonte de Dieu seul. Who knows whether all the souls in term paper purgatory desire to write school be redeemed from it, according to free essay download the story told of Saints Severinus and write, Paschal? Qui sait si toutes les ames du purgatoire dans le desir d'etre rachete par elle, selon l'histoire racontee des saints Severin et pascal? No man is in essay sure of the write high school reality of free download, his own contrition, much less of the write high attainment of plenary remission.

Aucun homme n'est sur de la realite de sa contrition, et encore moins de la realisation d'une remission pleniere. Rare as is a true penitent, so rare is papers science one who truly buys indulgences--that is to say, most rare. Rare est aussi un vrai penitent, si rare est celui qui achete vraiment des indulgences - c'est-a-dire, les plus rares. High? Those who believe that, through letters of u of t essays, pardon, they are made sure of their own salvation, will be eternally damned along with their teachers. Ceux qui croient que, grace a des lettres de pardon, ils sont assures de leur propre salut, seront eternellement damnes avec leurs enseignants. We must especially beware of those who say that these pardons from the Pope are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to God. Write High Essays? Il faut surtout se mefier de ceux qui disent que ces graces du Pape sont le don inestimable de Dieu par lequel l'homme est reconcilie avec Dieu.

For the grace conveyed by these pardons has respect only to the penalties of free essay download, sacramental satisfaction, which are of school essays, human appointment. Term? Car la grace vehiculee par ces graces a beaucoup de respect que pour les peines de la satisfaction sacramentelle, qui sont des rendez-humain. School? They preach no Christian doctrine, who teach that contrition is essay not necessary for those who buy souls out of purgatory or buy confessional licences. Ils prechent pas la doctrine chretienne, qui enseignent que la contrition n'est pas necessaire pour ceux qui achetent des ames du purgatoire ou acheter des licences confessionnelles. High School? Every Christian who feels true compunction has of right plenary remission of pain and guilt, even without letters of pardon. U Of T Essays? Tout chretien qui se sent scrupules vrai a de remission pleniere droite de la douleur et la culpabilite, meme sans lettres de pardon.

Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has a share in write essays all the biology research benefits of Christ and of the essays Church given him by God, even without letters of pardon. Tout vrai chretien, vivant ou mort, a une part de tous les avantages du Christ et de l'Eglise lui a donne par Dieu, meme sans lettres de pardon. The remission, however, imparted by the Pope is by no means to free essay be despised, since it is, as I have said, a declaration of the write high school essays Divine remission. La remission, cependant, communiquee par le pape n'est pas a dedaigner, car il est, comme je l'ai dit, une declaration de la remission divine. It is latest research papers of computer science a most difficult thing, even for write high school, the most learned theologians, to exalt at the same time in the eyes of the people the term sheriff ample effect of pardons and school essays, the necessity of true contrition. Il est une chose tres difficile, meme pour les plus doctes theologiens, d'exalter en meme temps, aux yeux du peuple l'effet amplement de pardon et de la necessite d'une veritable contrition. U Of T Essays? True contrition seeks and high school essays, loves punishment; while the free essay ampleness of pardons relaxes it, and causes men to hate it, or at least gives occasion for write school, them to do so. Veritable contrition recherche et aime la punition, tandis que l'ampleur des graces il se detend, et amene les hommes a detester, ou du moins donne l'occasion pour eux de le faire. In Essay? Apostolical pardons ought to be proclaimed with caution, lest the people should falsely suppose that they are placed before other good works of high essays, charity. Graces apostoliques devrait etre proclamee avec prudence, de peur que les gens devraient faussement supposer qu'ils sont places avant les autres bonnes ?uvres de charite. 100 Final Essay? Christians should be taught that it is not the high essays mind of the Pope that the u of t essays buying of write high school essays, pardons is to be in any way compared to works of mercy.

Les chretiens doivent etre enseigne que ce n'est pas l'esprit du Pape que l'achat des indulgences est d'etre en aucune facon par rapport aux ?uvres de misericorde. Christians should be taught that he who gives to a poor man, or lends to a needy man, does better than if he bought pardons. Les chretiens doivent etre enseigne que celui qui donne a un pauvre homme, ou prete a un homme necessiteux, fait mieux que s'il achetait pardons. Because, by a work of 100 final essay, charity, charity increases and write high, the man becomes better; while, by means of u of t essays, pardons, he does not become better, but only freer from punishment. High School Essays? Parce que, par une ?uvre de charite, la charite augmente et l'homme devient meilleur, tandis que, par le biais de pardon, il ne devient pas meilleur, mais seulement plus libre de toute sanction. Christians should be taught that he who sees any one in need, and interesting biology, passing him by, gives money for write high essays, pardons, is interesting biology research not purchasing for himself the write school essays indulgences of the Pope, but the anger of latest science, God. Les chretiens doivent etre enseigne que celui qui voit quelqu'un dans le besoin, et lui en passant par, donne de l'argent pour les pardons, l'achat n'est pas pour lui-meme les indulgences du Pape, mais la colere de Dieu. Write School Essays? Christians should be taught that, unless they have superfluous wealth, they are bound to research of computer keep what is necessary for school essays, the use of their own households, and by no means to interesting research lavish it on pardons. Les chretiens doivent etre enseignees que, sauf s'ils ont des richesses superflues, ils sont tenus de garder ce qui est necessaire pour l'utilisation de leurs propres foyers, et par aucun moyen de prodiguer des pardons.

Christians should be taught that, while they are free to buy pardons, they are not commanded to do so. Les chretiens doivent etre enseignees que, si elles sont libres d'acheter les pardons, ils ne sont pas ordonne de le faire. Christians should be taught that the Pope, in granting pardons, has both more need and more desire that devout prayer should be made for him, than that money should be readily paid. Les chretiens doivent etre enseignes que le pape, dans l'octroi de pardons, a la fois plus necessaire et plus le desir que la priere pieuse doit etre fait pour lui, que cet argent devrait etre payee volontiers. Christians should be taught that the write Pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but most hurtful, if through them they lose the sheriff fear of write school, God. Les chretiens doivent etre enseignes que les indulgences du Pape sont utiles, si elles n'ont pas mis leur confiance en eux, mais le plus nuisible, si a travers eux, ils perdent la crainte de Dieu. Christians should be taught that, if the term paper sheriff Pope were acquainted with the exactions of the preachers of pardons, he would prefer that the high school essays Basilica of u of t essays, St. Write High School Essays? Peter should be burnt to ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep.

Les chretiens doivent etre enseigne que, si le pape etait au courant des exactions des predicateurs des indulgences, il prefererait que la Basilique de Saint-Pierre devrait etre reduite en cendres, que celui qu'il devrait etre construit avec la peau, chair et os de ses brebis. Christians should be taught that, as it would be the duty, so it would be the wish of the Pope, even to sell, if necessary, the Basilica of St. Peter, and to give of his own money to u of t essays very many of high essays, those from whom the preachers of pardons extract money. Interesting Research? Les chretiens doivent etre enseignees que, comme ce serait le devoir, de sorte qu'il serait le souhait du pape, meme a vendre, si necessaire, la basilique Saint-Pierre, et de donner de son propre argent pour de tres nombreux de ceux de dont les predicateurs de graces soutirer de l'argent. School Essays? Vain is the hope of salvation through letters of pardon, even if a commissary--nay, the Pope himself--were to latest research papers of computer pledge his own soul for them. Vain est l'espoir du salut a travers des lettres de pardon, meme si un commissaire - non, le Pape lui-meme - etaient de mettre en gage sa propre ame pour eux. They are enemies of Christ and school essays, of the Pope who, in order that pardons may be preached, condemn the word of God to utter silence in other churches. Ils sont les ennemis du Christ et du Pape qui, dans l'ordre que les graces peuvent etre preche, condamnent la parole de Dieu a prononcer le silence dans les autres eglises. Wrong is research science done to high school the word of God when, in the same sermon, an u of t essays, equal or longer time is spent on pardons than on high school, it. U Of T Essays? Mauvaise se fait a la parole de Dieu quand, dans le meme sermon, un temps egal ou plus est passe sur les rehabilitations que sur elle.

The mind of the Pope necessarily is, that if pardons, which are a very small matter, are celebrated with single bells, single processions, and single ceremonies, the write high school Gospel, which is a very great matter, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, and a hundred ceremonies. L'esprit du pape est necessairement, que si les pardons, qui sont une question tres petites, sont celebrees avec des cloches unique, processions unique, et des ceremonies simples, l'Evangile, qui est une question tres grand, doit etre preche avec cent cloches, une centaine de corteges, et une centaine de ceremonies. U Of T Essays? The treasures of the write Church, whence the sheriff Pope grants indulgences, are neither sufficiently named nor known among the people of Christ. Les tresors de l'Eglise, d'ou le pape accorde des indulgences, ne sont ni suffisamment mentionne ni connu parmi le peuple du Christ. High School Essays? It is latest research papers of computer science clear that they are at least not temporal treasures, for these are not so readily lavished, but only essays, accumulated, by u of t essays many of the preachers. Il est clair qu'ils ne sont pas moins des tresors temporels, pour ces ne sont pas si facilement prodigues, mais seulement accumule par de nombreux predicateurs. Nor are they the merits of Christ and of the write high saints, for biology articles, these, independently of the Pope, are always working grace to the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell to the outer man. Ils ne sont pas les merites du Christ et des saints, pour ces derniers, independamment du Pape, travaillez toujours grace a l'homme interieur, et la croix, la mort et l'enfer pour l'homme exterieur.

St. Write Essays? Lawrence said that the research treasures of the write essays Church are the poor of the Church, but he spoke according to the use of the word in his time. Saint-Laurent dit que les tresors de l'Eglise sont les pauvres de l'Eglise, mais il parlait en fonction de l'utilisation du mot en son temps. U Of T Essays? We are not speaking rashly when we say that the write essays keys of the of computer Church, bestowed through the merits of Christ, are that treasure. Essays? Nous ne parlons pas inconsiderement lorsque nous disons que les clefs de l'Eglise, decerne par les merites du Christ, sont ce tresor. For it is clear that the research papers of computer science power of the Pope is essays alone sufficient for the remission of penalties and of reserved cases. Car il est clair que le pouvoir du pape est seul suffit pour la remission des peines et des cas reserves. Download? The true treasure of the Church is the write school essays Holy Gospel of the glory and grace of God. Sheriff? Le vrai tresor de l'Eglise est le saint Evangile de la gloire et la grace de Dieu. High School Essays? This treasure, however, is deservedly most hateful, because it makes the first to be last. Ce tresor, cependant, est justement la plus detestable, parce qu'elle rend le premier a etre le dernier.

While the treasure of indulgences is deservedly most acceptable, because it makes the last to 100 final essay be first. Write School Essays? Alors que le tresor des indulgences est justement la plus acceptable, car il rend le dernier a etre le premier. Sheriff? Hence the write school treasures of the gospel are nets, wherewith of old they fished for the men of riches. Ainsi les tresors de l'Evangile sont des filets, avec quoi ils ont peche des anciens pour les hommes de richesses. The treasures of indulgences are nets, wherewith they now fish for free essay download, the riches of write essays, men. Les tresors des indulgences sont des filets, avec lesquels ils pechent maintenant pour la richesse des hommes. Those indulgences, which the science preachers loudly proclaim to be the school essays greatest graces, are seen to be truly such as regards the promotion of gain.

Ceux des indulgences, dont les predicateurs proclament haut et fort pour etre plus grandes graces, sont consideres pour etre vraiment telle que ce qui concerne la promotion de la gagner. Yet they are in reality in essay no degree to be compared to the grace of write school essays, God and the piety of the cross. Pourtant, ils sont en realite en rien etre comparee a la grace de Dieu et la piete de la croix. Biology Research Articles? Bishops and write, curates are bound to term receive the commissaries of apostolical pardons with all reverence. Les eveques et les cures sont tenus de recevoir les commissaires des graces apostoliques avec respect. But they are still more bound to see to it with all their eyes, and take heed with all their ears, that these men do not preach their own dreams in high place of the Pope's commission. Mais ils sont encore plus tenus de voir a lui avec toutes leurs yeux, et prenez garde de toutes leurs oreilles, que ces hommes ne prechent pas leurs reves a la place de la commission du pape. He who speaks against essay, the truth of apostolical pardons, let him be anathema and accursed.

Celui qui parle contre la verite de graces apostoliques, qu'il soit anatheme et maudit. But he, on the other hand, who exerts himself against the wantonness and licence of write essays, speech of the preachers of u of t essays, pardons, let him be blessed. Write School? Mais lui, d'autre part, qui lui-meme exerce contre l'impudicite et une licence de la parole des predicateurs de graces, qu'il soit beni. In Essay? As the Pope justly thunders against write school essays, those who use any kind of contrivance to the injury of the interesting research articles traffic in pardons. Comme le Pape tonnerres juste contre ceux qui utilisent toute sorte de ruse a la blessure de la circulation dans pardons. Write High Essays? Much more is latest research papers of computer science it his intention to thunder against those who, under the pretext of pardons, use contrivances to the injury of holy charity and of truth. Write Essays? Beaucoup plus est-il l'intention de tonner contre ceux qui, sous le pretexte de la grace, l'utilisation des artifices a la blessure de la sainte charite et de verite. Use Quotation? To think that Papal pardons have such power that they could absolve a man even if--by an impossibility--he had violated the Mother of God, is madness. Write School? Pour penser que les graces du Pape ont une telle puissance qu'ils ne pouvaient absoudre un homme, meme si - par une impossibilite - qu'il avait viole la Mere de Dieu, c'est de la folie. We affirm, on english essay, the contrary, that Papal pardons cannot take away even the least of venal sins, as regards its guilt.

Nous affirmons, au contraire, que les graces du Pape ne peut pas enlever, meme le moindre des peches venal, en ce qui concerne sa culpabilite. The saying that, even if St. Peter were now Pope, he could grant no greater graces, is write school blasphemy against english 100 final, St. Peter and the Pope. Le dicton selon lequel, meme si Saint-Pierre etaient maintenant Pape, il ne pourrait accorder une plus grande graces, est un blaspheme contre le Saint-Pierre et le pape. High? We affirm, on u of t essays, the contrary: that both he and any other Pope have greater graces to write high school essays grant--namely, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc. Latest Research Papers Of Computer? (I Cor. xii.

9.) Nous affirmons, au contraire: que lui et tout autre pape ont plus de graces a accorder - a savoir, l'Evangile, des pouvoirs, des dons de guerison, etc (I Cor XII 9. ) To say that the high school cross set up among the insignia of the Papal arms is of equal power with the essay cross of Christ, is blasphemy. High School? Dire que la croix mis en place entre les insignes des armoiries du Pape est d'une puissance egale a la croix du Christ, est un blaspheme. Those bishops, curates, and use quotation in essay, theologians who allow such discourses to have currency among the write essays people, will have to render an account. Ces eveques, cures et theologiens qui permettent de tels discours pour avoir la monnaie au sein du peuple, aura a en rendre compte. Use Quotation In Essay? This licence in write school essays the preaching of research, pardons makes it no easy thing, even for write high school essays, learned men, to interesting biology protect the reverence due to high school essays the Pope against the calumnies, or, at all events, the keen questionings of the laity. Cette licence dans la predication du pardon rend pas chose facile, meme pour les hommes a appris, pour proteger la reverence due au Pape contre les calomnies, ou, en tout cas, les questionnements vif du laicat. As for instance:--Why does not the in essay Pope empty purgatory for the sake of most holy charity and of the supreme necessity of souls--this being the most just of all reasons--if he redeems an infinite number of souls for write school, the sake of that most fatal thing, money, to papers science be spent on building a basilica--this being a very slight reason? Comme par exemple: - Pourquoi ne pas le pape purgatoire vide pour le bien de la charite la plus sainte et de la necessite supreme des ames - ce qui est le plus juste de toutes les raisons - si il rachete un nombre infini d'ames pour l'amour de cette chose plus funeste, l'argent, pour etre consacre a la construction d'une basilique - ce qui est une raison tres legere? Again: why do funeral masses and anniversary masses for the deceased continue, and why does not the Pope return, or permit the withdrawal of the high funds bequeathed for this purpose, since it is in essay a wrong to write high essays pray for those who are already redeemed? Encore une fois: pourquoi ne messes funeraires et messes anniversaires pour les defunts continuent, et pourquoi ne pas le retour Pape, ou de permettre le retrait des fonds legues a cet effet, puisque c'est un tort de prier pour ceux qui sont deja rachetes?

Again: what is this new kindness of interesting biology research articles, God and the Pope, in that, for money's sake, they permit an impious man and an enemy of God to redeem a pious soul which loves God, and yet do not redeem that same pious and beloved soul, out of school essays, free charity, on account of its own need? Encore une fois: quelle est cette bonte nouvelle de Dieu et du pape, en ce que, pour l'argent, ils permettent un homme impie et un ennemi de Dieu pour racheter une ame pieuse qui aime Dieu, et pourtant ne pas racheter cette ame meme pieuse et aimee , par charite libre, sur le compte de ses propres besoins? Again: why is it that the penitential canons, long since abrogated and dead in paper sheriff themselves in write essays very fact and not only by usage, are yet still redeemed with money, through the biology research granting of indulgences, as if they were full of high essays, life? Encore une fois: pourquoi est-il que les canons penitentiels, depuis longtemps abrogee et morte en eux-memes en fait tres, et pas seulement par l'usage, mais encore sont rachetes avec de l'argent, grace a l'octroi des indulgences, comme s'ils etaient pleins de vie? Again: why does not the of computer science Pope, whose riches are at this day more ample than those of the essays wealthiest of the wealthy, build the one Basilica of sheriff, St.

Peter with his own money, rather than with that of write school essays, poor believers? Encore une fois: pourquoi ne pas le pape, dont les richesses sont a ce jour plus amples que ceux des plus riches des riches, la construction de la basilique Saint-Pierre un de ses propres deniers, plutot qu'avec celle des croyants pauvres? Again: what does the u of t essays Pope remit or impart to those who, through perfect contrition, have a right to plenary remission and participation? Encore une fois: qu'est-ce que le mandat pape ou donner a ceux qui, par la contrition parfaite, ont droit a une remission pleniere et la participation? Again: what greater good would the Church receive if the high school essays Pope, instead of once, as he does now, were to u of t essays bestow these remissions and participations a hundred times a day on any one of the faithful ? Encore une fois: quel plus grand bien de l'Eglise serait de recevoir, si le pape, au lieu d'une fois, comme il le fait maintenant, ont ete d'accorder ces remises et des participations d'une centaine de fois par jour sur l'un des fideles? Since it is the salvation of souls, rather than money, that the high school Pope seeks by latest research of computer science his pardons, why does he suspend the letters and essays, pardons granted long ago, since they are equally efficacious? Comme il est le salut des ames, plutot que de l'argent, que le pape cherche par ses pardons, pourquoi at-il suspendre les lettres et les graces accordees il ya bien longtemps, car ils sont tout aussi efficaces? To repress these scruples and in essay, arguments of the high school essays laity by use quotation force alone, and not to solve them by write high school giving reasons, is to term paper expose the Church and write high, the Pope to the ridicule of u of t essays, their enemies, and to make Christian men unhappy. School? Pour reprimer ces scrupules et les arguments des laics par la seule force, et non de les resoudre en donnant des raisons, c'est exposer l'Eglise et le Pape a la risee de leurs ennemis, et de rendre les hommes chretiens malheureux.

If, then, pardons were preached according to interesting biology the spirit and mind of the Pope, all these questions would be resolved with ease--nay, would not exist. Si, donc, les pardons ont ete prechees selon l'esprit et l'esprit du pape, toutes ces questions seraient resolues avec facilite - non, n'existerait pas. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to school the people of Christ, Peace, peace, and there is no peace! Loin, donc, avec tous les prophetes qui disent au peuple de Christ: Paix, paix, et il n'ya pas de paix! Blessed be all those prophets who say to science the people of Christ, The cross, the cross, and there is write essays no cross! Beni soit l'ensemble, ces prophetes qui disent au peuple de Christ: La croix, la croix, et il n'ya pas de croix! Christians should be exhorted to strive to follow Christ their Head through pains, deaths, and hells. Latest Of Computer? Les chretiens devraient etre exhortes a s'efforcer de suivre le Christ leur chef par des douleurs, des deces, et des enfers. And thus trust to high school enter heaven through many tribulations, rather than in the security of peace. In Essay? Et c'est ainsi que la confiance d'entrer au ciel par beaucoup de tribulations, plutot que dans la securite de la paix.

Luther's 95 Theses Luther 95 theses. The Ninety-five Theses were a series of propositions dealing with indulgences which Martin Luther drew up as the basis for a proposed academic disputation. Les theses Quatre-vingt-cinq ont ete une serie de propositions portant sur les indulgences que Martin Luther a redige en tant que base pour une discussion proposee academique. Write High School? They were written in reaction to abuses in the sale of use quotation, a plenary indulgence by Johann Tetzel, who gave the impression that it would not only remit the write school essays guilt and term, penalties of school, even the most serious sins, but that its benefits could be applied to the dead in purgatory. Free? Ils ont ete ecrits en reaction a des abus dans la vente d'une indulgence pleniere par Johann Tetzel, qui a donne l'impression qu'il ne serait pas seulement remettre la culpabilite et des peines de meme les peches les plus graves, mais que ses avantages pourraient etre appliquees aux morts dans purgatoire.

Luther challenged this teaching because it led people to believe that forgiveness could be bought and to write school essays neglect true repentance. Luther a conteste cet enseignement, car elle conduit les gens a croire que le pardon peut etre achete et a negliger la vraie repentance. The theses began by arguing that true repentance involves a turning of the entire self to God and term paper, not simply the desire to write high evade punishment. Les theses ont commence en affirmant que la vraie repentance implique un tournant de l'auto entiere a Dieu et non pas simplement le desir d'echapper a la punition. Luther also maintained that only God could remit guilt and that indulgences could only of computer science, excuse the write high school penalties imposed by use quotation in essay the church.

Luther a egalement soutenu que seul Dieu pouvait la culpabilite mandat et que les indulgences ne peuvent excuser les sanctions imposees par l'eglise. In addition, he denied the pope's power over purgatory, stated that the believer always has true forgiveness without indulgences, and condemned the interest shown in money rather than souls. En outre, il a nie le pouvoir du pape sur le purgatoire, a declare que le croyant a toujours le vrai pardon sans indulgences, et a condamne l'interet porte a l'argent plutot que d'ames. Write? Although written in Latin and not intended for public distribution, the use quotation in essay theses were translated into write high essays German and soon spread throughout Germany. Interesting Research? Bien que redige en latin et non destinees a la distribution publique, les theses ont ete traduites en allemand et se repandit bientot dans toute l'Allemagne.

Even though they do not reveal the full development of Luther's theology, October 31, 1517, the write high school essays day they were supposedly posted on the Wittenberg Castle Church door, has traditionally been considered the u of t essays starting point of the Reformation. High? Meme si elles ne revelent pas le plein developpement de la theologie de Luther, 31 Octobre 1517, le jour ou ils auraient ete affichees sur la porte de Wittenberg eglise du chateau, a ete traditionnellement considere comme le point de depart de la Reforme. Essay? Recent scholarship has questioned both the write high dating of the in essay theses and whether they were actually posted. Write Essays? Une etude recente a remis en question a la fois la datation des theses et si elles ont effectivement ete poste. Although the debate has not been resolved, most scholars still accept the traditional interpretation. U Of T Essays? Bien que le debat n'a pas ete resolu, la plupart des savants acceptent encore l'interpretation traditionnelle. K. Aland, ed., Martin Luther's 95 Theses; H. Grimm, ed., Luther's Works, XXXI; E. Iserloh, The Theses Were Not Posted; F. Lau, The Posting of Luther's Theses, Legend or Fact? K. Essays? Aland, ed, de Martin Luther 95 theses;. H. English 100 Final? Grimm, Ed, Travaux de Luther, XXXI;.

E. Iserloh, les theses n'ont pas ete affiches; F. High School? Lau, le detachement des theses de Luther, Legende ou realite? CTM 38:691-703. Biology Research? CTM 38:691-703. This subject presentation in high the original English language Ce sujet expose dans l'original en langue anglaise. Send an sheriff, e-mail question or comment to school us: Envoyer un e-mail question ou un commentaire a nous: E-mail E-mail.

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17 for #039;17: Top players who stayed in college in school essays, 2017. College Football 24/7's 17 for use quotation in essay '17 series continues with a look at the 17 best college football players who bypassed a chance to write high, apply for early entry into biology research articles the 2017 NFL Draft, a group that makes up a strong core of the game's seniors and school essays fourth-year juniors returning this fall. Among last year's top returners, every one of them was selected in the 2017 NFL Draft, including three first-round picks (Jonathan Allen, Tre'Davious White, O.J. Howard). 17 Photos Total. Ric Tapia/Associated Press. Blanding has been a tackling machine at u of t essays, UVA since becoming a starter as a true freshman, and he's within striking distance of Jamie Sharper's school record for career tackles (435; Blanding has 358). As for his draft status, however, it's Blanding's coverage ability that will draw scouts' attention this fall. Safeties who can clean up against the run aren't hard to essays, find; those who can lock down tight ends and use quotation slot receivers are in much shorter supply. analyst Bucky Brooks liked what he saw from Blanding last year. Rogelio V. Write Essays! Solis/Associated Press.

Vanderbilt doesn't often lose underclassmen to the draft, but it happened in term paper, January when LB Zach Cunningham made the jump, and he nearly had company. Webb, who already has broken Zac Stacy's school record for career and single-season rushing yards, announced his decision immediately after VU's Independence Bowl loss to N.C. State. Webb ran for 1,283 yards last year and write essays his 3,345-yard career total already ranks 21st in SEC history. Chris Pietsch/Associated Press. Nagging injuries slowed Freeman considerably last year, and he just didn't look quite like the back who slashed through opponents for 1,836 yards in interesting biology research articles, 2015.

After his off-year, coming back to school was a logical decision that gives him a chance to write school essays, play like he did in 2015 as a lasting impression for use quotation scouts. Although in write school, announcing his return, Freeman instead cited as his reason to return a desire to finish his education and play for new Ducks coach Willie Taggart. Charlie Neibergall/Associated Press. Jewell's decision to return will not only give the Hawkeyes another year with the latest research science, anchor of their defense, but will allow Jewell to graduate in the fall as well. His feedback from the NFL College Advisory Committee suggested he remain in school, school, and the senior took heed. He led Iowa with 124 tackles last season and in pass breakups (9). English 100 Final! He was also a Butkus Award finalist and would be Iowa's first Butkus winner if he takes home the honor in 2017. Michael Conroy/Associated Press.

Notre Dame's promising left tackle offered some refreshing honesty about high essays his decision to return to college: He simply didn't believe he was ready for the pros. One part of interesting biology research, his game he'll look to improve is in the area of write high essays, false starts; he committed nine of them last year. But a premature jump to english 100 final, the NFL is one false start that can't be corrected. Andy Manis/Associated Press. Just as center Pat Elflein decided to stay with the write high school essays, Buckeyes the year before, Price made the english 100 final, same decision for 2017 and write high cited Elflein's decision as a model for his own. But he certainly had the kind of resume that would make a jump to the NFL tempting. Price was a first-team All-Big Ten pick, an AFCA first-team All-American and biology articles a team captain with 41 consecutive starts. David Zalubowski/Associated Press. Lotulelei's return was big news for the Utes' run defense. Write High Essays! He's a 310-pound interior anchor who is tough to move at the point of attack and can penetrate for big plays as well. But 2016 wasn't the way to interesting research, go out, as he was hampered by injury.

Coming back gives him a chance to show scouts peak performance in write high school essays, his exit year. Orlin Wagner/Associated Press. 10. James Washington, WR, Oklahoma State. Oklahoma State got one of the nation's elite receivers back when Washington decided to stick around. He's built more like a running back than a receiver at 6-foot and 205 pounds, but he plays taller than that when competing for jump balls downfield. Last year, he caught 71 passes for 1,380 yards and 10 TDs.

Rogelio V. Solis/Associated Press. Nobody could blame Chubb if he had come out for the draft after the year he had as a junior in 2016. He notched 22 tackles for loss (fourth in the FBS) and 10.5 sacks, earning the Wolfpack's Defensive MVP honor. Citing a desire to be selected first-team All-ACC, along with achieving team goals, the younger brother of Detroit Lions LB Brandon Chubb decided one more year of college was in order. Elaine Thompson/Associated Press. To whatever extent the early draft entries of Sidney Jones, Budda Baker and Elijah Qualls stung the 100 final, Huskies defense, Vea's decision to stay helped stop the bleeding. Write High Essays! He made 39 tackles and five sacks last year, impressive production for a 350-pound interior lineman, and will draw plenty of u of t essays, scouting attention this fall as one of the Pac-12's top defenders. Former UW defensive line coach Jeff Choate reportedly saw Vea as more talented than Cleveland Browns 2015 first-round pick Danny Shelton, who also played at Washington. Ryan Kang/Associated Press. Less than a week before the deadline for underclassmen to write essays, declare for english 100 final the draft, Falk sent music to the ears of high school essays, Cougars fans in announcing he would return as a fifth-year senior.

That meant a guy who already has over u of t essays, 10,000 career passing yards would lead Mike Leach's Air Raid offense for one more go-round. Two Pac-12 coaches with NFL coaching experience, UCLA's Jim Mora and write school essays Stanford's David Shaw, are believers in free essay, Falk's NFL potential. Another year in Pullman will surely make believers of more. Charlie Neibergall/Associated Press. Nobody can say the son of the late former NFL starter Orlando Brown isn't big enough for the NFL; he's 6-foot-8, 360 pounds, and knows how to carry it on the field. He was a first-team All-Big 12 pick last year, but said in December: I'll be an Oklahoma Sooner until I get a first-round grade.

Brody Schmidt/Associated Press. Write Essays! 5. Mason Rudolph, QB, Oklahoma State. Rudolph's return ensures another dynamic offense in u of t essays, Stillwater and gives him another year to help scouts evaluate how well he could make the transition from OSU's fast-paced spread offense to a pro-style system. He now enters his third year as a starter having thrown for write essays 49 touchdowns over the last two years. He applied for feedback from the NFL College Advisory Committee, but announced his decision to free essay download, return during Oklahoma State's preparations for the Alamo Bowl.

Carlos Osorio/Associated Press. 4. Harold Landry, DE, Boston College. One of only two edge rushers listed here, Landry led the nation last year in sacks (16.5) and forced fumbles (7). But stats alone don't make anyone a first-round draft pick, and both Landry and coach Steve Addazio cited Landry's desire to be a first-rounder as one reason for his return. He's undersized at essays, 6-foot-3, 250 pounds, but his quickness and sheriff ability to finish plays in the backfield will have scouts playing close attention to write, the Eagles' senior. Essay! David J. Phillip/Associated Press.

Scarbrough told College Football 24/7 in January that he had decided to return to Alabama in 2017, describing the decision as an easy one. Perhaps it was -- after all, he didn't even play much over the first half of the season -- but in his breakthrough game (180 yards vs. Washington in a College Football Playoff semifinal) he looked readily capable of school essays, making the term sheriff, jump. At 240 pounds, he brings thunderous power to the Crimson Tide backfield. He'll be a fourth-year junior this fall, but comes off a broken leg suffered in the title game against Clemson.

Alonzo Adams/Associated Press. Oklahoma's star quarterback is back for high school essays one final season, citing a desire to win a third consecutive Big 12 title for the Sooners and make another run at a College Football Playoff berth. Free! At 6-foot-1, 210 pounds, he's not the prototypical size for an NFL quarterback. But analyst Bucky Brooks likes his arm talent, and he'll get plenty of chances to show it off again this fall. High School Essays! Ryan Kang/Associated Press. At one point, Allen decided he would enter the 2017 NFL Draft, and there was certainly plenty of pressure to do so -- after all, half a dozen reps from free essay a top agency shared his living room to watch the CFP title game. He changed his mind, though, and high school the result has been a palpable offseason scouting buzz for english 100 final the Cowboys' gunslinger.

There's plenty of anticipation for his season-opening performance against a Big Ten foe in Iowa. Scouts will flock to Laramie this fall, and high school rightfully so.

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Diagnosing Damp - How to Find the Causes of Damp and Condensation in write high essays Your Home and Fix Them Successfully. Summary: In this easy to follow guide you will learn all about diagnosing damp issues such as black mould growth caused by condensation, salt crystal build up caused by water washing salts through walls and how to nail down the causes of damp and treat these issues by adding more ventilation to your property, repairing cracked mortar or replacing damaged lead flashing or cracked roof tiles - find out all you need to know below. Damp and condensation can be caused by a number of different things, which can make it tricky diagnosing damp issues and the causes of damp and condensation and u of t essays effectively implementing the right damp treatment to ensure a successful fix. Write High Essays! Thankfully, there are a number of different visual indicators for the different causes of damp and condensation problems which can help you a great deal in interesting research articles diagnosing damp problems and fixing them we will discuss each one here. Additionally, if you require any further assistance after reading this guide please give Property Repair Systems a call on high essays 01626 336180 for further help, free of charge. Damp is a Problem That Every Homeowner Should Take Seriously. When you have a damp house this can really affect your quality of life.

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You may also notice that mould formation is occurring in areas where there is very little movement in the air. Well ventilated areas ensure that no cold air is write essays, allowed to u of t essays rest in one place for too long where it will keep the write school, area in question at biology a lower temperature than the rest of the room, reducing the likelihood of condensation occurring. Condensation can cause black mould growth, among other things. Fix The easiest thing you can do to solve the high essays, immediate issues is to remove the mould from 100 final essay, your walls using an Anti-Mould cleaner we've found that the write high essays, Mould Killer Spray from PRS gives reliable results. Next, you can wipe away any moisture from any affected areas such as window frames and walls to stop the problem getting any worse. Make sure that you wring out and dry any clothes you've used outside, as drying inside will introduce more moisture back into the air. You should find and solve the cause of the condensation before doing any further repairs to make sure that the mould won't reappear in your repaired surface. Once you've solved the cause of your condensation, ideally you should strip the plaster back entirely, clean the wall with the antimould cleaner and latest of computer replaster. If you're painting the wall, you can make absolutely sure that the mould doesn't return by using an antimould emulsion, or adding an antimould additive to your wallpaper paste good formulations of both of these products are available from school essays, PRS. Use some mould cleaner to remove the mould from your walls. If the in essay, air in write high essays your house contains a lot of moisture, reduce it or try to keep your house a bit warmer.

Using the english 100 final essay, hygrometer we mentioned earlier, test the moisture content of the air in write high school the room that has the mould in it. If the moisture content is high, it may well be that this is in essay, all that's causing your condensation. There are many different steps that you can take to reduce the level of moisture in the air in your house we'll discuss some here: Add some ventilation and some draught proofing. In terms of a more long term solution to condensation caused by overly moist air, ventilation and draught proofing are key! If possible install trickle vents on into your windows and leave at least one open at all times. These are relatively easy to school install - see our Trickle Vents project for 100 final essay, more information on how to do this.

If it is not possible to install trickle vents leave a small window open slightly as often as you can. Inspect your rooms for any air bricks and ventilators - have they been blocked up or covered over? If you find that some have then get them uncovered as this is write high essays, probably not helping in terms of air flow around your rooms. If you have a chimney that is not currently in use, this can contribute to your condensation issues if it is not ventilated properly. Essay! Your chimney stack should not either be open or capped entirely an open chimney will let rainwater in and a capped chimney traps cold air in the chimney void, creating cold spots on the chimney breast. Instead, you should ideally fit a chimney cowl to write high your chimney pots (these are effectively caps with an opening that allows air, but not rain, to research papers of computer enter) or remove the pots altogether and instead fit a paving slab on top of the chimney stack, raised up by bricks to allow air to flow into the chimney but again keep the rain out. If your fireplace is bricked up you should also have an airbrick inserted into the wall in front of the empty fireplace space. Ideally it should be installed 30cm above ground level.

Uncover or install air bricks to increase the ventilation in essays your room. Another solution is term paper sheriff, adding draught proofing and insulation. Draught proofing and school insulation will help to keep your house (and its walls) a bit warmer at all times, which means that water is less likely to condense out of the air in your space. Free Essay! When it comes to school insulation, the term paper, loft is a good place to start. Insulating your loft and loft hatch correctly can be one of the most cost effective jobs you can do to retain more heat in your house and it can have quite an impact on your heating bills. Ensure that you use the correct thickness of insulation (for your joists) and the correct draught proofing fittings for your loft hatch ( more information on write high school essays this can be found on u of t essays the Energy Saving Trust website and information on potential grants for these improvements can be found on write high school essays our sister site Be Energy Smart). Draught proofing windows and term sheriff doors can also go a long way in write high school reducing condensation and quite a few other issues. Draughts that are allowed to enter a property due to poorly fitting windows and doors can keep that area at a lower temperature that the rest or a room and due to latest research papers science this, condensation can form - so ensure that any draughts are blocked up correctly with appropriate draught proofing materials ( NOTE: ensure that trickle vents are fitted to windows so that ventilation is high, under your control as you will still need some ventilation to ensure air circulation). Draught proof your windows and doors to reduce condensation. Add some cavity wall insulation. Cavity wall insulation can be very effective in interesting research articles preventing heat loss and ensuring that rooms are maintained at write high school essays a decent temperature, reducing the likelihood of condensation.

You will initially have to check whether you have a cavity wall (seek assistance from a professional if you are not sure) any properties built after the 1930's should have one. There are many companies installing cavity wall insulation but please do your research and homework before commissioning anyone to do the work. A shoddy cavity insulation job can cause untold additional issues and cost a fortune to put right. Use Quotation! You can find accredited cavity wall insulation installers who can give you a 25 year guarantee on the work on the Cavity Insulation Guarantee Agency's (CIGA)'s website. Insulate your cavity walls to minimise condensation. Set your heating so that it's got a higher minimum level in colder months. During the colder parts of the year try to leave consistent low level background heating on high in your home, in all rooms, even if there is no one there. This will ensure that all rooms stay at u of t essays a certain temperature, reducing the high essays, likelihood that the air will get cold enough for condensation to u of t essays occur. You may think that this will be expensive but with today's modern heating systems it can actually work out write high, cheaper. If your heating system is trying to english 100 final essay heat your home from cold it will have to work a lot harder and for a longer period than it would if it simply has to top up your heating to the required temperature.

In the absence of write a more modern and efficient heating system you may also want to consider a thermostatically controlled heater, but try and stay away from bottled gas or paraffin heaters as these are guilty of pouring huge amounts of moisture into the air which will make your condensation problem worse. Having the heating on consistently will minimise condensation. Adjust your cooking and washing habits. There are also certain daily tasks that increase the moisture content in the air such as cooking, showering and drying clothes. When cooking try to keep doors closed and lids on pans to minimise the term, level of water vapour in the air. If possible (weather prevailing) try to dry all of your clothes outside, as drying clothing inside can pour a huge amount of moisture into write essays the air. In the event that this is not possible try to keep your washing drying in use quotation a specific room e.g. a bathroom, keep the door closed and a window open. Also ensure that your tumble dryer vent pipes vent externally either through a window or purpose built wall attachment. When showering or bathing, again keep bathroom/shower room doors closed and write school a window in the bathroom slightly ajar. If you have an extractor fan in your bathroom ensure that this is switched on and that its filter is clear of any mould or dust.

Rearrange your furniture. In respect to furniture you want to free download ensure that air can circulate as freely as possible around items within a room, as if cold air becomes still, the water in it is more likely to condense out of write school it. Don't push wardrobes, dressers, sofas etc. right up against walls leave at least a couple of inches as an in essay, air gap. This will help to prevent any cold air and write high essays condensation developing. Believe it or not condensation can even cause mould in full wardrobes and cupboards! If your air doesn't contain that much moisture, try and remove any cold spots.

It may be that wherever in your house that condensation has settled on is cold, and that is the reason that the condensation is english 100 final essay, occurring. As we've just mentioned, you can reduce the coldness of write essays your windows and doors by draught proofing them, but what about interesting biology articles cold areas on high school essays your wall? These come into being for a number of 100 final reasons. You can check that your wall area is cold by using a heat measuring gun as mentioned earlier simply hold it against essays the area you think is cold and another area of u of t essays wall and school see whether there is a difference in u of t essays temperature. The reasons that an area of your wall is high school, cold may be: During the building process, mortar can fall on your wall ties these are metal ties that tie the two walls of u of t essays your cavity wall together and support them. If they get loaded up with mortar and other debris and write essays any moisture collects on the internal side of the external wall, the dirty tie provides it with a direct route to the internal wall, where it can make your wall cold (and damp). Similarly, the ties can rust over time this causes them to expand, which can crack the mortar they're joined to, allowing cold air to enter the free, cavity via the external walls and make the corresponding areas on write essays the internal walls cold. This can encourage water in the air inside your house to use quotation in essay condense on this spot, creating damp. School! You can detect whether there are any wall ties near your cold spots using a metal detector if there are, you can remove the u of t essays, brick nearest to it and another one if it will be useful (never remove more than two without consulting a qualified building professional). We've got a guide to how to do this in our How to Remove a Brick project.

If when you remove your bricks you find that your wall tie does have debris on write school essays it, you can remove the interesting research, debris and replace the bricks, or if the essays, tie is rusty you will need to replace it information on how to do this can be found in our How to Replace a Wall Tie project. Debris in your cavity wall. If you have a cavity wall, this needs to be clear of any debris or other objects sometimes rubbish and essay debris is left in high the cavity when the wall is being built and it is then left to use quotation sit in the wall permanently. This debris allows any moisture that enters your outside facing walls to travel to write essays your inner walls, where it can manifest as damp. You can check if there is debris in your cavity by removing a brick or two (do not remove more than two bricks without consulting a professional) from the area of outside wall that corresponds to your damp affected internal wall area. You can remove the u of t essays, bricks using the instructions in write school essays our How to Remove a Brick project mentioned above. Once you have removed the interesting research, bricks, use a light to look inside the cavity for any debris, and remove any large objects you see by hand wearing some thick gloves in case some of the debris is sharp. High Essays! You can remove dust etc. with an old vacuum cleaner. Debris in your cavity is a common cause of cold spots and condensation.

A poor cavity wall insulation job/no cavity wall insulation. A poor cavity insulation job can mean that there are gaps or holes in the insulation in your walls. This creates cold spots quite literally because those wall areas are not as well insulated as the surrounding wall areas. If you think this might be the term paper, cause of your problem, you will need to write essays get an accredited cavity wall insulation installer (find your local qualified installers on the CIGA website mentioned above) to take a look and research papers science determine if this is the case. This issue isn't easy to fix you may well have to remove all of school your own insulation and install a completely new set rather than trying to use quotation in essay top it up in write essays the wall areas where it is lacking. Cracks in your mortar/broken bricks. General wear and tear can gradually crack the mortar, or pointing around your brickwork this can allow cold air and moisture to enter your cavity through your external wall and make your internal wall damp and cold.

The face of your bricks can also splinter off over time in latest research a process known as spalling this is when the face of the brickwork gets wet from the high, rain or snow and then the free essay, wet bricks freeze. In this situation, the water freezes and expands, splintering the face of the write essays, brickwork off. Again, this can make the wall more susceptible to allowing rainwater to 100 final enter the cavity through the wall, and in the case of spalling this can mean that the splintering happens over write high school and over free essay again, gradually wearing the brick away. Missing or broken mortar can allow water into write high school your wall, causing damp. If the pointing around your bricks is cracked or missing, you will need to sheriff replace it, either yourself (see our Repointing Brickwork project) or by school essays, getting a tradesman to do it. In the case of spalling or broken brickwork, you will need to replace the bricks again, you can use the term, Replacing a Brick project linked above for guidance on how to do this. To stop the write school essays, spalling happening again, you can apply a brick waterproofer we use Ultra Tanking Slurry Powder to sheriff waterproof brickwork as we have found it give great results. Your external walls are being exposed to high volumes of water. It may be that your walls are perfectly sound but that they're being exposed to such high volumes of water that a significant quantity is entering your house through your external walls.

The solution to this is to apply a good brick waterproofer to your brickwork the high school, Ultra Tanking Slurry Powder we use as mentioned above is great because it's breathable, so you can apply it knowing that the biology research, water that's already in your bricks can escape. Apply a breathable waterproofer to write high essays protect your bricks or masonry from damp. Damp or Rotting Skirting, Damp Stain or Tide Line (no more than 1.4m above skirting) Issue - If you are experiencing any of this type of visual damage then the likelihood is that you have an issue with your damp proof course or DPC. Latest Papers Science! This is write high essays, a layer of waterproof material that sits in the brickwork across your house about interesting articles 6 inches up from ground level to school essays prevent rising damp from rising up into your walls.

Quite a few older properties (19th century and before) were constructed without a damp proof course. Essay Download! This was mainly because the natural ventilation in the property (windows and high school doors) would provide enough air flow to prevent significant moisture build up. As houses became more airtight due to better fitting doors and term windows and more effective insulation, the amount of write school natural ventilation was significantly reduced and water rising from the ground could not be ventilated away as it once was. Rising damp can leave a tide mark above your skirting board. In the early days of dpc's stone slabs and slate were the materials of choice and were layered between or beneath brick courses around 6 inches above ground level to provide a barrier to prevent damp rising up from the ground any further. In Essay! Damp rises up in this way due to the porous nature of bricks and blocks which means that water can travel upwards inside the brickwork by capillary action. The moisture in write the walls can also draw salts to the surface of the walls, which can absorb moisture from the air inside your house and cause further moisture to accumulate. The salts themselves can be quite large and english essay therefore destroy the write school essays, integrity of in essay your plaster when they are drawn to the surface of your walls, meaning that often they blown your plaster in the affected areas. Today more modern materials are used such as polythene, felt, bitumen or in some cases, an engineering brick (a very densely constructed brick that prevents water absorption). These then provide an impervious barrier preventing moisture and salts from going any further. A sound Damp Proof Course will protect your property from rising damp.

Failure of a dpc can occur in various different ways. The damp proof course itself can fail, e.g. slate and felt can become brittle and crack, polythene can be split etc. or in most cases the entire damp course itself is high, instead bridged. Bridging occurs when the dpc is effectively bypassed by use quotation in essay, an object that is school essays, connected both above and below the DPC, providing ground water with a direct route around it. The most common occurrences of this are when a garden, grass area, path or set of steps or in use quotation some cases a porch or conservatory is constructed and butts up against the external wall. This then provides water and moisture in the ground a direct path around the current DPC and school essays up into your walls. If your property features a cavity then bridging can also occur here. During construction rubbish and debris such as mortar can fall down into the void and build up to a point that it extends over and above the damp proof course.

When this happens moisture can then creep up through the debris and on use quotation in essay up into high essays the wall without having to cross the DPC. Most of use quotation in essay today's modern building materials are focussed around waterproofing e.g. engineering bricks, treated timbers, gypsum plaster etc. When you take the nature of these materials into write high school account you can then see why, once the moisture is present in u of t essays a wall, it can be a tough job to get it out as the waterproofing within the materials effectively holds it in school the wall. Couple that with the fact that there is less natural air flow within a modern property and you've got problems! Fix As you may imagine the only way to use quotation in essay establish whether a broken or bridged DPC is the cause of your problems is to investigate each possibility. Firstly inspect the external walls of your property and high essays examine your pdc closely.

Look at the condition of the materials used are they cracked, brittle, split, do you even have one? In the event that you do find that your DPC is in poor condition you have a few choices. You can replace it like for like, e.g. digging out bricks/blocks and replacing the DPC with the same material - as you may imagine this can be a costly and time consuming process and will really need to be carried out by a professional with the 100 final, correct knowledge. The second choice is significantly easier. There are quite a few chemical/cream DPC products available today and write school essays these can even be installed on a DIY level. In Essay! The basic premise is to drill holes in both external and internal walls at roughly 125mm centres and then either inject (if using a skeleton gun) or pump (using an injection machine) the DPC chemical cream in write high school until saturation occurs. The chemical cream is absorbed by the bricks and spreads within the use quotation in essay, brickwork to form a waterproof chemical layer. Once dried, you will then have a layer of waterproof bricks creating your new moisture barrier.

As mentioned there are quite a few of write high school essays these products available today such as Permaguard and Twistfix but we've found that Quick Cream is the best chemical DPC cream on the market. Inject a new DPC easily yourself using a chemical DPC cream. If you find that you do indeed have a damp proof course and it is in research of computer science good condition then your issue may be bridging. Again, examine your DPC and high school see if there is a good clearance (6 inches) between it and the ground level, if not then you will need to dig back any grass, garden, pathway or other obstruction and give some clearance between the obstruction and your external wall. You may find that the obstruction is being caused by something a little more permanent than some grass or a pathway - it may be a set of steps or even a porch or conservatory. As mentioned, the best course of action is to remove the offending object but this may not be possible, especially in the case of free essay a conservatory! In this instance you can use one of the write school, previously mentioned products to create a new dpc above the research, obstruction. When no evidence of an external bridge is school essays, found, your issue may be within the cavity itself. In order to confirm this there is use quotation in essay, really only write, one course of action and that is to inspect the cavity.

On the external wall exactly opposite the affected area on the internal wall remove one or two bricks at ground level (do not remove more than two). 100 Final Essay! This may sound quite drastic but is write, relatively easy as mentioned earlier, our How to latest research science Remove a Brick project has the instructions for how to do this. Remove one or two bricks from your wall to examine the write high school essays, cavity for debris. Once you have removed your bricks use a mobile phone or camera to interesting research take some shots of the inside of the write essays, cavity and then inspect them. English 100 Final! If you find any debris this will need to be removed so using your hands (wear some heavy gloves as there may be sharp objects in write high school essays there) and a scraper for harder to reach objects, remove it. Once any rubbish has been removed, replace your bricks using suitable mortar. Remove any debris you find in the cavity manually wearing thick gloves. One final point to free essay make is that the issues you are experiencing may be nothing to do with your own property and may be down to work that has been carried out on a neighbouring property so it's worth asking your neighbour(s) if they have had anything done to the ground floor of write high school essays their property such as filling a basement or crawl space below the u of t essays, ground level floor or have had any concreting or screeding carried out write school essays, as this may very well have taken their floor level above your DPC, bridging it and allowing moisture a route around and up into your rooms. As with the condensation issue above you will probably be left with some damp damage to the surface of u of t essays your internal walls so this will also need to school essays be dealt with. In the majority of cases any plaster will need to be removed from the affected area and the wall will need to be allowed to dry out thoroughly before replastering and redecorating to ensure no future reappearance.

If the paper sheriff, damp has caused mould or white salts to appear on your walls, there are a number of products that can be used to make absolutely sure that they won't reappear. High School! Salt neutraliser can either be added to your replastering plaster, or painted onto the bare wall, and you can also buy an anti-mould cleaner and anti-mould emulsion to apply to your replastered wall before you repaint. We have found that the best place to buy antimould and antisalt products is through PRS' online shop. Damp Patches and/or White Salts on Walls and term sheriff Beneath Lifting Wallpaper or Flaking Paint, Found on school essays Higher up Parts of Your Wall. Issue - When damp patches and/or white salts are present across your wall rather than just in the lower area just above the skirting board, this is latest research papers science, a sign that you have likely suffered or are suffering from some form of penetrating dampness which probably means that you may have a defect in the external fabric of your property.

Salts that are confined to the lower area of your wall probably indicate rising dampness, which you can read about above. Water that is allowed to enter your house can wash salts that are present in write high school most building materials out into the surface of your walls, and u of t essays when the water dries out and write high essays evaporates, a white salty residue is paper sheriff, left behind. High School! The salts are whitish and can be quite large, erupting through the wall's surface and blowing your plaster off the wall. Damp can wash salt crystals out of your walls and deposit them on the surface. It's also a good point to term paper note that in some cases these salts can be hygroscopic, meaning that they attract moisture from the air. The build up of moisture then creates damp patches.

You can tell if your salts are hygroscopic by whether they get damp and then dry out periodically this is the salts attracting moisture from the air when the air is moist enough. Hygroscopic salts are salts that accumulate in chimney breasts when fuel is burnt. If the chimney breast gets damp, these salts can get washed to high school the surface of the chimney breast or the surrounding wall area where they appear as smooth white residue and attract moisture. Hygroscopic salts accumulate in chimney breasts and attract water. If you have crunchy salt crystals on your wall rather than hygroscopic salt residue, it is 100 final essay, likely that you have penetrating dampness in some form. Write High School Essays! In this instance to find the cause of the penetrating dampness you will need to check your walls for cracks in mortar, your cavity for latest of computer, debris in write the wall and any rusty or dirty wall ties, your roof for broken tiles and flashing and your guttering for splits, cracks and leaking joints. An easy check to start with is the condition of your brickwork and english mortar. Write High Essays! Take a look at latest science the external wall opposite to the affected area on your internal wall, and check the bricks for write high school essays, any cracked bricks or mortar. If there is cracked mortar, you may have some subsidence so do get this checked out by essay, a professional before attempting to essays fix it.

If your mortar is cracked you should also use a metal detector to find where your wall ties are if there is a tie near the cracked mortar, this may have rusted and caused the mortar to crack, as when the english, ties rust they also expand. Ties can also accumulate debris over time or during the high school, building process, which gives water entering your external wall a direct route to your internal wall. To check your wall ties you will need to remove a brick or two (never remove more than two without consulting a building surveyor or qualified tradesman) to 100 final essay get a better look at the state of the ties. You can find instructions on how to remove the bricks in our How to Remove a Brick project mentioned above. Write Essays! If your ties have debris on them you can remove it; if they are rusty you will need to term sheriff replace them using the write high school essays, instructions in our How to Replace a Wall Tie project. Check your brickwork for any cracks could be allowing damp in. In respect to checking your roof and chimney, ideally these checks will need to be done at source e.g. on the roof or at the guttering or wall level which will involve climbing to a height. If you are not comfortable doing this then please don't as and mistakes could be very costly to yourself!

Instead hire or borrow a decent pair of binoculars and use quotation in essay you can carry out your inspection from the safety of write school solid ground. Check your roof for broken flashing and broken or missing roof tiles as well as checking the mortar in your chimney brickwork if you have a chimney. To inspect your guttering correctly, ideally this should be done during wet weather so that you can easily spot any leaks. Fix - If you find any splits, cracks or damage then you will need to get it fixed. Cracked mortar can be hacked out using a suitable raking tool or small chisel and then replaced with new (take a look at use quotation our How to Replace a Brick project for more on how to do this) and write high the same goes for roof tiles any cracked or damaged tiles should be replaced with new. Research! There is quite a good YouTube video on roof tile repair by Russ Richards that runs through the basics.

Replace any broken or missing roof tiles as these may be causing your problems. If your flashing is write school essays, broken you will have to essay download either repair or replace it replacing it is the best option but is expensive as lead is so expensive. Write School! A cheaper alternative is to repair the breaks with flashing tape this is a waterproof tape specially designed to repair flashing. More information on how to repair your flashing using tape is available in our Repairing Lead Flashing project. Replace any flashing that is cracked or missing.

When it comes to guttering most items are quite easy to sheriff remove and replace as in effect they are snapped together. There can be quite a few individual parts to a guttering system and a rundown these can be found in our Plastic Gutters project. When leaking guttering joints are present this can sometimes be due to a broken or missing bracket, as during heavy downpours, the write high school essays, weight of the water in use quotation the guttering can cause the joints to fail. In this case you should replace or add a bracket to support some of the load and take it off the joint. In some cases you can use silicone to school seal over holes and splits in your guttering but this should really only be used as a temporary measure and u of t essays not a permanent fix it's best to high school essays do the job properly! Replace any cracked pieces of guttering to reduce your walls' exposure to damp. It may be that your external walls are actually sound but that they are exposed to such a high level of rainfall that they just become damp to a level that causes problems on your internal walls. Biology! If this is the case you will need to paint a waterproofer onto your brickwork the Ultra Tanking Slurry Powder we buy from PRS is breathable, which is ideal as you want the water that's already in your bricks to write school be able to escape. With the root cause of the penetrating damp sorted it's now time to deal with the resultant visual damage. Most decorated and plastered surfaces do not fair too well with salts especially plaster.

The salts can themselves burst through even the best rendered backing and interesting once they have penetrated the write essays, plaster they then emerge through the decorated surface. The best and most effective fix (but as is always the case the most costly and free essay time consuming) is to remove all of the plaster from the damaged area and about 400mm beyond in all directions (to ensure no salts are left), dry out the walls' surface and write high school then apply a salt neutraliser. Paper Sheriff! Again there are many available such as Permaguard but we have found the best to be Property Repair Systems salt neutraliser. If you have salts present in your walls you will need to strip the plaster off. Once you have applied the neutraliser and allowed to dry (following manufacturer's guidelines) you can then replaster your plaster may already contain a salt neutraliser, making it unnecessary to apply it to the wall as well, and school you can get salt neutralisers you can add to the plaster as well. A newly plaster surface should be left to papers of computer dry out write essays, completely before any decoration is added as if it isn't then any decorated layer will eventually come off. Term Sheriff! Drying can take as much as 2 3 months so be aware of high school this, but once dried you can then go ahead and add the decoration of interesting biology articles your choice. NOTE : When heavy salts are present the salt neutraliser alone may not be enough to prevent any further build up. In this case you may need to add a mesh membrane over school your walls' surface before you replaster.

The membrane will ensure that no further salt can cross into your plaster. Damp around Chimney Breast, Yellowy Brown Stains Appearing and Disappearing) Issue This issue is quite similar to the one outlined above and shares some quite similar characteristics (in terms of salts being involved) but with a few subtle differences when it comes to the area around a chimney. The act of burning fuels releases minerals and tars that have been absorbed by the fuels materials as they have developed in the ground over many years. The particles released when the fuels are burnt then come to rest on latest research papers of computer the inside of chimney void. Over a period of time (and when water or moisture is high essays, allowed to collect in the chimney void) minerals and tars can seep or be washed through the 100 final, chimney breast and onto the surface of your inner walls. You might be thinking that this sounds exactly like the issue outlined above but when tars and high school other fossil fuel extracts are involved they often leave a yellowy brownish stain. Burning fuel can create tars which stain your walls. You may also find that this particular issue gets better or worse depending on the weather in term paper that during times of extreme moisture or high humidity, effected areas become more apparent and when warmer and school essays drier the issue seems to term paper disappear. This can be an indication that the minerals or salts present in your walls are hygroscopic.

This means that they are moisture attracting and can draw moisture present in the air in your room, producing, in some cases, additional damp. Hygroscopic salts cause damp patches that appear temporarily. In some instances the presence of hygroscopic salts can be due to previous building usage so it's worth checking out if your property has any history. Salt presence can be very common in buildings used previously as butchers or coal storage. Fix Firstly you will have to establish if you have a penetrating moisture issue e.g. have you got a leak around your chimney breast producing visible marks or stains or drawing salts through the write high school, wall? Check your roof tiles, flashings, mortar joints etc. In the event that you do find anything this will need to be repaired. In Essay! Once repaired allow the area to dry out thoroughly for write high school essays, as long as needed and then you can assess any damage to internal surfaces. In some cases if you have gotten to in essay the issue quickly and the salts have not had time to embed themselves in your wall's surface then the plaster can be saved but if any decoration is already started to flake off and the plaster is write, crumbling then you will need to interesting research hack it all off, drastic as that may sound, it's the best solution. Once you have removed all the plaster and high school essays allowed the area to dry out term, totally, apply a salt neutraliser (some examples of write high essays these mentioned above) to download the area and allow this to write high school essays penetrate. Once thoroughly treated you can then replaster and free redecorate but please let your newly plastered surface dry out totally before you do so.

New plaster can take as much as a few months to totally dry before it is able to support paint or wallpaper. Issue If you have an isolated spot, the cause is likely to be one of two things. Either you have penetrating damp, likely caused by a fault in the external fabric of your home (if this is the case, take a look at our Salts section above for how to identify the write essays, cause of your penetrating damp and solve it) or you have a leak somewhere in your home. Fix First and foremost you will have to in essay establish whether you have a water leak below your property, your local water authority can assist you with this as you can ask them to run a check on your water main pipe and also those of your neighbouring properties (including those that are up hill). This should be a free service and they will be able to write high school tell you if there is free essay, a pressure leak anywhere indicating a water leak.

They should also be able to test the water for you to high determine its source (e.g. whether its mains water, sewage water, waste from domestic drainage or naturally occurring ground water). In in the case that it does turn out to be a mains leak then a fix will have to be arranged through the 100 final, water authority (as you can imagine this could turn out to be a bit of write high essays a task depending on their terms and also depending on the authority in term sheriff question therefore we regrettably cannot offer any further information). You can also run some tests yourself start with your foul drainage firstly by locating your drainage man hole cover and high school essays lifting the lid. Run a tap to 100 final essay determine which channel is yours and once you know this for sure block the channel up with a bung (these can be hired from your local hire store). Now fill a sink with water and mark the level and leave overnight. If the level has dropped this is a good sign that you have a leak. NOTE: Do not forget to remove the bung. With a potential leak identified the next task is to find out exactly where that leak is and the best way of doing so is to employ the services of a drainage surveyor as they will have specialist equipment and essays cameras that can be inserted into the drain to pin point the exact location of the damaged section of pipework.

You will also want to test your surface drainage and this can be done by purchasing some drainage dye (available from use quotation, most builder's merchants or DIY stores, also ensure that it is non-toxic). Place the contents of the bag (following manufacturer's instructions) into each of write high your available drains and then fill them up with water. When it gets dark inspect as much of the external of your property as possible and look for evidence of the dye as it glows in the dark. If you find the dye in places that it should not be then you can then trace it back to the source of the leak. Add dye to your surface drain to detect any leaks in your system.

Issue The causes of damp floor problems can vary depending on the severity of the free download, problem e.g. the floor may be slightly moist to the touch or you may literally have a puddle of school essays water. A good place to start in u of t essays establishing a cause is to high school essays inspect the outside of your property, your dpc and u of t essays also any properties surrounding you. High School! Do you have large amounts of water resting against your external walls? Is your dpc damaged? Do you live on 100 final essay a slope with properties above you? Fix If it looks like your damp proof course is damaged, you will need to replace it with a new one using a chemical DPC cream that you inject into high pre-drilled holes in your external and english essay internal walls.

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Guidelines for writing a literature review. by Helen Mongan-Rallis. Last updated: November 21, 2014. [Note: For these guidelines, in some sections I have quoted directly some of the the steps from: Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.) . Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. Write High Essays? ] A literature review is not an annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. While a summary of the what you have read is contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. It focuses on a specific topic of download interest to you and write, includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to your work. It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and rationale for a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation). These guidelines are adapted primarily from papers science Galvan (2006).

Galvan outlines a very clear, step-by-step approach that is very useful to school essays, use as you write your review. I have integrated some other tips within this guide, particularly in suggesting different technology tools that you might want to consider in helping you organize your review. In the sections from Step 6-9 what I have included is the outline of those steps exactly as described by Galvan. I also provide links at the end of this guide to resources that you should use in order to search the literature and as you write your review. In addition to interesting, using the step-by-step guide that I have provided below, I also recommend that you (a) locate examples of literature reviews in your field of study and skim over these to get a feel for what a literature review is and how these are written (I have also provided links to a couple of examples at the end of these guidelines (b) read over other guides to high school, writing literature reviews so that you see different perspectives and approaches: Some examples are: Read through the essay, links provided below on essays, APA guidelines so that you become familiar with the common core elements of how to write in APA style: in latest research of computer, particular, pay attention to general document guidelines (e.g. font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations. It will help you considerably if your topic for write high school, your literature review is the one on which you intend to english 100 final, do your final M.Ed. project, or is in some way related to the topic of your final project.

However, you may pick any scholarly topic. Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review : Familiarize yourself with online databases (see UMD library resource links below for help with this), identifying relevant databases in write school essays, your field of study. Using relevant databases, search for literature sources using Google Scholar and also searching using Furl (search all sources, including the Furl accounts of other Furl members). U Of T Essays? Some tips for identifying suitable literature and narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the database thesaurus or one that you know is write school already a well defined descriptor based on past work that you have done in this field. You will need to experiment with different searches, such as limiting your search to descriptors that appear only in interesting biology research, the document titles, or in both the document title and in the abstract. Redefine your topic if needed: as you search you will quickly find out essays, if the of computer science, topic that you are reviewing is too broad. High School Essays? Try to narrow it to a specific area of interest within the broad area that you have chosen (remember: this is merely an research of computer, introductory literature review for Educ 7001). It is a good idea, as part of your literature search, to look for high school, existing literature reviews that have already been written on this topic.

As part of your search, be sure to identify landmark or classic studies and theorists as these provide you with a framework/context for your study. Import your references into your RefWorks account (see: Refworks Import Directions for guide on how to free essay download, do this from write essays different databases). You can also enter references manually into RefWorks if you need to. Once you have identified and located the articles for your review, you need to analyze them and organize them before you begin writing: Overview the articles : Skim the essay download, articles to high essays, get an research papers, idea of the general purpose and high school essays, content of the article (focus your reading here on the abstract, introduction and first few paragraphs, the conclusion of each article. Tip: as you skim the articles, you may want to record the notes that you take on each directly into RefWorks in the box for User 1. Download? You can take notes onto note cards or into a word processing document instead or as well as using RefWorks, but having your notes in RefWorks makes it easy to organize your notes later. Group the high essays, articles into categories (e.g. into biology articles, topics and write high essays, subtopics and chronologically within each subtopic). Once again, it's useful to enter this information into your RefWorks record. You can record the topics in the same box as before (User 1) or use User 2 box for the topic(s) under which you have chosen to interesting biology research articles, place this article. Take notes : Decide on the format in write high essays, which you will take notes as you read the articles (as mentioned above, you can do this in RefWorks.

You can also do this using a Word Processor, or a concept mapping program like Inspiration (free 30 trial download), a data base program (e.g. Access or File Maker Pro), in an Excel spreadsheet, or the old-fashioned way of using note cards. Be consistent in how you record notes. Define key terms: look for u of t essays, differences in the way keys terms are defined (note these differences). Write School? Note key statistics that you may want to biology, use in the introduction to your review.

Select useful quotes that you may want to include in your review. Important : If you copy the exact words from an article, be sure to cite the school essays, page number as you will need this should you decide to free essay download, use the quote when you write your review (as direct quotes must always be accompanied by high school essays, page references). To ensure that you have quoted accurately (and to save time in note taking), if you are accessing the download, article in a format that allows this, you can copy and write high school, paste using your computer edit -- copy -- paste functions. Note: although you may collect a large number of quotes during the u of t essays, note taking phase of write school your review, when you write the review, use quotes very sparingly. The rule I follow is to quote only when when some key meaning would be lost in translation if I were to paraphrase the original author's words, or if using the free essay download, original words adds special emphasis to write, a point that I am making. Note emphases, strengths weaknesses: Since different research studies focus on different aspects of the issue being studied, each article that you read will have different emphases, strengths. and weaknesses. Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is not a mere description of different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the paper, collection of articles that you are reviewing. Critique the research methodologies used in the studies, and distinguish between assertions (the author's opinion) and actual research findings (derived from empirical evidence).

Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of articles on your topic, you should make note of school trends and patterns over u of t essays time as reported in the literature. This step requires you to synthesize and make sense of what you read, since these patterns and trends may not be spelled out in the literature, but rather become apparent to you as you review the big picture that has emerged over time. Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over high time. Identify gaps in latest papers science, the literature, and reflect on why these might exist (based on the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in this field of high school study). These gaps will be important for you to address as you plan and interesting research articles, write your review. Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to subsequent studies in high school essays, the same area. You may also note that studies fall into different categories (categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in the literature). When you write your review, you should address these relationships and different categories and discuss relevant studies using this as a framework. Keep your review focused on your topic: make sure that the use quotation, articles you find are relevant and directly related to your topic. School? As you take notes, record which specific aspects of the use quotation, article you are reading are relevant to essays, your topic (as you read you will come up with key descriptors that you can record in your notes that will help you organize your findings when you come to latest papers science, write up your review).

If you are using an electronic form of note taking, you might note these descriptors in a separate field (e.g. in RefWorks, put these under User 2 or User 3; in Excel have a separate column for each descriptor; if you use Inspiration, you might attach a separate note for key descriptors. Evaluate your references for currency and high school essays, coverage: Although you can always find more articles on your topic, you have to decide at what point you are finished with collecting new resources so that you can focus on writing up your findings. However, before you begin writing, you must evaluate your reference list to ensure that it is up to date and research, has reported the most current work. Typically a review will cover the last five years, but should also refer to any landmark studies prior to this time if they have significance in shaping the direction of the field. High School? If you include studies prior to the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones. Step 5: Summarize the literature in table or concept map format. Galvan (2006) recommends building tables as a key way to help you overview, organize, and summarize your findings, and biology, suggests that including one or more of the tables that you create may be helpful in your literature review. If you do include tables as part of your review each must be accompanied by an analysis that summarizes, interprets and synthesizes the literature that you have charted in high essays, the table.

You can plan your table or do the entire summary chart of your literature using a concept map (such as using Inspiration) You can create the table using the table feature within Microsoft Word, or can create it initially in Excel and then copy and paste/import the the Excel sheet into use quotation in essay, Word once you have completed the table in Excel. The advantage of using Excel is that it enables you to sort your findings according to write high school, a variety of factors (e.g. sort by essay, date, and then by author; sort by methodology and then date) Examples of tables that may be relevant to your review: Definitions of key terms and concepts. Research methods Summary of research results. Step 6: Synthesize the essays, literature prior to writing your review. Using the notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an research papers of computer, outline of your final review. The following are the key steps as outlined by Galvan (2006: 71-79) Consider your purpose and voice before beginning to high essays, write. Essay? In the case of write essays this Educ 7001 introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to provide an overview of the topic that is of interest to you, demonstrating your understanding of free key works and write essays, concepts within your chosen area of focus. You are also developing skills in reviewing and writing, to provide a foundation on paper, which you will build in subsequent courses within your M.Ed. and ultimately in your final project. In your final project your literature review should demonstrate your command of school essays your field of download study and/or establishing context for a study that you have done. Consider how you reassemble your notes: plan how you will organize your findings into write high, a unique analysis of the english 100 final essay, picture that you have captured in your notes.

Important: A literature review is not series of annotations (like an write essays, annotated bibliography). Galvan (2006:72) captures the difference between an annotated bibliography and a literature review very well: . in essence, like describing trees when you really should be describing a forest. In the case of latest papers a literature review, you are really creating a new forest, which you will build by using the trees you found in the literature you read. Create a topic outline that traces your argument: first explain to the reader your line or argument (or thesis); then your narrative that follows should explain and school essays, justify your line of argument. You may find the free, program Inspiration useful in mapping out your argument (and once you have created this in a concept map form, Inspiration enables you to school, convert this to a text outline merely by clicking on the outline button). This can then be exported into a Microsoft Word document. Use Quotation In Essay? Reorganize your notes according to the path of your argument Within each topic heading, note differences among studies. Within each topic heading, look for obvious gaps or areas needing more research.

Plan to describe relevant theories. Plan to write high essays, discuss how individual studies relate to and advance theory Plan to summarize periodically and, again near the end of the review Plan to present conclusions and implications Plan to suggest specific directions for future research near the free essay download, end of the review Flesh out your outline with details from your analysis. Step 7: Writing the review (Galvan, 2006: 81-90) Identify the broad problem area, but avoid global statements Early in the review, indicate why the topic being reviewed is important Distinguish between research finding and other sources of information Indicate why certain studies are important If you are commenting on the timeliness of a topic, be specific in essays, describing the time frame If citing a classic or landmark study, identify it as such If a landmark study was replicated, mention that and indicate the results of the 100 final essay, replication Discuss other literature reviews on your topic Refer the school essays, reader to other reviews on issues that you will not be discussing in details Justify comments such as, no studies were found. Avoid long lists of essay nonspecific references If the essays, results of essay download previous studies are inconsistent or widely varying, cite them separately Cite all relevant references in high school essays, the review section of interesting biology articles thesis, dissertation, or journal article. Step 8: Developing a coherent essay (Galvan, 2006: 91-96) If your review is long, provide an overview near the beginning of the review Near the beginning of a review, state explicitly what will and will not be covered Specify your point of view early in the review: this serves as the thesis statement of the review. Aim for a clear and cohesive essay that integrates the high, key details of the research, literature and communicates your point of view (a literature is not a series of annotated articles).

Use subheadings, especially in school essays, long reviews Use transitions to help trace your argument If your topic teaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from each discipline separately Write a conclusion for u of t essays, the end of the review: Provide closure so that the path of the argument ends with a conclusion of some kind. How you end the review, however, will depend on your reason for writing it. If the review was written to write, stand alone, as is the case of a term paper or a review article for publication, the research articles, conclusion needs to make clear how the write high essays, material in the body of the review has supported the assertion or proposition presented in the introduction. On the other hand, a review in a thesis, dissertation, or journal article presenting original research usually leads to the research questions that will be addressed. Check the flow of your argument for coherence. Galvan, J. (2006).

Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences ( 3rd ed.). Interesting Research? Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.