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To Believe or Deceive? Sir Francis Bacon, Religion, and the New Science. As we enter the second decade of the resume, 21st century, questions about the relationship between science and politics are perhaps more important than ever. Rye Essay. We enjoy unprecedented power over nature. We are confronted with issues such as stem cell research, weaponized science,and climate change–all part of a larger set of questions about the proper role of science within society. Unsurprisingly, there has been a resurgence of scholarship on the prophet of modern science, Francis Bacon. Adult Resume. Whether one sees Bacon as “perhaps the greatest philosopher of all time” 1 or a mere “demagogue of science,” 2 one cannot deny his profound influence on subsequent generations. And the questions his writings address are arguably more important in the 21st century than they were in the 17th century when Bacon was formulating them.

While Bacon#8217;s popularity has fluctuated, what has remained relatively constant is the general understanding of him as the secular prophet of the Enlightenment and scientific rationalism. Some scholars have now begun to question this accepted interpretation and have offered a strikingly different view of Bacon and his overall work. This book by Stephen McKnight stands as the seminal alternative to the traditional interpretations of Bacon. McKnight#8217;s primary contention is buy a doctoral, that such preeminent Bacon scholars as Howard White and Jerry Weinberger misunderstand Bacon#8217;s “religiousness.” While White and Weinberger suggest that Bacon#8217;s religiosity is primarily a tool to gain favor with the regime and adult masks his true intentions for the creation of a secular, scientific utopia, McKnight argues that Bacon holds genuine religious beliefs. And moreover, those beliefs serve as the cornerstone to his whole project. Games. McKnight employs a “close textual analysis” of eight of Bacon#8217;s works to demonstrate “that Bacon#8217;s vision of adult resume, reform or #8216;instauration#8217; is drawn from the worst mistake thesis, Judeo-Christian scriptures, particularly the Genesis account of the adult resume, Creation and the fall; from apocalyptic expectation of renewal in foreign language the Old Testament; and from soteriological themes of the New Testament.” Moreover, Bacon#8217;s work is also influenced by “themes and imagery found in the prisca theologia , a highly elastic collection of Neoplatonism, Hermeticism, alchemy, magic, and Jewish esoteric traditions.” 4. Far from being a rejection of Christianity or religion, McKnight argues that Bacon#8217;s writings aim to uncover a “truer, deeper level understanding of the scriptures and adult resume of God#8217;s saving acts in history.” 5 This reading clearly stands at odds with traditional interpretations of Bacon that include him with the likes of Machiavelli and Hobbes as the secular, materialistic founders of modernity. 6 Let us therefore assess the persuasiveness of buy a doctoral dissertation kissinger, McKnight#8217;s interpretation and draw out the potential implications of his argument. As noted, McKnight#8217;s response to the one-sidedness of past interpretations is to offer a close textual analysis of Bacon#8217;s works in order to establish the pervasiveness of religious imagery and genuine belief.

McKnight essentially argues for continuity within Bacon#8217;s works and therefore does not try to single out a particular work as being the adult, representative piece. Essays. And his argument requires a thorough demonstration of Bacon#8217;s religiousness: something that cannot easily be established by examining one work. Yet, the task of covering eight of resume, Bacon#8217;s works within a single tract is doctoral dissertation kissinger, daunting. The result is adult resume, that McKnight cannot spend more than a chapter on buy a one particular work and the reader is sometimes left wondering whether a narrower, more detailed approach would have proved more effective. What cannot be denied however is adult, that McKnight#8217;s interpretation raises a series of critical questions that must be addressed by buy a doctoral dissertation, anyone who wishes to understand Bacon#8217;s work and its relation to contemporary political life. This can best be seen through McKnight#8217;s interpretation of adult resume, New Atlantis , Bacon#8217;s final, and perhaps most important, work. Jerry Weinberger argues that New Atlantis represents the essays, final cause, or end, of Bacon#8217;s work and stands as the sixth and final part of #8220;the Great Instauration.#8221; While McKnight does not go quite that far, he agrees that New Atlantis is a crucial part of Bacon#8217;s work and offers a “compact statement of the main themes” of his work. 7. McKnight explicitly rejects the idea that Bacon is manipulating religious symbolism in order to adult, “subvert Christian ideas and transform them into a culturally acceptable justification for a preoccupation with luxury and materialism.” 8 Instead, the program of reform recommended in New Atlantis is “grounded in genuinely and deeply felt religious convictions.” 9 The point of the act of writing, departure then is over Bacon#8217;s true intentions, as both sides readily acknowledge the strong presence of religious symbolism within his work. McKnight#8217;s interpretation of New Atlantis , and to an extent Bacon#8217;s work as a whole, hinges on adult resume the character of Bensalem and its people.

Is Christianity necessary to the flourishing of sojourners by annie dillard, Bensalem? Was Bensalem founded on the principles of charity and piety? Are the inhabitants of Bensalem as friendly as they appear? What are we to make of the laws of secrecy? Who rules the island and on what basis are decisions made to reveal scientific discoveries and inventions to the public? Assuming that Bensalem represents the end of Bacon#8217;s project, the adult resume, answers to those questions can provide us with insight into Bacon#8217;s true intentions. Sojourners Essay By Annie. McKnight sees Bensalem as being animated by the principles of genuine Christianity and attributes pure intentions to its leaders and inhabitants. While Weinberger questions whether the sailors were forced unto the island (through the resume, advanced science that allows them to control natural divinations), McKnight sees Providence as the cause since the sailors had prayed for relief. Advantage Of Learning Essay. The conversion of Bensalem to Christianity is adult, another crucial event that holds implications for sojourners essay by annie, Bacon#8217;s work as a whole.

McKnight argues that Bensalem#8217;s conversion comes through “direct intervention by God” and therefore, the Christianity found there is adult resume, “pure and unadulterated by human error and misinterpretation.” 10 As further evidence of this claim, the Bensalemites are offered access to sacred texts that are unavailable to their European counterparts. Weinberger offers a strikingly different account of the conversion experience. He notes that the conversion came as the result of a declaration by kissinger, a wise man of Solomon#8217;s house, not of a miracle. The wise man “verifies the miracle by certifying rationally that it has no natural or artificial cause,” but Weinberger points out that the miracles of the adult resume, Bible require no such explanation. 11. Furthermore, the jared worst thesis, history of Bensalem points to the fact that the island was established well before the coming of Christ. And its founder, Solamona, had implemented the aforementioned laws of secrecy because Bensalem could be worsened in “a thousand ways,” but there was “scarce” any way to adult resume, make it better.

This raises a serious question as to the importance of Christianity to Bensalem. Could its inclusion merely reflect Bacon#8217;s desire to persuade his primarily Christian audience that his work was friendly to those beliefs? McKnight dismisses such a charge by pointing out Bensalem was chosen because of its virtue: “God selects Bensalem because it is capable of receiving and perpetuating a pure form of gospel Christianity.” 12. Perhaps the most important point of departure between McKnight#8217;s interpretation and the more traditional interpretations is the characterization of jared mistake thesis, Solomon#8217;s House. McKnight argues that Solomon#8217;s House serves not as a “displacement of Solomon#8217;s Temple, but as its complement.” 13 Bacon does not “dismiss or displace the idea of spiritual renewal,” but emphasizes an “equally important” task: rebuilding natural philosophy so humans can “recover the benefits God instilled in the Creation.” 14. Furthermore, McKnight takes a benevolent view of the censorship that occurs within Solomon#8217;s House. We are told that the end of Solomon#8217;s House is adult resume, “the knowledge of causes and secret motions of things; and catcher rye essay adolescence the enlarging of the bounds of human empire, to the effecting of all things possible.” 15 However, as the Father of Solomon#8217;s House tells us, not everything that is discovered is disclosed to the citizenry or the government.

McKnight argues against the traditional interpretations that suggest “totalitarian state control” or the “creation of scientists as the new political intellectual elites.” 16 He suggests that “such interpretations fail to take into account Bacon#8217;s concept of human nature,” one rooted in the concept of Original Sin. According to McKnight, “only the resume, members of Solomon#8217;s House have attained the level of spiritual discipline to overcome this materialistic preoccupation and use the rich benefits to sojourners by annie, be derived from God#8217;s Creation for charitable purposes.” 17 So instead of representing a materialistic, scientific elite, the adult, members of Solomon#8217;s House are acting under the guidance of Providence. Yet, we must wonder how the members of Solomon#8217;s House decide what inventions to disclose or to conceal? Where do they derive the wisdom to make such decisions? For McKnight, the implication seems to be through spiritual training, but we are not told that such training takes place within the New Atlantis . Weinberger notes Bacon#8217;s lack of guidance on the issue as well; pointing out that politics is not even included as one of the thesis, subjects studied within Solomon#8217;s House. But the resume, decision to disclose or conceal scientific discoveries clearly falls in the realm of politics. Bacon#8217;s suggests that “right reason” and “sound religion” will be sufficient to ensure that the proper decisions are made, but that hardly provides us a concrete model of education. While we do not find such a model within New Atlantis, Bacon does provide us with extensive thoughts on education in The Advancement of Learning and Novum Organum ; both of which are included among the eight works in buy a kissinger McKnight#8217;s assessment. McKnight#8217;s focus, however, is not on the explication of Bacon#8217;s new method, but on the motivation behind it. McKnight stresses that Bacon views himself as a mere “guide to point out the road; an office of small authority, and depending upon adult resume, a kind of luck than upon games to play essay, any ability or excellency.” 18 He argues that Bacon minimizes his own role in adult order to jared thesis, “emphasize the operation of Providence.” 19.

While it is undoubtedly true that Bacon offers such humble statements, McKnight seems to overlook some of Bacon#8217;s bolder claims. For instance, in Novum Organum , Bacon notes: “if someone of mature age, with faculties unimpaired and mind cleansed of prejudice, applies himself afresh to particulars and resume experience, better is to be hoped of him. And it is in this task that we promise ourselves the the act of writing, fortune of Alexander the Great .” 20 Bacon also suggests that it would only take a few years to discover all causes and adult all sciences if only his method were followed. 21. As to the Advancement of Learning , McKnight points out that the full title of the text, The Two Books of Francis Bacon of the Proficiencie and Advancement of Learning Divine and Human , points to Bacon#8217;s emphasis on the spiritual and shows that he is not simply focusing on utilitarian knowledge that can be used to adolescence, conquer nature.

Furthermore, he points to Bacon#8217;s emphasis on charity “as the corrective to pride” and to adult resume, his likening of James#8217; rule to Solomon#8217;s as further proof of the centrality of religious belief to Bacon#8217;s work. Given the comprehensive nature of McKnight#8217;s argument, there is one glaring omission: Bacon#8217;s Essays . Bacon addresses a range of topics and some could be especially instructive in sojourners essay determining the importance of his religious beliefs to resume, his work: most notably those on atheism, truth, superstition, and unity in religions. McKnight does an admirable job of delving into dillard the works of Bacon and provides us with an interesting alternative to the traditional view of Bacon as a secular, materialistic prophet of science. The case for the importance of religious symbolism within Bacon#8217;s work is a strong one, but it is adult resume, less clear that the whole project rests on mistake thesis a religious foundation. Adult Resume. McKnight is right to develop an argument that seriously considers Bacon#8217;s religiosity; his study inevitably points us to such recurring questions as: Can modern science and religion peacefully co-exist or is there an inherent tension that forces us to choose one or the other? Is the kissinger, conquering of resume, nature through science a prideful act of hubris or the fulfillment of Divine will?

What role, if any, should scientists play in formulating public policy? Can science adequately address questions of the human good? These are questions Bacon raised well before science transformed society and in rye essay light of the ascent of science and adult technology, the answers are of dillard, utmost importance. 1. Jean Jacques Rousseau. The Discourses and adult Other EarlyPolitical Writings . Ed. Victor Gourevitch. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997) p.332. 2. F.A. Hayek. The Counter-Revolution of Science: Studies on the Abuse of Reason. 2nd edition. (Indianapolis: Liberty Press, 1979) p.21. 3. Stephen McKnight.

The ReligiousFoundations of Francis Bacon#8217;s Thought. (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2006) p.3. 6. For example. See Jerry Weinberger#8217;s introduction in New Atlantis and The Great Instauration. (Illinois: HarlanDavidson, 1989) p.vii. 11. Weinberger p.xvii. 12. McKnight p.17. 20. Francis Bacon. Sojourners. The New Organon . Ed.

Jardine and Silverthorne. Adult Resume. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000) p.78. Advantage Foreign Language Essay. David Whitney is Associate Editor of VoegelinView and Associate Professor of Government at Nicholls State University in Louisiana. He is author of adult, Maladies of essay by annie, Modernity Scientism and the Deformation of Political Order (St. Augustine's Press, 2016).

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personal voice essay home :: personal essays lesson. A few features of the personal essay distinguish it from other kinds of essays: First, the writer is concerned with telling the adult resume, truth as it appears to him or her a particular moment, and not with accuracy and objectivity. Second, the personal essay is essay by annie dillard usually designed to be read with pleasure and to stimulate thought rather than to convince, persuade, or inform. Finally, a personal essay offers insight into some human experience; as Wendell Harris says, It moves from the adult resume, personally experienced, perhaps trivial occurrence to jared, the larger insight, in the proces creating the sense of widening horizons that belong to the inductive movement of the mind. The specific occasion, issue or problem becomes inessential. A personal essay may be concerned with I, but it can be interesting to a reader because of the movement in the essay from personal experience to human truth. To write a personal essay is not as difficult as it may seem: It involves telling a story, non-fiction though it may be. Most people have lots of practice at this in their daily lives.

And it involves finding what is meaningful to you in resume, that story, at least for this moment in time. And showing your reader how your experience says something the reader can relate to. In this module, students will learn to write a personal essay that . . Essay? . has a clear purpose is developed with good narrative and descriptive technique has a clear voice appropriate to the content of the essay has a strong conclusion. Perhaps voice matters more in a personal essay than in any other kind of essay since the goal is to share a personal experience and resume, a personal truth. Part of telling the truth is telling how you feel about that truth: do you find an experience amusing? painful? heartwarming? serious? And who do you want to tell the truth to? Your friends?

Your instructor? The way you tell your story will be different depending on your audience. Tone of voice comes across in jared diamond mistake thesis, writing through word choice, punctuation and sentence structure. Adult Resume? Here is games i like essay a list of some common words used to adult, describe various tones of voice: formal serious reasonable grave impassioned fervent controlled sinister sedate sober. satirical sarcastic humorous goofy cocky giddy coy mild pleasant reserved. meditative brooding pensive ruminative imploring pleading enfuriated outraged aggravated aggressive. Take a look at the following passages and see if you can identify the tone of games to play, voice the writer uses. Then, compare your answer with our and view our commentary about the adult resume, techniques the writers are using to achieve a particular tone: from What's Cooking, by Bill Bryson. In fancy restaurants [ordering] is even worse because the server has to take you through the evening's specials, which are described with a sumptuousness and panache that are seldom less than breathtaking and sojourners, always incomprehensible.

My wife and I went to a fancy restaurant in Vermont for our anniversary the resume, other week and I swear I didn't understand a single thing the waiter described to us. Tonight, he began with enthusiasm, we have a crepe galette of sea chortle and kelp in rye essay adolescence, a rich mal de mer sauce, seasoned with disheveled herbs grown in our own herbarium. Adult? This is jared diamond baked in an inverted Prussian helmet for seventeen minutes and four seconds precisely, then layered with steamed wattle and resume, woozle leaves. Very delicious; very audacious. We are also offering this evening a double rack of Rio Racho cutlets, tenderized at your table by our own flamenco dancers, then baked in a clay dong for the act, twentyseven minutes under a lattice of guava peel and sun-ripened stucco.

For vegetarians this evening we have a medley of forest floor sweetmeats gathered from our very own woodland dell . Describe the tone of the passage in the text box below: See our commentary. from Learning by Story, by Neil Postman. For those who have not read Cultural Literacy , I should say that much of the book's popularity is attributable to its appendix, which consists of a list of 5,000 names, dates, aphorisms, and concepts that Hirsch and some of his colleagues believe a literatre person ought to know. Americans love lists, especially lists compiled by experts; Americans also love tests, and adult, Hirsch's list is easily transformed into doctoral, a kind of adult, cultural-literacy test that can be administered anywhere, including the living room and diamond mistake thesis, the classroom. Aside from the adult, fact that Hirsch is a lucid and sometimes elegant writer, very little else in the book can account for sojourners by annie dillard, its success either with teachers or with the common reader. To paraphrase an old saw, what is true in resume, Hirsch's book is not startling, and what is startling is not true. Describe the tone of the passage in the text box below: See our commentary. from Henry David Thoreau's Journal , January 7, 1857.

. in the distant woods or fields, in buy a dissertation, unpretending sprout-lands or pastures tracked by rabbits, even in a bleak and, to most, cheerless day, like this, when a villager would be thinking of adult, his inn, I come to myself, I once more feel myself grandly related, and sojourners essay, that cold and solitude are friends of mine. I suppose that this value, in my case, is equivalent to resume, what others get by churchgoing and the act, prayer. I come home to my solitary woodland walk as the adult, homesick go home. I thus dispose of the superfluous and see things as they are, grand and beautiful. I have told many that I walk every day about half the daylight, but I think they do not believe it. I wish to get the Concord, the Massachusetts, the America, out of my head and jared diamond mistake, be sane a part of every day. Describe the resume, tone of the passage in buy a, the text box below: See our commentary. You may also want to adult resume, explore the module on creating emphasis in your writing to read how writers make use of punctuation to create tone. This type of essay begins with an experience; it may be some remembrance of childhood or something that happened yesterday, and then gradually, almost insensibly, draws out of this experience some general idea that is then expanded, touched gently, as it were, with the philosophic finger and of learning foreign language, then laid down. J. Resume? B. Priestley.

The personal essay can be about anything at allwhatever catches your fancy. You may be inspired by the behavior of contestants on the TV show American Idol to write about singing contestswho enters them, what the performers are like, why people like to essay, watch them. Or you may see two people in resume, a coffee house having an advantage foreign, argument and be inspired to write about the adult, difficulty of relationships. You may choose to write about a remembered person or experience, and try and figure out dissertation kissinger what is important about the resume, person or experience that a reader could connect with. Finding the topic is part of the fun of writing a personal essay, since one is writing about games i like, one's own experiences, thoughts, and insights. Finding your purpose can be a bit more difficult than finding a topic.

You may feel fully confident in talking about what happened and how something happened, but nervous about resume, figuring out how to doctoral dissertation kissinger, order that experience in a meaningful, purposeful way. With a personal essay, as opposed to an analytical essay, actually writing a draft, without having a sense of what your experience means, may be useful. For example, look at this draft of adult resume, a student's reflection on driving alone at high speed late at night. By the end, the experience seems to point to a particular meaning: Thundering down a Northern Michigan highway at night I am separated from the rest of the world. The windows of the car are all rolled down and the wind makes a deep rumbling as the car rises and falls with the dips in the pavement. The white center lines come out of the darkness ahead into essays, the beams of the resume, headlights only to disappear again under the front edge of the hood. The lights also pick up trees, fenceposts, and an occasional deer or raccoon standing by the roadside, but like the white lines they come into buy a doctoral kissinger, view only for a few seconds and then are lost in adult, the blackness behind me. The only signs I have that any world exists outside the range of the sojourners essay dillard, headlights are the continuous chirping and buzzing of the crickets and the smells from farms and sulphur pits I pass. Resume? But the rushing wind soon clears out these odors, leaving me by myself again to listen to the quickly passing crickets I will never see. The faint green lights and the red bar on the dashboard tell me I'm plunging ahead at 90 mph; I put more pressure on the pedal under my foot; the bar moves up to games to play essay, 100 . . . 110.

The lines flash by adult resume faster and the roar of the wind drowns out the noise of the sojourners by annie, crickets and the night. I am flying through. I can feel the vibrations of the road through the steering wheel. I turn the wheel slightly for the gradual curve ahead and then back again for resume, the long straightaway. I press the pedal to the floor and at the same time reach down to touch the buttons on my left that will roll up the windows for more speed; the bar reads 115 . . . 120, buried. Games To Play? With the windows rolled up, the adult resume, only sound is the high-pitched moan frm the engine as it labors to essay, keep the rest of the resume, machine hurtling blindly ahead like a runaway express train. Only I have the power to control it. I flick on the brights to advance my scope of vision and the white lines spring out of the black further up ahead, yet because of the speed, they're out of sight even faster than before.

I am detached from the rest of the world as it blurs past. I am alone. Henry Hall James. This experience is certainly something a reader can connect with; in part because of the rich detail, but also because James captures some essential quality of what this moment feels like: the driver is flying through space, detached from the world, and alone. I Like To Play? The feeling is adult resume one of exhilaration.

And we have all had moments like this, though maybe not in driving a car at high speed. The desire to express this feeling is behind the phrase What a rush! Now look at the conclusions of several personal essays or reminiscences to catcher rye essay adolescence, see how various writers capture the sermon in an experience: We carry places with us. I carry the block I lived on when I was five, and adult resume, the beach I woke up on after senior prom, and the hospital floor I stayed on when my son was born, and so many other places. Our lives are geographies. And when we die, a world dies, too. (Anonymous) Of course. It was all becoming clear now. There was real food to be had here if you just knew the jared diamond, lingo.

Well, I'll have that, I said. And I'll have it with, shall we say, a depravite of potatoes, hand cut and fried till golden in a medley of vegetable oils from the Imperial Valley, accompanied by a quantite de biere, flash-chilled in your own coolers and conveyed to adult resume, my table in a cylinder of glass. The man nodded, impressed that I had cracked the essay dillard, code. Very good, sir, he said. He clicked his heels and withdrew. And no feuillete, I called after him. Adult? I may not know much about food, but I am certain of sojourners essay by annie, this: If there is resume one thing you don't want with steak it's feuillete. (from What's Cooking? by Bill Bryson) A place belongs forever to kissinger, whoever claims it hardest, remembers it most obsessively, wrenches it from itself, shapes it, renders it, loves it so radically that he remakes it in his own image. Resume? (Joan Dideon)

I don't think the government ended the '60s; it was ourselves! Because of fear, that subtle thing happens where you find yourself swept out of yourself, or you lose your ego, or your dreams are lost. (Ken Kesey) Bryson, Bill. What's Cooking? etc. Concord: Summer, 2001. This is the sojourners, key to the personal essay. . . not the adult resume, objective, verifiable truth, but the rye essay, truth as you understand it about resume, something that happened to games i like, you, or a person you care about, or the culture around you as you see it. And this truth need not be a permanent truth that once stated becomes eternal, but rather the truth of the moment, some brave, even brazen statement about the way things are.

To stay close to the truth when you write, let yourself be guided by the following principles: 1. If you don't yet know what you believe about something, admit it . Don't just keep writing nonsense. Resume? One of the following passages is typical of a student who does not yet know his own mind. The other is written by a student who is in touch with a heartfelt idea. Decide which one you think is more honest (and thus, more compelling): I'd like to be a car. You get to go all over and get to go through mud puddles without getting yelled at . . Catcher Rye Essay? . That's what I'd like to be. The automobile is a mechanism fascinating to everyone in all its divserse manifestations and in every conceivable kind of situation or circumstance. (both examples from Telling Writing by Ken Macrorie) Henry Hall James' description of thundering down a Northern Michigan highway late at night is also a good example of truthtelling. James captures what it feels like to be in the moment.

This truth shines through the writing. A personal essay that is developed with a series of adult, general observations about life is usually a boring essay. The detail is where the jared diamond, real interest lies. In the personal essay, show the reader what something was like; don't tell. Consider the following paragraphs; one that finds a once, and one that does not: Everyone wants to feel useful to someone, anyone. They want to feel they are doing something to resume, help, even in a minor way. If you don't feel useful you become depressed. You feel without. Sojourners By Annie Dillard? No friends, nothing to look forward to. There seems a loss of ambition and concentration.

The world seems agains you, and you find unimportant matters to brood over. Everyone around here is having an awful time getting along with me. I'm being positively intolerable. Mom is adult resume trying really hard not to say anything in the wrong tone of voice, so that I feel kind ofwhat's what old-fashioned word? Ashamed of to play essay, myselfOne day I'm in adult, a great mood, and you could yell at me all you wanted without making me mad or hurt. The next day (or the next hour for that matter) you could say Good morning, then yawn, and I'd burst into tears. I suppose that is not awfully abnormal (at least that's what Mom saysin her psychological toneIt's just a phase. You'll grow out of it.) By the games i like essay, way, that makes me mad, too. I don't like to have my life summed up ina series of phrases. It seems like she's saying You can't help acting like an resume, idiot. It comes natural at the act of writing this age.

Bu tdon't worry, you'll outgrow it. It'll pass. The second paragraph is much more effective because it shows the reader what the resume, writer means by dissertation I'm being positively intolerable. The author provides a series of adult, moments that illustrate this idea. In the first paragraph, the author makes several pronouncements about worst mistake, what everyone feels but does not back them up. It is adult as if the the act essays, reader is only seeing the tip of an iceburg in every sentence: what led the author to the conclusion in the sentence remains in the author's headall of the powerful moments are missing from the resume, text. In a personal essay based on narration and description, it can be difficult to create unified and coherent paragraphs. I Like To Play? Below are answers to some of the most vexing problems developing writers face in writing the personal essay: How do I create controlling ideas for paragraphs in a narrative essay? Writing narrative presents a structural dangerthe and then, and then, and then trap, with no controlling idea to adult, show the signficance of what happens in a larger context.

Consider the following example of a poorly unified narrative paragraph to better understand this problem: I got home from work at 6 o'clock. My wife had prepared dinner which we ate immediately. After I had cleaned up the foreign language, kitchen, we watched TV for about an hour. Adult? Then we got ready to rye essay adolescence, go out with some friends. Our friends arrived at about 9 o'clock and we chatted for a while. Adult? Then, we decided to visit a jazz club and rye essay, listen to some music. We really enjoyed ourselves and stayed late. We finally left at one o'clock in the morning. The above paragraph is adult resume simply a series of events with no controlling sentence to catcher rye essay, tell the reader what to do with the information.

Now consider the same paragraph with a controlling idea added in telling the reader what to make of the information: The evening started out as my evenings usually do, but ended with some real fun. I got home from work at 6 o'clock. Adult Resume? My wife had prepared dinner which we ate immediately. After I had cleaned up the kitchen, we watched TV for about an hour. Then we got ready to go out with some friends. Our friends arrived at about 9 o'clock and we chatted for buy a doctoral kissinger, a while.

Then, we decided to visit a jazz club and listen to some music. We really enjoyed ourselves and stayed late. We finally left at one o'clock in the morning. The key to good narration is in having paragraphs as scenes rather than a stream of events. Indeed, it helps to resume, think like a filmaker when constructing your narrative: Think how a filmmaker might instruct the camera person to shoot the story. Would the story include close-ups, wide-angle shots? How might the director splice scenes together? How much detail should go into a description of advantage of learning language, a place? Only include detail that contributes something to your overall purpose. Easy to say . . . but you must be on resume, guard here because your hippocampus (the part of your brain that causes information to go to long term memory) will call up all kinds of useless details about catcher rye essay adolescence, a place.

To illustrate how to handle this situation, let's assume that your goal in a narrative essay is to illuminate the idea below: We carry places with us. I carry with me the block I lived on when I was five, the beach I woke up on after senior prom, and the hospital floor I stayed on when my son was born, and many other places. Our lives are geographies. And when we die, a world dies, too. A body paragraph about the block one lived on at five years old would be important to include in this essay. But what about the experience of living on that block should be sifted out of the sand? To answer that question, look to resume, your purpose.

Here, the goal is to show that certain places stay with us. But why? Because important things happened there. Each example explored in the essay should be a story of an important experience that happened in a particular place, an experience shaped by that place, perhaps. The paragraph about the neighborhood block could be about a child's first experience of exhiliaration riding a Big-Wheel down the street, or of the mystery of catcher, night-time discovered while playing hide-and-seek after dark.

Details about the neighbor's garden gnomes, or an apple tree in bloom, interesting though they may be, might need to resume, be dropped from the paragraph if they do not support the overall point of that paragraph. Macrorie, Ken. Telling writing . Pourtsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers. 1985.

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contruct a resume PACIFIC RAILROAD ACTS. ACT OF JULY 1, 1862. [12 Statutes at Large, 489.] AN ACT to aid in the construction of a railroad and adult resume, telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the games i like essay same for postal, military, and other purposes. Be it enacted by adult resume, the Senate and games to play essay, House of Representatives of the United States of America in resume, Congress assembled, That Walter S. Burgess, William P. Blodget, Benjamin H. Cheever, Charles Fosdick Fletcher, of Rhode Island; Augustus Brewster, Henry P. Haven, Cornelius S. Bushnell, Henry Hammond, Of Connecticut; Isaac Sherman, Dean Richmond, Royal Phelps, William H. Ferry, Henry A. By Annie. Paddock, Lewis J. Stancliff, Charles A. Secor, Samuel R. Campbell, Alfred E. Tilton, John Anderson, Azariah Boody, John S. Kennedy, H. Carver, Joseph Field, Benjamin F. Camp, Orville W. Childs, Alexander J. Bergen, Ben. Holliday, D. M. Barney, S. De Witt Bloodgood, William H. Grant, Thos.

W. Olcott, Samuel B. Ruggles, James B. Wilson, of New York; Ephraim Marsh, Charles M. Harker, of New Jersey; John Edgar Thompson, Benjamin Haywood, Joseph H. Scranton, Joseph Harrison, George W. Cass, John H. Bryant, Daniel J. Morell, Thomas M. Howe, William F. Johnson, Robert Finney, John A. Green, E. R. Myre, Charles F. Adult. Wells, jr., of Pennsylvania; Noah L. Wilson, Amos Stone, William H. Clement, S. S. L’Hommedieu, John Brough, William Dennison, Jacob Blickinsderfer , of Ohio; William M. McPherson, R. W. Wells, Willard P. Hall, Armstrong Beatty, John Corby, of Missouri; S. Of Writing. J. Adult. Hensley, Teter Donahue, C. P. Huntingdon, T. D. Judah, James Bailey, James T. Advantage Of Learning Language. Ryan, Charles Hosmer, Charles Marsh, D. O. Mills, Samuel Bell, Louis McLane, George W. Mowe, Charles McLaughlin, Timothy Dame, John R. Adult Resume. Robinson, of California; John Atchison and John D. Winters, of the Territory of Nevada; John D. Campbell, R. By Annie Dillard. N.. Rice, Charles A. Trowbridge, Ransom Gardner, Charles W. Penny, Charles T. Gorham, William McConnell, of adult, Michigan; William F. Dillard. Coolbaugh, Lucius H. Adult. Langworthy, Hugh T. Reid, Hoyt Sherman, Lyman Cook, Samuel R. Curtis, Lewis A. Thomas, Platt Smith, of lowa; William B. Catcher. Ogden, Charles G. Hammond, Henry Farnum, Amos C. Babcock, W. Seldon Gale, Nehemiah Bushnell, and Lorenzo Bull, of resume, Illinois; William. H. Swift, Samuel T. Dana, John Bertram, Franklin S. Stevens, Edward R. Tinker, of Massachusetts; Franklin Gorin, Laban J. Bradford, and John T. Levis, of of learning, Kentucky; James Dunning, John M. Wood, Edwin Noyes, Joseph Eaton, of adult, Maine; Henry H. Baxter, George W. Collamer, Henry Keyes, Thomas H. Canfield, of Vermont; William S. Ladd, A. M. Berry, Benjamin F. Harding, of Oregon; William Bunn, junior, John Catlin, Levi Sterling, John Thompson, Elihu L. Phillips, Walter D. McIndoe, T. B. Stoddard, E. H. Broadhead, A. H. Virgin, of Wisconsin; Charles Paine, Thomas A. Morris, David E. Brandlham, Samuel Hanna, Jonas Votaw, Jesse L. Williams, Isaac C. Elston, of Indiana; Thomas Swan, Chauncey Brooks, Edward Wilkins, of Maryland; Francis R. E. Cornell, David Blakely, A. D. Advantage Essay. Seward, Henry A. Swift, Dwight Woodbury, John McKusick, John R. Adult. Jones, of Minnesota; Joseph A. Gilmore, Charles W. Woodman, of New Hampshire; W. H. Sojourners By Annie Dillard. Grimes, J. C. Stone, Chester Thomas, John Kerr, Werter R. Davis, Luther C. Challis, Josiah Miller, of Kansas; Gilbert C. Monell, and Augustus Kountz, T. M. Marquette, William H. Taylor, Alvin Saunders, of Nebraska; and John Evans, or Colorado; together with five commissioners to resume, be appointed by the Secretary of the Interior, and all persons who shall or may be associated with them, and their successors, are hereby created and erected into a corporate and politic in deed and in to play essay, law, by the name, style, and title of The Union Pacific Railroad Company; and by that name shall have perpetual succession, and shall be able to sue and to be sued, plead and be impleaded, defend and adult resume, be defended, in all courts of law and equity within the United States, and may make and have a common seal; and the said corporation is hereby authorized and empowered to lay out, locate, construct, furnish, maintain, and enjoy a continuous railroad and telegraph, with the appurtenances, from a point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude west from Greenwich, between the south margin of the valley of the diamond thesis Republican river and the north margin of the valley of the adult resume Platte river, in the Territory of Nebraska, to the western boundary of Nevada Territory, upon the route and terms hereinafter provided, and is hereby vested with all the powers, privileges, and immunities necessary to carry into effect the jared diamond purposes of this act as herein set forth. The capital stock of said company shall consist of one hundred thousand shares of adult resume, one thousand dollars each, which shall be subscribed for and held in the act essays, not more than two hundred shares by any one person, and shall be transferable in such manner as the by-laws of said corporation shall provide. The persons hereinbefore named, together with those to be appointed by the Secretary of the Interior, are hereby constituted and adult, appointed commissioners, and such body shall be called the Board of of writing, Commissioners of the Union Pacific Railroad and Telegraph Company, and twenty-five shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The first meeting of said board shall be held at Chicago, at such time as the commissioners from Illinois herein named shall appoint, not more than three nor less than one mouth after the passage of this act, notice of which shall be given by them to adult resume, the other commissioners by depositing a call thereof in the post-office at Chicago, post-paid, to their address, at least forty days before said meeting, and also by publishing said notice in one daily newspaper in each of the of learning language cities of adult, Chicago and St.

Louis. Said board shall organize by sojourners essay by annie, the choice from its number of a president, secretary, and treasurer, and they shall require from said treasurer such bonds as may be deemed proper, and may from time to time increase the amount thereof as they may deem proper. It shall be the duty of said Board of resume, Commissioners to open books, or cause books to be opened, at such times and in such principal cities in the United States as they or a quorum of them shall determine, to receive subscriptions to i like to play essay, the capital stock of said corporation, and a cash payment of ten per resume centum on buy a doctoral dissertation kissinger, all subscriptions, and to receipt therefor. So soon as two thousand shares shall be in good faith subscribed for, and ten dollars per share actually paid into the treasury of the company, the said president and secretary of said Board of Commissioners shall appoint a time and place for the first meeting of the subscribers to the stock of said company, and shall give notice thereof in at least one newspaper in each state in which subscription-books have been opened, at least thirty days previous to the day of meeting, and such subscribers as shall attend the meeting so called, either in person or by proxy, shall then and there elect by ballot not less than thirteen directors for said corporation; and in such election each share of said capital shall entitle the owner thereof to one vote. The president and secretary of the adult resume Board of the act of writing, Commissioners shall act as inspectors of said election, and shall certify under their hands the names of the directors elected at said meeting, and the said commissioners, treasurer, and adult resume, secretary shall then deliver over to said directors all the dillard properties, subscription-books, and other books in their possession, and thereupon the duties of adult, said commissioners and the officers previously appointed by them shall cease and determine forever, and foreign, thereafter the stockholders shall constitute said body politic and corporate.

At the time of the first and each triennial election of directors by adult resume, the stockholders, two additional directors shall be appointed by the President of the i like to play essay United States, who shall act with the body of adult, directors, and to be denominated directors on the act essays, the part of the government; any vacancy happening in the government directors at adult anytime may be filled by the President of the United States. The directors to be appointed by the President shall not be stockholders in the Union Pacific Railroad Company. The directors so chosen shalt, as soon as may be after their election, elect from their own number a president and vice-president, and shall also elect a treasurer and secretary. No person shall be a director in said company unless he shall be a bona fide owner of at games essay least five shares of stock in the said company, except the two directors to resume, be appointed by the President as aforesaid. Said company, at any regular meeting of the stockholders called for that purpose, shall have power to make by-laws, rules, and regulations as they shall deem needful and proper, touching the jared thesis disposition of the stock, property, estate, and effects of the company, not inconsistent herewith, the transfer of shares, the term of adult, office, duties and conduct of games, their officers and servants, and all matters whatsoever which may appertain to the concerns of said company; and the said board of directors shall have power to appoint such engineers, agents, and subordinates as may from adult resume time to time be necessary to carry into catcher adolescence, effect the adult resume object of this act, and to do all acts and things touching the to play essay location and construction of said road and telegraph. Said directors may require payment of subscriptions to the capital stock after due notice, at such times and in such proportions as they shall deem necessary to complete the railroad-and telegraph within the time in this act prescribed. Said president, vice-president, and directors shall bold their office for three years, and until their successors are duly elected and qualified, or for such less time as the by-laws of the corporation may prescribe ; and a majority of said directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of resume, business.

The secretary and treasurer shall give such bonds, with such security, as the said board shall from time to time require, and shall bold their offices at the will and pleasure of the directors. Annual meetings of the stockholders of the said corporation, for the choice of officers (when they are to be chosen) and for the transaction of annual business, shall be holden at such time and place and upon buy a doctoral dissertation kissinger, such notice as may be prescribed in the by-laws. SEC. 2 . Adult Resume. And be it further enacted, That the right of way through the the act public lands be, and the same is hereby, granted to said company for the construction of said railroad and adult resume, telegraph line; and the right, power, and rye essay adolescence, authority is hereby given to said company to take from the public lands adjacent to the line of said road, earth, stone, timber, and other materials for the construction thereof; said right of way is granted to said railroad to the extent of’ two hundred feet in resume, width on each side of said railroad, where it may pass over the public lands, including all necessary grounds for stations, buildings, workshops and depots, machine shops, switches, side tracks, turn-tables, and water stations. The United States shall extinguish as rapidly as may be, the the act Indian titles to all lands falling under the operation of adult resume, this act, and required for the said right of way and games i like, grants hereinafter made. SEC. 3 . And be it further enacted, That there be, and is hereby, granted to the said company, for the purpose of aiding in the construction of said railroad and telegraph line, and to secure the safe and speedy, transportation of the mails, troops, munitions of war, and public stores thereon, every alternate section of adult, public land, designated by odd numbers, to the amount of five alternate sections per mile on each side of said railroad, on the line thereof, and within the limits of ten miles on each side of said road, not sold, reserved, or otherwise disposed of by the United States, and to i like to play essay, which a preemption or homestead claim may not have attached, at the time the line of said road is resume, definitely fixed: Pro vided, That all mineral lands shall be excepted from the operation of this act; but where the same shall contain timber, the timber thereon is hereby granted to said company. Thesis. And all such lands so granted by this section which shall not be sold or disposed of by said company within three years after the entire road shall have been completed, shall be subject to settlement and pre-emption like other lands, at a price not exceeding one dollar and twenty-five cents per adult resume acre, to be paid to by annie, said company.

SEC. Adult Resume. 4 . And be it further enacted, That whenever said company shall have completed forty consecutive miles of any portion of said railroad or telegraph line ready for the service contemplated by this act, and supplied with all necessary drains, culverts, viaducts, crossings, sidings, bridges, turnouts, watering places, depots, equipments, furniture, and all other appurtenances of catcher rye essay adolescence, a first-class railroad —the rails and adult, all the catcher adolescence other iron used in the construction and equipment of said road to be American manufacture of the best quality, the President of the United States shall appoint three commissioners to examine the same and report to him in relation thereto; and if it shall appear to him that forty consecutive miles of said railroad and telegraph line have been completed and equipped in all respects as required by this act, then, upon certificate of resume, said commissioners to games to play essay, that effect, patents shall issue conveying the right and title to said lands to said company, on each side of the road, as far as the same is completed, to the amount aforesaid; and patents shall in like manner issue as each forty miles of said railroad and telegraph line are completed, upon certificate of said commissioners. Any vacancies occurring in resume, said board of commissioners by death, resignation, or otherwise, shall be filled by the President of the United States: Provided, however, That no such commissioners shall be appointed by the President of the United States unless there shall be presented to him a statement, verified on oath by the president of said company, that such forty miles have been completed in advantage foreign essay, the manner required by this act, and setting forth with certainty the points where such forty miles begin and where the adult same end; which oath shall be taken before a judge of a court of games i like to play, record. SEC. 5 . And be it further enacted, That for the purposes herein mentioned, the adult resume Secretary of the Treasury shall, upon the certificate in writing of said commissioners of the completion and equipment of forty consecutive miles of said railroad and telegraph, in accordance with the provisions of this act, issue to said company bonds of the United States of one thousand dollars each, payable in thirty years after date, bearing six per centum per annum interest (said interest payable semi-annually), which interest may be paid in United States treasury notes or any other money or currency which the United States have or shall declare lawful money and a legal-tender, to the amount of sixteen of said bonds per doctoral dissertation kissinger mile for such section of forty miles; and to secure the repayment to the United States, as hereinafter provided, of the amount of said bonds so issued and delivered to said company, together with all interest thereon which shall have been paid by adult resume, the United States , the issue of said bonds and delivery to jared thesis, the company shall ipso facto constitute a first mortgage on the whole line of the railroad and telegraph, together with the adult rolling-stock, fixtures, and property of every kind and description, and in consideration of which said bonds may be issued; and on refusal or failure of said company to redeem said bonds or any part of them, when required to do so by the Secretary of the Treasury, in accordance with the provisions of this act, the said road, with all the rights, functions, immunities, and appurtenances thereunto belonging, and also all lands granted to the said company by the United States, which, at the time of said default, shall remain in the ownership of the said company, may be taken possession of by the Secretary of the Treasury for catcher rye essay adolescence the use and benefit of the United States: Provided, This section shall not apply to that part of any road now constructed. SEC. 6 . And be it further enacted, That the grants aforesaid are made upon condition that said company shall pay said bonds at maturity, and shall keep said railroad and telegraph line in repair and resume, use, and buy a doctoral dissertation, shall at all times transmit dispatches over said telegraph line, and transport mails, troops, and munitions of war, supplies, and public stores upon said railroad for the government whenever required to do so by any department thereof, and that the government shall at adult resume all times have the preference in the use of the same for all the purposes aforesaid, (at fair and reasonable rates of compensation, not to exceed the amounts paid by private parties for the same kind of service); and games i like, all compensation for adult services rendered for the government shall be applied to the payment of said bonds and interest until the whole amount is fully paid.

Said company may also pay the United States, wholly or in part, in the same or other bonds, treasury notes, or other evidences of debt against the United States, to be allowed at par; and jared diamond mistake, after said road is completed, until said bonds and interest are paid, at least five per centum of the net earnings of said road shall also be annually applied to the payment thereof. SEC. 7 . And be it further enacted, That said company shall file their assent to this act, under the seal of said company, in the Department of the Interior, within one year after the passage of this act, and resume, shall complete said railroad and telegraph from the point of catcher, beginning as herein provided, to the western boundary of Nevada Territory, before the first day of July, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four: Provided, That within two years after the passage of adult resume, this act said company shall designate the general route of said road, as near as may be, and shall file a map of the same in the Department of the Interior, whereupon the Secretary of the sojourners by annie Interior shall cause the lands within fifteen miles of said designated route or routes to be withdrawn from pre-emption, private entry, and sale; and when any portion of said route shall be finally located, the Secretary of the Interior shall cause the said lands hereinbefore granted, to be surveyed and set off as fast as may be necessary for the purposes herein named: Provided, That in fixing the resume point of connection of the main trunk with the eastern connections it shall be fixed at the most practicable point for the construction of the Iowa and Missouri branches, as hereinafter provided. SEC. 8 . And be it further enacted, That the line of said railroad and sojourners essay by annie dillard, telegraph shall commence at a point on the one hundredth meridian of longitude west from Greenwich, between the south margin of the valley of the Republican river and the north margin of the valley of the resume Platte river, in the Territory of Nebraska, at a point to language, be fixed by the President of the United States, after actual surveys; thence running westerly upon the most direct, central, and practicable route, through the territories of the United States, to adult, the western boundary of the Territory of Nevada, there to meet and connect with the line of the Central Pacific Railroad Company of diamond, California . SEC. 9 . And be it further enacted, That the Leavenworth, Pawnee and adult resume, Western Railroad Company of Kansas are hereby authorized to advantage language, construct a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river, at the mouth of the Kansas river, on the south side thereof, so as to connect with the Pacific Railroad of Missouri, to the aforesaid point on resume, the one- hundredth meridian of longitude west from Greenwich, as herein provided, upon the same terms and conditions in all respects as are provided in this act for the construction of the railroad and by annie, telegraph line first mentioned, and to meet and connect with the same at the meridian of longitude aforesaid; and in case the general route or line of road from the Missouri river to the Rocky Mountains should be so located as to adult, require a departure northwardly from the the act of writing essays proposed line of said Kansas railroad before it reaches the meridian of longitude aforesaid, the location of said Kansas road shall be made so as to conform thereto; and said railroad through Kansas shall be so located between the mouth of the Kansas river, as aforesaid, and the aforesaid point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude, that the adult resume several railroads from Missouri and Iowa, herein authorized to connect with the essays same, can make connection within the limits prescribed in this act, provided the same can be done without deviating from the general direction of the whole line to the Pacific coast. The route in Kansas west of the meridian of Fort Riley, to the aforesaid point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude, to be subject to the approval of the President of the United States, and to be determined by him on actual survey. And said Kansas company may proceed to build said railroad to the aforesaid point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude west from Greenwich, in resume, the Territory of Nebraska. The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, a corporation existing under the laws of the State of catcher rye essay, California, are hereby authorized to construct a railroad and telegraph line from the Pacific coast, at or near San Francisco, or the navigable waters of the Sacramento river, to the eastern boundary of California, upon the same terms and conditions, in adult resume, all respects, as are contained in this act for the construction of said railroad and telegraph line first-mentioned, and to meet and connect with the first-mentioned railroad and telegraph line on the eastern boundary of California.

Each of said companies shall file their acceptance of the conditions of this act in the Department of the Interior within six months after the passage of this act. SEC. 10 . Of Writing Essays. And be it further enacted, That the said company chartered by adult, the State of buy a dissertation kissinger, Kansas shall complete one hundred miles of their said road, commencing at the mouth of the Kansas river, as aforesaid, within two years after filing their assent to the conditions of this act, as herein provided, and adult, one hundred miles per year thereafter until the whole is completed; and the said Central Pacific Railroad Company of California shall complete fifty miles of their said road within two years after filing their assent to the provisions of this act, as herein provided, and fifty miles per year thereafter until the whole is completed; and after completing their roads, respectively, said companies, or either of them, may unite upon equal terms with the first-named company in constructing so much of said railroad and telegraph line and branch railroads and telegraph lines in this act hereinafter mentioned, through the territories, from the State of California to the Missouri river, as shall then remain to be constructed, on the same terms and conditions as provided in this act in relation to the said Union Pacific Railroad Company. And the Hannibal and Saint Joseph railroad, the Pacific Railroad Company of Missouri, and the first-named company, or either of them, on filing their assent to this act as aforesaid, may unite upon equal terms, under this act, with the said Kansas company, in constructing said railroad and telegraph to said meridian of jared diamond worst mistake, longitude, with the consent of the said State of Kansas; and in case said first-named company shall complete their line to the eastern boundary of California before it is completed across said state by the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, said first-named company is hereby authorized to continue in adult resume, constructing the same through California, with the consent of said state, upon the terms mentioned in mistake, this act, until said roads shall meet and connect, and the whole line of said railroad and telegraph is resume, completed ; and the Central Pacific Railroad Company of diamond worst mistake, California, after completing its road across said state, is authorized to continue the construction of adult resume, said railroad and telegraph through the territories of the United States to the Missouri river, including the branch roads specified in this act, upon the routes hereinbefore and hereinafter indicated, on the terms and conditions provided in this act in buy a, relation to the said Union Pacific Railroad Company, until said roads shall meet and connect, and the whole line of adult resume, said railroad and the act, branches and resume, telegraph is completed. SEC. 11 . And be it further enacted, That for three hundred miles of said road, most mountainous and difficult of construction, to wit, one hundred and fifty miles westwardly from the eastern base of the Rocky mountains, and one hundred and fifty miles eastwardly from the catcher adolescence the western base of the Sierra Nevada mountains, said points to be fixed by the President of the United States, the bonds to be issued to aid in the construction thereof shall be treble the number per mile hereinbefore provided, and the same shall be issued, and the lands herein granted be set apart, upon the construction of every twenty miles thereof, upon the certificate of the commissioners as aforesaid that twenty consecutive miles of the resume same are completed ; and between the sections last named of one hundred and fifty miles each, the bonds to be issued to rye essay adolescence, aid in the construction thereof’ shall be double the number per mile first mentioned, and the same shall be issued, and the lands herein granted beset apart, upon the construction of every twenty miles thereof, upon the certificate of the commissioners as aforesaid that twenty consecutive miles of the same are completed: Provided, That no more than fifty thousand of said bonds shall be issued under this act to adult, aid in constructing the main line of said railroad and jared mistake thesis, telegraph. SEC. 12 . Adult Resume. And be it further enacted, That whenever the route of said railroad shall cross the boundary of any state or territory or said meridian of longitude, the two companies meeting or uniting there shall agree upon its location at that point, with reference to the most direct and practicable through route, and in case of i like essay, difference between them as to said location the President of the United States shall determine the said location; the companies named in each state and territory to locate the road across the same between the points so agreed upon, except as herein provided. The track, upon the entire line of railroad and branches shall be of uniform width, to be determined by the President of the adult United States, so that, when completed, cars can be run from the Missouri river to the Pacific coast; the grades and curves shall not exceed the maximum grades and curves of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad; the whole line of said railroad and branches and telegraph shall be operated and used for all purposes of communication, travel, and transportation, so far as the public and government are concerned, as one connected continuous line; and the companies herein named in Missouri, Kansas, and worst mistake, California, filing their assent to the provisions of this act, shall receive and transport all iron rails, chairs, spikes, ties, timber, and all materials required for resume constructing and furnishing said first-mentioned line between the catcher aforesaid point on adult, the one-hundredth meridian of longitude and western boundary of Nevada Territory, whenever the same is required by said first-named company, at cost, over sojourners essay by annie dillard, that portion of the roads of said companies constructed under the provisions of this act. SEC. 13 . And be it further enacted, That the Hannibal and Saint Joseph Railroad Company of Missouri may extend its road from resume Saint Joseph, via Atchison, to connect and unite with the road through Kansas, upon filing its assent to the provisions of this act, upon the same terms and conditions in all respects, for one hundred miles in length next to the Missouri river, as are provided in this act for the construction of the railroad and telegraph line first mentioned, and may for this purpose use any railroad charter which has been or may be granted by the legislature of Kansas: Provided, That if actual survey shall render it desirable, the rye essay said company may construct their road, with the consent of the Kansas legislature, on the most direct and adult resume, practicable route west from St.

Joseph, Missouri, so as to connect and unite with the road leading from the western boundary of Iowa at any point east of the one-hundredth meridian of west longitude, or with the essay by annie dillard main trunk road at said point; but in resume, no event shall lands or bonds be given to said company, as herein directed, to aid in the construction of their said road for a greater distance than one hundred miles. And the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company of of writing essays, Kansas may construct their road from adult resume Leavenworth to unite with the the act of writing road through Kansas, SEC. 14 . And be it further enacted, That the said Union Pacific Railroad Company is hereby authorized and required to adult, construct a single line of railroad and telegraph from of learning foreign essay a point on Me western boundary of the State of Iowa, to be fixed by the President of the United States, upon the most direct and practicable route, to adult resume, be subject to his approval, so as to form a connection with the line of said company at some point on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude aforesaid, from the point of commencement on the western boundary of the State of Iowa, upon the same terms and conditions, in all respects, as are contained in this act for the construction of the dissertation said railroad and adult resume, telegraph first mentioned; and the said Union Pacific Railroad Company shall complete one hundred miles of the road and telegraph in this section provided for in two years after filing their assent to the conditions of the act, this act, as by the terms of this act required, and at the rate of one hundred miles per year thereafter until the adult resume whole is completed: Provided, That a failure upon the part of said company to make said connection in the time aforesaid, and to perform the obligations imposed on said company by this section, and to operate said road in the same manner as the main line shall be operated, shall forfeit to the government of the United States all the rights, privileges, and franchises granted to and conferred upon said company by this act. And whenever there shall be a line of railroad completed through Minne sota or Iowa to Sioux City, then the said Pacific Rail road Company is games i like to play essay, hereby authorized and required to con struct a railroad and telegraph from said Sioux City upon the most direct and practicable route to resume, a point on, and so as to connect with, the branch railroad and telegraph in this section hereinbefore mentioned, or with the said Union Pacific railroad, said point of junction to be fixed by the President of the United States, not further west than the one-hundredth meridian of longitude aforesaid, and on the same terms and conditions as provided in this act for the construction of the games i like to play essay Union Pacific railroad as aforesaid, and to complete the same at the rate of one hundred miles per year; and should said company fail to comply with the requirements of this act in relation to the said Sioux City railroad and telegraph, the said company shall suffer the same forfeitures prescribed in relation to the Iowa branch railroad and adult resume, telegraph hereinbefore mentioned. SEC.

15 . And be it further enacted, That any other railroad company now incorporated, or hereafter to be incorporated, shall have the right to connect their road with the road and to play, branches provided for by this act, at adult such places and upon such just and equitable terms as the President of the United States may prescribe. Wherever the word company is used in i like to play essay, this act, it shall be construed to embrace the resume words their associates, successors, and assigns, the same as if the words had been properly added thereto. SEC. 16 . And be it further enacted, That at i like to play any time after the passage of this act all of the resume railroad companies named herein, and assenting hereto, or any two or more of them, are authorized to form themselves into one consolidated company; notice of such consolidation, in writing, shall be filed in by annie, the Department of the Interior, and such consolidated company shall thereafter proceed to construct said railroad and resume, branches and telegraph line upon the terms and conditions provided in this act. SEC. Buy A Dissertation. 17 . And be it further enacted, That in resume, case said company or companies shall fail to comply with the terms and conditions of this act, by adolescence, not completing said road and telegraph and branches within a reasonable time, or by not keeping the same in adult resume, repair and sojourners essay, use, but shall permit the same for an unreasonable time to remain unfinished or out of adult, repair and unfit for use, Congress may pass any act to insure the speedy completion of said road and branches, or to put the same in repair and use, and may direct the income of said railroad and telegraph line to be thereafter devoted to the use of the United States to repay all such expenditures caused by rye essay, the default or neglect of such company or companies: Provided, That if said roads are not completed, so as to form a continuous line of railroad, ready for use, from the Missouri river to the navigable waters of the Sacramento river in California, by the first day of July, eighteen hundred and seventy-six, the whole of all of said railroads before mentioned, and to be constructed under the provisions of this act, together with all their furniture, fixtures, rolling-stock, machine shops, lands, tenements, hereditaments, and property of every kind and character, shall be forfeited to and taken possession of by the United States: Provided, That of the bonds of the United States in adult, this act provided to be delivered for any and all parts of the roads to essay, be constructed east of the one-hundredth meridian of west longitude from Greenwich, and for any part of the resume road west of the west foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, there shall be reserved of each part and installment twenty-five per centum, to be and remain in the United States treasury, undelivered, until said road and all parts thereof provided for in this act are entirely completed; and of all the bonds provided to be delivered for the said road, between the two points aforesaid, there shall be reserved out of each installment fifteen per centum, to be and remain in the treasury until the whole of the road provided for in this act is fully completed ; and if the said road or any part thereof shall fail of completion at the time limited therefor in this act, then and in that case the said part of said bonds so reserved shall be forfeited to the United States. SEC. Of Learning Foreign. 18 . And be it further enacted., That whenever it appears that the net earnings or the entire road and telegraph, including the amount allowed for services rendered for resume the United States, after deducting all expenditures—including repairs and the furnishing, running, and managing of sojourners essay, said road—shall exceed ten per resume centum upon its cost, (exclusive of the five per centum to be paid to sojourners by annie dillard, the United States,) Congress may reduce the rates of fare thereon, if unreasonable in amount, and may fix and establish the same by law. And the better to accomplish the object of this act, namely, to promote the resume public interest and welfare by the construction of said railroad and telegraph line, and games i like essay, keeping the same in working order, and to secure to the government at all times (but particularly in time, of war) the use and benefits of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, Congress may at any time—having due regard for the rights of resume, said companies named herein—add to, alter, amend, or repeal this act. SEC.

19 . Sojourners Essay Dillard. And be it further enacted, That the several railroad companies herein named are authorized to enter into an arrangement with the Pacific Telegraph Company, the Overland Telegraph Company, and the California State Telegraph Company, so that the present line of resume, telegraph between the Missouri river and sojourners by annie dillard, San Francisco may be moved upon or along the resume line of said railroad and branches as fast as said roads and branches are built; and if said arrangement be entered into, and the transfer of said telegraph line be made in accordance therewith to the line of said railroad and branches, such transfer shall, for all purposes of this act, be held and considered a fulfillment, on the part of said railroad companies, of the provisions of this act in regard to the construction of said line of essays, telegraph. And in case of adult, disagreement, said telegraph companies are authorized to remove their line of telegraph along and upon the line of railroad herein contemplated without prejudice to the rights of advantage of learning foreign essay, said railroad companies named herein. SEC. 20 . And be it further enacted, That the corporation hereby created and the roads connected therewith, under the provisions of this act, shall make to the Secretary of the Treasury an annual report, wherein shall be set forth : First. The names of the adult stockholders and their places of residence, so far as the same can be ascertained. Second. The names and residences of the directors and all other officers of the company. Third. The amount of by annie dillard, stock subscribed, and resume, the amount thereof actually paid in. Fourth.

A description of the advantage of learning foreign language essay lines of road surveyed, of the lines thereof fixed upon for the construction of the road, and adult resume, the cost of such surveys. Fifth. The amount received from passengers on the road. Sixth. The amount received for freight thereon. Seventh. A statement of the expense of said road and its fixtures. Eighth. A statement of the indebtedness of said company, setting forth the various kinds thereof; which report shall be sworn to by the president of the dillard said company, and shall be presented to the Secretary of the Treasury on or before the first day of July in adult resume, each year. Approved July 1, 1862. [12 Statutes at Large, 538.]

AN ACT to amend an act entitled An act to essays, aid in adult resume, the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the essay by annie Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to resume, secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July 1, 1862. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the first meeting of the commissioners named in the act entitled An act to aid in the construction of of writing essays, a railroad and telegraph line from the adult resume Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for rye essay postal, military, and other purposes, approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and of the five commissioners directed by said act to be appointed by the Secretary of the Interior, shall be held at Bryan Hall, in the city of Chicago, in the State of Illinois, on resume, the first Tuesday of September next, at twelve o’clock, at noon. A notice of said meeting, to be signed by at of learning essay least ten of the commissioners named in adult, said act, shall be published at least once a week during the six successive weeks commencing on the twentieth of July, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two in one daily newspaper in each of the cities of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis, and no other notice of said meeting shall be requisite. Approved July 12, 1862. ACT OF MARCH 3, 1863—FIXING GAUGE. [12 Statutes at Large, 807.] AN ACT to establish the gauge of the of writing essays Pacific railroad and its branches.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the gauge of the Pacific railroad and its branches throughout their whole extent, from the Pacific coast to the Missouri river, shall be, and hereby is, established at four feet eight and one-half inches. Approved March 3, 1863. ACT OF JULY 2, 1864. [13 Statutes at Large, 356.] AN ACT to amend an act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-two. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the capital stock of the company entitled the adult resume Union Pacific Railroad Company, authorized by the act of which this act is buy a doctoral dissertation, amendatory, shall be in shares of one hundred dollars, instead of one thousand dollars, each; that the number of shares shall be one million, instead of one hundred thousand; and that the number of adult resume, shares which any person shall hold to doctoral dissertation kissinger, entitle him to serve as a director in said company (except the five directors to be appointed by government) shall be fifty shares, instead of five shares; and that every subscriber to said capital stock for each share of one thousand dollars, heretofore subscribed, shall be entitled to a certificate for ten shares of one hundred dollars each; and that the resume following words in section first of said act, which shall be subscribed for and held in not more than two hundred shares by any one person, be and the same are hereby repealed. SEC. 2 . And be it further enacted, That the i like essay Union Pacific Railroad Company shall cause books to be kept open to receive subscriptions to the capital stock of adult resume, said company, (until the entire capital of one hundred mil lions of dollars shall be subscribed,) at buy a dissertation the general office of said company in the city of New York, and in each of the cities of Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Chicago, Cincinnati, and St.

Louis, at such. places as may be des ignated by the President of the United States, and in adult resume, such other localities as may be directed by him. No subscription for games i like essay said stock shall be deemed valid unless the subscriber therefor shall, at the time of subscribing, or remit to the treasurer of the company an amount per share subscribed by him equal to the amount per share previously paid by the then-existing stockholders. The said company shall make assessments upon its stock holders of not less than five dollars per share, and at intervals of not exceeding six months from and after the passage of this act, until the par value of all shares sub scribed shall be full paid; and money only shall be receivable for any such assessments, or as equivalents for any portion of the capital stock hereinbefore authorized. Adult. The capital stock of said company shall not be increased beyond the actual cost of foreign language essay, said road. And the adult stock of the company shall be deemed personal property, and rye essay, shall be transferable on the books of the company, at the general office of adult resume, said company in the city of New York, or at such other transfer office as the company may establish. SEC. 3 . And be it further enacted, That the Union Pacific Railroad Company, and all other companies provided for in this act and advantage language essay, the act to which this is an adult resume amendment, be, and catcher adolescence, hereby are, empowered to enter upon, purchase, take, and bold any lands or premises that may be necessary and proper for the construction and working of said road, not exceeding in resume, width one hundred feet on each side of its centre line, unless a greater width be required for sojourners essay by annie the purpose of excavation or embankment; and also my lands or premises that may be necessary and proper for turnouts standing places for cars, depots, station house[s], or any other structures required in adult, the construction and operating of said road. Essays. And each of said companies shall have the right to cut and adult, remove trees and catcher adolescence, other materials that might by adult resume, falling encumber its road-bed, though standing or being more than one hundred feet therefrom. And in case the owner or claimant of such lands or premises and such company cannot agree as to the damages, the amount shall be determined by the appraisal of three disinterested commissioners, who may be appointed upon application by the act, any party to any judge of a court of record in any of the territories in which the lands or premises to be taken lie; and said commissioners, in their assessments of damages, shall appraise such premises at adult resume what would have been the value thereof if the road had not been built; and upon adolescence, return into court of such ap praisement, and upon the payment to the clerk thereof of the amount so awarded by the commissioners for the use and benefit of the owner thereof, said premises shall be deemed to be taken by resume, said company, which shall thereby acquire full title to the same for the purposes aforesaid. And either party feeling aggrieved by said assessment may, within thirty days, file an appeal there from, and demand a jury of twelve men to estimate the damage sustained; but such appeal shall not interfere with the rights of said company to enter upon the premises taken, or to do any act necessary in the con struction of its road. And said party appealing shall give bonds, with sufficient surety or sureties, for the pay ment of any cost that may arise upon such appeal.

And in case the party appealing does not obtain a more favor Able verdict, such party shall pay the whole cost incurred by the appellee as well as its own. And the payment into games to play essay, court for the use of the owner or claimant of a sum equal to that finally awarded shall be held to vest in said company the title of said land, and the right to use and resume, occupy the same for the construction, maintaining and operating of the road of said company. Arid in doctoral, case any of the lands to be taken as aforesaid shall be held by any person residing without the territory or subject to any legal disability, the court may appoint a proper person, who shall give bonds, with sufficient surety or sureties, for resume the faithful execution of his trust, and who may represent in court the person disqualified or absent as aforesaid, when the same proceeding shall be bad in reference to the appraisement of the catcher rye essay promises to be taken and resume, with tile same effect as have been already described. And the title of the company to the land taken by i like to play essay, virtue of this act shall not be affected nor impaired by rea son of any failure by any guardian to discharge faithfully his trust, And in resume, case it shall be necessary for either of the said companies to enter upon lands which are un occupied, and of which there is no apparent owner or claimant, it may proceed to take and use the same for the purpose of its said railroad, and of writing, may institute proceedings in manner described for the purpose of resume, ascertaining the value of and acquiring a title to the same; and adolescence, the court may determine the kind of notice to be served on such owner or owners, and may in its discretion appoint an agent or guardian to represent such owner or owners in case of his or their incapacity or non-appearance. But in case no claimant shall appear within six years from the time of the opening of said road across any land, all claim to damges against said company shall be barred. It shall be competent for the legal guardian of any infant or any other person under guardianship to adult resume, agree with the foreign language proper company as to resume, damages sustained by reason of the taking of any lands of any such person under disability, as aforesaid, for the use as aforesaid; and upon games i like to play, such agreement being made, and adult, approved by the court having supervision of the the act official acts of said guardian, the said guardian shall have full power to make and execute a conveyance thereof to the said company, which shall vest the title thereto in the said company. SEC. 4 . And be it further enacted, That section three of said act be hereby amended by resume, striking out the word five, where the same occurs in the act, said section and by inserting in lieu thereof the word ten; and by striking out the word ten, where the adult same occurs in said section, and inserting in lieu thereof the word twenty.’’ And section seven of said act is hereby amended by catcher, striking out the word fifteen, where the same occurs in said section, and inserting in lieu thereof the adult word twenty-five. And the term mineral lands, where ever the same occurs in this act, and the act to which this is an amendment, shall not be construed to include coal and iron land. And any lands granted by this act, or the act to which this is an amendment, shall not defeat or impair any pre-emption, homestead, swamp-land, or other lawful claim, nor include any government reservation or mineral lands, or the improvements of of learning language essay, any bona fide settler on in any lands returned and denominated as mineral lands, and resume, the timber necessary to support his said improvements is a miner or agriculturalist, to be ascertained under such rules as have been or may be established by the Commissioner of the General Land Office, in conformity with the provisions of the pre-emption laws: Provided, That the quantity thus exempted by the operation of this act, and the act to which this is an amendment, shall not exceed one hundred and sixty acres for each settler who claims as an jared diamond worst mistake thesis agriculturalist; and such quantity for each settler who claims as a miner, as the said commissioner may establish by general regulations: Provided, also, That the phrase but where the same shall contain timber, the timber thereon is hereby granted to said company, in the proviso to said section three, shall not apply to the tunber growing or being on any land farther than ten miles from the centre of the adult line of advantage foreign essay, any one of said roads or branches mentioned in resume, said act or in this act. And all lands shall be excluded from the operation of of learning language essay, this act, and of the act to adult, which this is an amendment, which were located or selected to be located under the provisions of an act entitled An act donating lands to the several states and territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of advantage language essay, agriculture and the mechanic arts, approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-two , and notice thereof given at the proper land office.

SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That the time for resume designating the general route of said railroad, and of filing the map of the same, and the time for the completion of that part of the rye essay railroads required by the terms of adult, said act of each company, be and the same is hereby extended one year from the time in said act designated; and that the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California shall be required to complete twenty-five miles of their said road in each year thereafter, and the whole to sojourners essay dillard, the state line within four years, and that only one-half of the compensation for services rendered for adult resume the government by said companies shall be required to be applied to the payment of the bonds issued by the government in aid of the construction of said road. SEC. 6 . And be it further enacted, That the proviso to section four of said act is hereby modified as follows, viz: And the President of the United States is hereby authorized, at any time after the games passage of this act, to resume, appoint for each and every of said roads three commissioners, as provided for in the act to which this act is adolescence, amendatory; and the verified statement of the president of the California company, required by said section four, shall be filed in the, office of the adult resume United States surveyor general for the State of California, instead of being presented to the President of the United States; and the said surveyor-general shall thereupon notify the said commissioners of the filing of such statement, and the said commissioners shall thereupon proceed to examine the portion of said railroad and telegraph line so completed, and make their report thereon to sojourners essay dillard, the President of the United States, as provided by the act of which this is resume, amandatory. And such statement may be filed and such railroad and telegraph line be examined and reported on by the said commissioners, and the requisite amount of bonds may be issued, and the lands appertaining set apart, located, entered, and patented, as provided in this act and the act to which this is amendatory, upon the construction by said rail road company of California of any portion of not less than twenty consecutive miles of their said railroad and telegraph line, upon the certificate, of worst mistake, said commissioners that such portion is completed as required by the act to which this is amendatory. Adult Resume. And section ten of the act of which this is amendatory is hereby amended by inserting after the words United States in the last clause, the words and by annie dillard, states intervening. SEC. 7 . And be it further enacted, That so much of section seventeen of said act as provides for a reservation by the government of resume, a portion of the bonds to be issued to aid in of writing, the construction of the said railroads is hereby repealed. And the failure of any one company to resume, comply fully with the conditions and requirements of catcher adolescence, this act, or the act to which this is amendatory, shall not work a forfeiture of the rights, privileges, or franchise of any other company or companies that shall have complied with the same.

SEC. 8 . And be it further enacted, That for the purpose of facilitating the work on said railroad, and of enabling the said company as early as practicable to adult, commerce the grading of said railroad in the region of the mountains, between the eastern base of the Rocky mountains and the western base of the Sierra Nevada mountains, so that the language essay same may be finally completed within the time required by law, it is hereby provided that whenever the chief engineer of the adult resume said company and said commissioners shall certify that a certain proportion of the work required to prepare the road for the superstructure on any such section of twenty miles is done, (which said certificate shall be duly verified,) the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized and required, upon the delivery of such certificate, to issue to said company a proportion of said bonds, not exceeding two-thirds of the amount of bonds authorized to be issued under the provisions of the act, to aid in the construction of such section of twenty miles, nor in by annie, any case exceeding two-thirds of the value of the work done, the remaining one-third to remain until the said section is fully completed and adult resume, certified by the commissioners appointed by the President, according to the terms and provisions of the said act; and no such bonds shall issue to the Union Pacific Railroad Company for work done west of Salt Lake City under this section, more than three hundred miles in advance of the worst completed continuous line of said railroad from the adult resume point beginning on the one-hundredth meridian of longitude. SEC. 9 . Doctoral Dissertation Kissinger. And, be it further enacted, That to enable any one of said corporations to make convenient and necessary connections with other roads, it is resume, hereby authorized to establish and maintain all necessary ferries upon and across the Missouri river, and other rivers which its road may pass in its course; and jared diamond mistake, authority is hereby given said corporation to construct bridges over said Missouri river and all other rivers for the convenience of said road: Provided, That any bridge or bridges it may construct over the Missouri river, or any other navigable river on the line of said road, shall be constructed with suitable and proper draws for the passage of steamboats, and shall be built, kept, and maintained at the expense of adult resume, said company, in such manner as not to impair the usefulness of said rivers for navigation to any greater extent than such structures of the most approved character necessarily do: And provided, further, That any company authorized by this act to construct its road and telegraph line from the rye essay Missouri river to the initial point aforesaid, may construct its road and telegraph line so as to connect with the Union Pacific railroad at any point westwardly of such initial point, in resume, case such company shall deem such westward connection more practicable or desirable; and in aid of the construction of so much of its road and telegraph line as shall be a departure from the route hereinbefore provided for its road, such company shall be entitled to rye essay, all the resume benefits and be subject to all the conditions and restrictions of this act: Provided, further, however, That the bonds of the United States shall not be issued to such company for a greater amount than is hereinbefore provided, if the same had united with the Union Pacific railroad on diamond, the one-hundredth degree of longitude; nor shall such company be entitled to receive any greater amount of alternate sections of adult resume, public lands than are also herein provided. SEC. 10 . And be it further enacted, That section five of said act be so modified and amended that the Union Pacific Railroad Company, the Central Pacific Railroad Company, and any other company authorized to participate in sojourners essay by annie dillard, the construction of said road, may, on the completing of each section of said road, as provided in this act, and the act to which this act is an amendment, issue their first mortgage bonds on their respective railroad and telegraph lines to an amount not exceeding the amount of the bonds of the resume United States, and of even tenor and date, time of maturity, rate and character of interest, with the bonds authorized to be issued to said railroad companies respectively. And the of learning language lieu of the United States bonds shalt be subordinate to resume, that of the bonds of any or either of said companies hereby authorized to be issued on essay by annie, their respective roads, property, and equipments, except as to the provisions of the sixth section of the act to which this act is an amendment, relating to the transmission of dispatches and the transportation of mails, troops, munitions of war, supplies, and public stores for the government of the United States.

And said section is further amended by striking out the word forty, and inserting in lieu thereof the words on adult, each and every section of advantage of learning essay, not less than twenty. SEC. 11 . Resume. And be it further enacted, That if any of the railroad companies entitled to bonds of the United States, or to issue their first mortgage bonds herein provided for, has, at the time of the approval of this act, issued or shall thereafter issue any of its own bonds or securities in of writing, such form and manner as in law or equity to entitle the same to priority or preference of payment to the said guaranteed bonds, or said first mortgage bonds, the amount of such corporate bonds outstanding and adult resume, unsatisfied or uncancelled shall be deducted from the amount of such government and first mortgage bonds which the dillard company may be entitled to resume, receive and issue; and such an amount only of such government bonds and such first mortgage bonds shall be granted or permitted as, added to such outstanding, unsatisfied, or uncancelled bonds of the company, shall make up the whole amount per mile to advantage of learning language, which the company would otherwise have been entitled: And provided further, That before any bonds shall be so given by the United States, the company claiming them shall present to the Secretary of the Treasury an affidavit of the president and secretary of the company, to be sworn to before the judge of a court of record, setting forth whether said company has issued any such bonds or securities, and, if so, particularly describing the same, and adult resume, such other evidence as the Secretary may require, so as to catcher adolescence, enable him to make the deduction herein required; and such affidavit shall then be filed and deposited in the office of the Secretary of the Interior. And my person swearing falsely to adult resume, any such affidavit shall be deemed guilty of perjury, and on conviction thereof shall be punished as aforesaid: Provided, also, That no land granted by this act shall be conveyed to any party or parties, and no bonds shall be issued to any company or companies, party or parties, on doctoral dissertation kissinger, account of any road or part thereof made prior to the passage of the act to which this act is an amendment, or made subsequent thereto under the provisions of any act or acts other than this act and the act amended by this act. SEC. 12 . And be it further enacted, That the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company, now known as the adult resume Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division, shall build the railroad from the mouth of Kansas river, by the way of Leavenworth, or, if that be not deemed the diamond worst mistake best route, then the said company shall, within two years, build a railroad from the city of Leavenworth to unite with the main stem at or near the city of Lawrence ; but to aid in the construction of said branch the said company shall not be entitled to resume, any bonds. Advantage Foreign. And if the Union Pacific Railroad Company shall not be proceeding in good faith to build the said railroad through the resume territories when the buy a doctoral dissertation Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company, now known as the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division shall have completed their road to the hundredth degree of longitude, then the last-named company may proceed to adult, make said road westward until it meets and Connects with the Central Pacific Railroad Company on the same line. And the said railroad from the mouth of the Kansas river to the one-hundredth meridian of longitude shall be made by the way of Lawrence and Topeka, or on the bank of the Kansas river opposite said towns: Provided, That no bonds shall be issued or land certified by the United States to any person or company, for catcher the construction of any part of the main trunk line of adult, said railroad west of the one-hundredth meridian of longitude and essay, east of the Rocky mountains, until said road shall be completed from or near Omaha, on the Missouri river, to the said one-hundredth meridian of adult resume, longitude.

SEC. 13 . And be it further enacted, That at and after the next election of directors, the number of directors to be elected by the stockholders shall be fifteen; and the number of directors to be appointed by i like to play, the President shall be five; and the President shall appoint three ad ditional directors to serve until the adult next regular elec tion, and catcher rye essay adolescence, thereafter five directors. At least one of said government directors shall be placed on each of the and at least one on every special committee that may be appointed. The government directors, shall, from time to time, report to adult resume, the Secretary of the Interior, in answer to any inquiries be may make of them, touching the condition, management, and of learning essay, progress of the work, and shall communicate to the Secretary of the Interior, at any time, such information, as should be in the possession of the resume Deparment. They shall, as often as may be necessary to a full knowledge of the condition and management of the line, visit all portions of the line of road, whether built or surveyed; and while absent from home, attending to their duties as directors, shall be paid their actual travelling expenses, and rye essay, be allowed and paid such reasonable compensation for their time actually employed as the board of directors may decide. SEC.

14 . And be it further enacted. That the resume next election for directors of said railroad shall be held on the first Wednesday of October’ next, at the office of said company in the city of New York, between the hours of ten o’clock a. m. and jared diamond worst mistake thesis, four o’clock p. m. of said day ; and all subsequent regular elections shall be held annually thereafter at the same place; and the directors shall hold their offices for one year, and until their successors are qualified. SEC. 15 . And be it further enacted, That the several companies authorized to construct the aforesaid roads are hereby required to operate and use said roads and telegraph for all purposes of communication, travel, and transportation, so far as the public and the government are concerned, as one continuous line; and in such operation and use, to afford and adult, secure to each equal advantages and facilities as to the act of writing essays, rates, time, and transportation, without any discrimination of any kind in favor of the road or business of adult resume, any or either of said companies, or adverse to the road or business of any or either of the others; and it shall not be lawful for the proprietors of any line of of writing, telegraph authorized by this act, or the act amended by this act, to resume, refuse or fail to convey for all persons requiring the transmission of news and messages of like character, on pain of forfeiting to the person injured, for each offence, the sojourners essay by annie dillard sum of one hundred dollars, and such other damages as he may have suffered on account of said refusal or failure, to be sued for and recovered in resume, any court of the United States, or of any state or territory of buy a, competent jurisdiction. SEC. Resume. 16 . And be it further enacted, That any two or more of the companies authorized to participate in the benefits- of this act are hereby authorized at any time to unite and consolidate their organizations, as the same may or shall be, upon such terms and conditions, and in such manner as they may agree upon, and as shall not be incompatible with this act, or the laws of the state or states in which the roads of jared diamond thesis, such companies may be, and to resume, assume and adopt such corporate name and style as they may agree upon, with a capital stock not to exceed the actual cost of the roads so to be consolidated, and shall file a copy of such consolidation in the Department of the Interior, and thereupon such organization so formed and consolidated shall succeed to, possess and i like to play, be entitled to receive from the government of the United States all and adult, singular the grants, benefits and immunities, guarantees, acts, and things to be done and performed, and be subject to the same terms, conditions, restrictions, and requirements which said companies respectively at the time of such consolidation are or may be entitled or subject to under this act in place and i like essay, substitution of said companies so consolidated respectively. And all other provisions of this act, so far as applicable, relating or in any manner appertaining to adult, the companies so consolidated, or either thereof, shall apply and be of force as to such consolidated organization. And in case, upon the completion by. such consolidated organization of the roads or either of them of the companies so consolidated, any other of the road or roads of either of the by annie other companies authorized as aforesaid (and forming, or intended, or necessary to form a portion of adult resume, a continuous line from each of the several points on the Missouri river hereinbefore designated to the Pacific coast) shall not have constructed the number of miles of its said road within the time herein required, such consolidated organization is hereby authorized to continue the construction of advantage of learning essay, its road and telegraph in the general direction and route upon which such incomplete or unconstructed road is hereinbefore authorized to be built, until such continuation of the road of such consolidated organization shall reach the constructed road and telegraph of adult resume, said other company, and at such point unite and connect therewith; and for and in aid thereof the said consolidated organization may do and perform, in reference to such portion of road and telegraph as shall so be in continuation of diamond worst thesis, its constructed road and telegraph, and to the construction and equipment thereof, all and singular the several acts and things hereinbefore provided, authorized, or granted to be done by the company hereinbefore authorized to construct and equip the same, and shall be entitled to similar and like grants, benefits, immunities, guarantees, acts, and things to adult resume, be done and performed by the government of the United States, by to play, the President of the United States, by the Secretaries of the Treasury and Interior, and by commissioners, in reference to adult, such company, and to kissinger, such portion of the road hereinbefore authorized to be constructed by it, and upon the like and similar terms and adult, conditions, so far as the same are applicable thereto.

And said consolidated company shall pay to the act of writing essays, said defaulting company the adult value, to be estimated by competent engineers, of all the work done and material furnished by said defaulting company, which may be adopted and used by said consolidated company in the progress of the work under the provisions of catcher rye essay, this section: Provided, nevertheless, That said defaulting company may at any time, before receiving pay for its said work and material, as hereinbefore provided on its own election, pay said con solidated company the value of the resume work done and material furnished by said consolidated company, to be estimated by rye essay, competent engineers, necessary for and used in the construction of the road of said defaulting company, and resume, resume the control of its said road; and all the rights, benefits, and privileges which shall be acquired, possessed, or exercised, pursuant to this section, shalt be to that extent an abatement of the rights, benefits, and privileges hereinbefore granted to such other company. And in case any company authorized thereto shall not enter into such consolidated organization, such company, upon the completion of buy a doctoral, its road, as hereinbefore provided, shall be entitled to and is hereby authorized to resume, continue and extend the same, under the circumstances, and in accordance with the provisions of this section, and to have all the benefits thereof, as fully and completely as are herein provided touching such consolidated organization. And in case more than one such consolidated organization shalt be made pursuant to this act, the terms and conditions of this act, hereinbefore recited as to one, shall apply in like manner, force, and effect to the other: Provided however, That rights and interests at any time acquired by one such consolidated organization shall not be inipaired by another thereof. Games To Play. It is further provided, that, should the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California complete their line to adult resume, the eastern line of the State of advantage foreign language, California before the line of the Union Pacific Railroad Company shall have been extended westward so as to meet the line of said first named company, said first-named company may extend their line of adult resume, road eastward one hundred and fifty miles on the established route, so as to meet and connect with the line of the Union Pacific Railroad, complying in all respects with the provisions and restrictions of this act as to said Union Pacific road, and upon doing so shall enjoy all the rights, privileges, and benefits conferred by of writing, this act on said Union Pacific Railroad Company. SEC. 17 . And be it further enacted, That so much of section fourteen of said act as relates to a branch from Sioux City be, and the same is hereby, amended to read as follows: That whenever a line of railroad shall be completed through the States of Iowa or Minnesota to Sioux City, such company now organized or as may hereafter be organized under the laws of Iowa, Minnesota, Dacota, or Nebraska, as the President of the United States, by its request, may designate or approve for that purpose, shall construct and operate a line of railroad and telegraph from Sioux City, upon the most direct and practicable route to such a point on, and so as to connect with, the Iowa branch of the Union Pacific railroad from Omaha, or the Union Pacific railroad, as such company may select, and on the same terms and adult resume, conditions as are provided in this act and the act to which this is all amendment, for the construction of the said Union and Pacific railroad and telegraph line and branches; and said company shall complete the same at doctoral dissertation the rate of fifty miles per year: Provided, That said Union Pacific Railroad Company shall be, and is hereby, released from the. construction of said branch.

And said company constructing said branch shall Dot be entitled to receive in bonds an amount larger than the adult resume said Union Pacific Railroad Company would be entitled to receive if it had constructed the branch under this act and the act to which this is an essays amendment; but said company shall be entitled to receive alternate seetions of land for ten miles in width on each side of the same along the adult whole length of said branch: And provided further, That if a railroad be not completed to Sioux City, across Iowa or Minnesota, within eighteen months from the date of this act, then said company, designated bythe President as aforesaid, may commence, continue, and complete the construction of said branch, as contemplated by sojourners essay dillard, the provisions of this act: Provided, however, That if the said company so designated by the President as aforesaid, shall not complete the said branch from Sioux City to the Pacific railroad within tell years from the passage of this act, then, and in that case, all of the railroad which shall have been constructed by said company shalt be forfeited to and become the property of the United States, SEC. 18 . And be it further enacted, That the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company, a corporation organized under and by virtue of the laws of the State of Iowa, be and hereby is authorized to extend is [its] road through the Territory of Nebraska from the point where it strike the Missouri river, south of the mouth of the Platte river, to sonic point not further west than the one-hundredth meridian of west longitude, so as to connect, by the most practicable route, with the main trunk of the Union Pacific railroad, or that part of it which run, from Omaha to the said one-hundredth meridian of west longitude. Resume. And, for the purpose of enabling said Burlington and worst, Missouri River Railroad Company to construct that portion of their road herein authorized, the right-of-way through the public lands is granted to said [c]ompany for the construction of said road. And the resume right, power, and authority is hereby given to said company to to play, take from the public lands adjacent to adult, the line of said road, earth, stone, timber, and other materials for the act essays the construction thereof. Adult Resume. Said right-of-way is granted to said company to the extent of two hundred feet where it may pass over the public lands, including all necessary grounds for stations, buildings, workshops, depots, machine-shops, switches, side-tracks, turn-tables, and water-stations. And the United States shall extinguish, as rapidly as may be consistent with public policy and the welfare of the said Indians, the Indian titles to doctoral kissinger, all lands falling under the operation of adult, this section and by annie dillard, required for the said right-of-way and grant of land herein made. SEC. 19 . And be it further enacted, That for the purpose of adult, aiding in the construction of said road, there be and hereby is granted to the said Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company, every alternate section of public land (excepting mineral lands as provided in this act) designated by odd numbers, to the amount of ten alternate sections per mile on each side of said road, on the line thereof and not sold, reserved, or otherwise disposed of by the United States, and to which a preemption or homestead claim may not have attached at the time the line of said road is games essay, definitely fixed: Provided, [That] said company shall accept this grant within one year from the passage of this act, by filing such acceptance with the Secretary of the Interior; and shall also establish the line of said road, and file a map thereof with the Secretary of the Interior within one year of the date of said acceptance, when the adult resume said Secretary shall withdraw the lands embraced in this grant from market. SEC. 20 . And be it further enacted, That whenever said Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company shall have completed twenty consecutive miles of the road mentioned in the foregoing section, in the manner provided for other roads mentioned in this act, and of learning language, the act to which this is an amendment, the resume President of the United States shall appoint three commissioners to advantage foreign language, examine and report to him in relation thereto; and if it shall appear to him that twenty miles of said road have been completed as required by this act, then, upon certificate of said commissioner[s] to that effect, patents shall issue conveying the adult resume right and title to said lands to said company on each side of said road, as far as the same is completed, to the amount aforesaid; and such examination, report, and conveyance, by patents, shall continue from time to time, in like manner, until said road shall have been completed.

And the President shall appoint said commissioners, [and] fill vacancies in said commission, as provided in relation to other roads mentioned in the act to which this is an amendment. And the said company shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities granted to the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company by the said last-mentioned act, so far as the adolescence same may be applicable: Provided, That no government bonds shall be issued to the said Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Company to aid in the construction of said extension of its road: And provided further, That said extension shall be completed within the period of adult resume, ten years from the passage of this act. SEC. 21 . And be it further enacted, That before any land granted by this act shall be conveyed to any company or party entitled thereto under this act, there shall first be paid into the treasury of the United States the cost of surveying, selecting and conveying the same by advantage of learning essay, the said company or party in interest as the titles shall be required by said company, which amount shall, without any further appropriation, stand to adult, the credit of the proper account, to be used by the Commissioner of the General Land Office, for games to play essay the prosecution of the survey of the adult resume public lands along the line of of writing, said roads, and so from year to year, until the adult whole shall be completed, as provided under the provisions of this act. SEC. 22 . And be it further enacted, That Congress may at any time alter, amend, or repeal this act. Approved July 2, 1864. ACT OF MARCH 3, 1865. [13 Statutes at Large, 504.] AN ACT to amend an act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July 1st, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and to amend an act amendatory thereof, approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-four.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That section ten of said act of July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, be so modified and amended as to allow the Central Pacific Railroad Company and language essay, the Western Pacific Railroad Company, of California, the Union Pacific Railroad Company, the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division, and all other companies as provided for in the said act of the adult second July, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, to issue their six per centum thirty years’ bonds, interest payable in any lawful money of the United States, upon their separate roads. And the games to play said companies are hereby authorized to issue, respectively, their bonds to the extent of one hundred miles in advance of a continuous completed line of construction. SEC. 2 . And be it further enacted, That the assignment made by the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, to adult, the Western Pacific Railroad Company of said state, of the right to construct all that portion of said railroad and telegraph from the city of San José to the city of Sacramento is hereby ratified and confirmed to the said Western Pacific Railroad Company, with all the privileges and buy a doctoral dissertation kissinger, benefits of the several acts of Congress relating thereto, and subject to all the conditions thereof : Provided, That the time within which the said Western Pacific Railroad Company shall be required to construct the first twenty miles of their said road, shall be one year from the first day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-five, and that the entire road shall be completed from San José to Sacramento, connecting at the latter point with the said Central Pacific railroad within four years thereafter. Approved March 3, 1865. ACT OF JUNE 15, 1866. [14 Statutes at Large, 66.] AN ACT to facilitate commercial, postal, and military communication among the several states.

WHEREAS, The Constitution of the adult resume United States confers upon Congress, in express terms, the power to regulate commerce among the several states, to establish post-roads, and to raise and support armies: Therefore, Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of catcher adolescence, America in Congress assembled, That any railroad company in the United States, whose road is operated by steam, its Successors and assigns, be, and is hereby, authorized to carry upon and over its road, boats, bridges, and ferries, all passengers, troops, government supplies, mails, freight, and property, on their way from any state to another state, and to receive compensation therefor, and to connect with reads of other states so as to form continuous lines for the transportation of the same to the place of destination: Provided, That this act shall not affect any stipulation between the government of the United States and any railroad company for transportation or fares without compensation, nor impair or change the conditions imposed by adult resume, the terms of any act -ranting lands to any such company to aid in the construction of its road, nor shall it be construed to authorize any railroad company to buy a doctoral kissinger, build any new road or connection with any other road without authority from the state in which said railroad or connection may be proposed. SEC. 2. Adult. And be it further enacted, That Congress may at any time alter, amend, or repeal this act. Approved June 15, 1866. [Inserted because of adolescence, its application to inter-state commerce, and not on account of any special reference to adult resume, Kansas Pacific railway.] JOINT RESOLUTION OF MAY 7, 1866. [14 Statutes at Large, 355.]

A RESOLUTION extending the time for the completion of the Union Pacific railway, eastern division. Resolved by rye essay, the Senate and adult, House of Representatives of the catcher United States of adult, America in Congress assembled, That the time for kissinger the completion of the first one hundred miles of railroad and telegraph line by the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company, (since called the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division,) mentioned in the tenth section of the charter of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, of July first, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, and in the fifth section of the amendment thereof, of July second, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four, be, and the same is hereby, extended until the twenty-seventh day of June, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-six; and that the time for completing each succeeding section of one hundred miles shall be reckoned from the said twenty-seventh day of adult resume, June in said year. SEC. 2. And be it further resolved, That the time for commencing and completing the Northern Pacific railroad, and all its several sections, is extended for catcher the term of two years. Approved May 7, 1866. ACT OF JULY 3, 1866.

[14 Statutes at Large, 79.] AN ACT to amend an act entitled An act to amend ‘An act entititled an act to adult resume, aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes,’ approved July 1, 1862, approved July 2, 1864. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in sojourners essay by annie, Congress assembled, That that the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, is hereby authorized to designate the general, route of adult resume, their railroad, and to file a map thereof, as now required by law, at any time before the first day of rye essay, December, eighteen hundred and sixty-six; and upon the filing of the said map, showing the general route of said road, the lands along the entire line thereof, so far as the same may be designated, shall be reserved from sale by order of the Secretary of the Interior: Provided, That said company shall be entitled to only the same amount of the bonds of the resume United States to aid in the construction of their line of railroad and telegraph as they would have been entitled to if they had connected their said line with the Union Pacific railroad on the one-hundreth degree of longitude as now required by law: And provided further, That said company shall connect their line of the act, railroad and telegraph with the Union Pacific railroad, but not at a point more than fifty miles westwardly from the resume meridian of Denver, in Colorado. SEC. 2 . And be it further enacted, That the Union Pacific Railroad Company, with the consent and approval of the dissertation kissinger Secretary of the Interior, are hereby authorized to locate, construct, and continue their road from Omaha, in Nebraska Territory, westward, according to the best and most practicable route, and without reference to the initial point on the one-hundredth meridian of west longitude, as now provided by law, in a continuous completed line, until they shall meet and connect with the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California; and the Central Pacific Railroad Company of adult, California, with the consent and approval of the Secretary of the Interior, are hereby authorized to locate, construct, and continue their road eastward, in a continuous completed line, until they shall meet and connect with the Union Pacific railroad: Provided, That each of the above-named companies shall have the right, when the nature of the work to be done, by essays, reason of deep cuts and tunnels , shall for the expeditious construction of the Pacific railroad requIre it, to work for an extent of not to exceed three hundred miles in advance of adult resume, their continuous completed lines. Approved July 3, 1866. ACT OF JULY 25, 1866.

[14 Statutes at Large, 241.] AN ACT granting lands to games essay, aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Central Pacific railroad, in California, to Portland, in Oregon. SECTION 7 . And be it further enacted, That the said companies named in this act are hereby required to operate and use the portions or parts of said railroad and telegraph mentioned in section one of this act for all purposes of transportation, travel, and adult, communication, so far as the government and public are concerned, as one connected and continuous line; and in such operation and use to afford and secure to diamond thesis, each other equal advantages and facilities as to adult, rates, time, and transportation, without any discrimination whatever, on pain of forfeiting the full amount of damages sustained on account of such discrimination, to be sued for and recovered in any court of the United States, or of of learning foreign language, any state, of competent jurisdiction. Approved July 25, 1866. [Introduced to show the care taken by Congress to secure fair and equal treatment of each other, by the railroads mentioned in the act.] JOINT RESOLUTION, JULY 26, 18[6]6. [14 Statutes at Large, 367.] A RESOLUTION granting the right-of-way through military reserves to the Union Pacific Railroad Company and its branches. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That, subject to approval by the President, the right-of-way, one hundred feet in width, is hereby granted to the Union Pacific Railroad Company and resume, the companies constructing the branch roads connecting therewith, for the construction and operation of their roads over and upon all military reserves tbrough which the same may pass; and the President is foreign language essay, hereby authorized to set apart to the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, twenty acres of the Fort Riley military reservation, for depot and other purposes, in the bottom opposite Riley City; also, fractional section one on the west side of said reservation, near Junction City, for the same purposes; and also to adult, restore, from time to time, to the public domain, any portion of said military reserve over diamond worst mistake thesis, which the Union Pacific railroad, or any of its branches, may pass, and which may not be required for military purposes: Provided, That the President shall not permit the location of any such railroad, or the diminution of any such reserve in any manner so as to impair its useful ness for military purposes, so Ion as it shall be required therefor. Approved, July 26, 1866.

[15 Statutes at resume Large, p. 39.] AN ACT restoring lands to market along the line of the Pacific railroad and branches. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in sojourners essay by annie, Congress assembled, That nothing in the act approved July 1st, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, entitled An act to aid in the construction of railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the use of the same for postal, military, and resume, other purposes, and the act:, amendatory thereof, shall be held to authorize the withdrawal or exclusion from settlement and of writing essays, entry, under the adult provisions of the pre-emption or home stead laws, the even-numbered sections, along the routes of the several roads therein mentioned which have been or may be hereafter located: Provided, That such sections shall be rated at two dollars and fifty cents per sojourners essay dillard acre and subject only to entry under those laws ; and the Secretary of the Interior be, and is hereby, authorized and directed to restore to homestead settlement, pre-emption or entry, according to existing laws, all the even numbered sections of land belonging to the government, and now withdrawn from market, on both sides of the Pacific railroad and branches, wherever said road and branches have been definitely located. Approved March 6, 1868. [15 Statutes at adult resume Large, p. 79.] AN ACT relative to filing reports of sojourners, railroad companies. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of resume, America in Congress assembled, That the reports required to i like essay, be made to the Secretary of the adult resume Treasury on sojourners dillard, or before the first day of July of each year, by the corporations created by or entitled to subsidies under the provisions of an act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July first, eigheen hundred and sixty-two, and the acts supplemental to and amendatory thereof, shall hereafter be made to the Secretary of the Interior, on or before the first day of October of each year. Adult. Said reports shall give full and specific information upon the several points mentioned in rye essay adolescence, the twentieth section of the said act of eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and shall be verified as therein prescribed, and on failure to make the adult resume same as herein required, the issue of bonds or patents to the company in default shall be suspended until the requirements of this act shall be complied with by such company.

And the reports hitherto made to the Secretary of the Treasury under the the act essays said act of July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, shall be transferred and delivered by him to the Secretary of the Interior to be filed by him. SEC. 2 . And be it further enacted, That the corporations created by the provisions of the acts of Congress approved July second, eighteen hundred and adult resume, sixty-four, and July twenty-seventh, eighteen hundred and sixty-six, and known as the Northern Pacific Railroad Company, the sojourners essay dillard Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company, and the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, shall make reports to the Secretary of the Interior on or before the first day of resume, October of each year, are required to be made by the Union Pacific Railroad and branches, under the provisions of the to play first section of this act, and on failure so to do shall be subject to the like suspension. SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That the reports required from the commissioner appointed to examine and report in relation to the road of any of the corporations, whereto reference is made in this act, shall be addressed to and filed in the Department of the Interior; and all such reports, heretofore made, shall be transferred to and filed in said Department of the Interior; and so much of any and all acts as requires any reports from such companies, or any officers thereof, to be made to the Secretary of the Treasury, is resume, hereby repealed. SEC. Dillard. 4. Adult Resume. And be it further enacted, That, in addition to buy a, the eight subjects referred to in section twenty of the act of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, to be reported upon, there shall also be furnished, annually, to the Secretary of the Interior, all reports of engineers, superintendents, or other officers who make annual reports to any of said railroad companies. Approved June 25, 1868. AN ACT to resume, authorize the transfer of lands granted to foreign, the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Eastern Division, between Denver and the point of its junction with the Union Pacific railroad, to the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company, and to expedite the completion of railroads to Denver, in adult resume, the Territory of Colorado. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the by annie United States of resume, America in Congress assembled, That the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, be, and it hereby is, authorized to contract with the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company, a corporation existing under the laws of the Territory of Colorado, for the construction, operation, and maintenance of that part of its line of diamond worst mistake thesis, railroad and telegraph between Denver City and its point of connection with the Union Pacific railroad, which point shall be at Cheyenne, and to adopt the road-bed already graded by the said Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company as said line, and to grant to said Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company the perpetual use of its right-of-way and depot- grounds, and to transfer to it all the rights and privileges, subject to all the obligations pertaining to said part of its line. SEC.

2. And be it further enacted, That the said Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, shall extend its railroad and resume, telegraph to games i like to play, a connection at the city of Denver, so as to form, with that part of its line herein authorized to be constructed, operated, and adult, maintained by the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company, a continuous line of railroad and telegraph from Kansas City, by way of Denver, to Cheyenne. And all the provisions of law for the operation of the Union Pacific railroad, its branches and connections, as a continuous line, without discrimination, shall apply the same as if the road from Denver to advantage essay, Cheyenne had been constructed by the said Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division; but nothing herein shall authorize the said Eastern Division Company to operate the adult road or fix the rates of tariff for the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company. SEC. 3. Of Learning Foreign Language. And be it further enacted, That said companies are hereby authorized to mortgage their respective portions of said road, as herein defined, for an amount not exceeding thirty-two thousand dollars per mile, to enable them respectively to borrow money to adult, construct the sojourners essay dillard same; and that each of said companies shall receive patents to the alternate sections of land along their respective lines of road, as herein defined, in adult resume, like manner and within the same limits as is provided by law in the case of buy a doctoral, lands granted to the Union Pacific Railway Company. Eastern Division: Provided, That neither of the companies hereinbefore mentioned shall be entitled to adult resume, subsidy in United, States bonds, under the provisions of this act. Approved March 3,1869. JOINT RESOLUTION MARCH 3, 1869. [15 Statutes at Large, p. Advantage Foreign Language Essay. 348.] JOINT RESOLUTION authorizing the Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, to change its name to the Kansas Pacific Railway Company. Be it resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the resume Union Pacific Railway Company, Eastern Division, is hereby authorized by resolution of its board of diamond worst mistake thesis, directors, which shall be filed in the office of the resume Secretary of the Interior, to sojourners essay, change its name to the Kansas Pacific Railway Company. Approved March 3, 1869.

JOINT RESOLUTION OF 1869. [16 Statutes at Large, p. 56-7.] JOINT RESOLUTION for the protection of the interests of the United States in the Union Pacific Railroad Company, the Central Pacific Railroad Company, and for other purposes. Be it resolved by adult, the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of dissertation kissinger, America in Congress assembled, That the stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, at a meeting to be bold on the twenty-second day of adult, April, eighteen hundred and sixty-nine, at the city of Boston, (with power to adjourn from day to day,) shall elect a board of directors for the ensuing year; and said stockholders are hereby authorized to games i like to play essay, establish their general office at such place in the United States as they may select at adult resume said meeting: Provided, That the passage of this resolution shall not confer any other right upon said Union Pacific Railroad Company than to hold such election, or to catcher rye essay adolescence, be held in any manner to relinquish or waive any rights of the United States to take advantage of any act or neglect of said Union Pacific Railroad Company heretofore done or omitted, whereby the rights of the general government have been or may be prejudiced: And provided further, That the common terminus of the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific railroads shall be at or near Ogden; and the Union Pacific Railroad Company shall build, and the Central Pacific Railroad Company pay for and own the railroad from the adult terminus aforesaid to Promontory Summit, at which point the rails shall meet and connect and form one continuous line. SEC. 2 . And be it further resolved, That, to ascertain the condition of the Union Pacific railroad and the act essays, the Central Pacific railroad, the President of the United States is authorized to appoint a board of eminent citizens, not exceeding five in number, and who shall not be interested in either road, to examine and report upon the condition of, and what sum or sums, if any, will be required to adult, complete each of said roads, for the entire length thereof, to the said terminus as a first-class railroad in compliance with the several acts relating to said roads; and the expense of such board, including an allowance of the act, ten dollars to each for adult resume their services for each day employed in such examination or report, to be paid equally by said companies. SEC. 3 . Buy A Doctoral Kissinger. And be it further resolved, That the President is hereby authorized and required to withhold from each of said companies an amount of subsidy bonds authorized to be issued by the United States, under said acts sufficient to secure the full completion as a first-class road of all sections of such road upon which bonds have already been issued, or in lien of such bonds he may receive as such security an equal amount of the first-mortgage bonds of such company ; and adult, if it shall appear to the President that the amount of subsidy bond yet to be issued to either of said companies is insufficient to the act of writing essays, insure the full completion of such road, he may make requisition upon adult resume, such company for a sufficient amount of bonds already issued to said company, or in his discretion of their first-mortgage bonds, to secure the full completion of the same. And in default of obtaining such security as [is] in the act, this section provided, the President may authorize and direct the Attorney-General to institute such suits and proceedings on behalf and in the name of the United States in any court of the United States having jurisdiction, as shall be necessary or proper to compel the giving of such security, and thereby, or in any manner otherwise, to protect the interests of the United States in said road and to insure the full completion thereof as a first-class road, as required by law and the statutes in that case made. SEC. 4 . And be it further resolved, That the Attorney-General of the United States be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to investigate whether or not the charter and all the franchises of the Union Pacific Railroad Company and of the Central Pacific Railroad Company have not been forfeited, and to institute all necessary and proper legal proceedings; also to investigate whether or not said companies have or have not made any illegal dividends upon their stock, and if so, to institute the necessary proceedings to have the same reimbursed; and adult resume, also to investigate whether any of the directors or any other agents or employees of said companies have or have not violated any penal law, and if so, to institute the proper criminal proceedings against all persons who have violated such laws.

Approved April 10, 1869. [16 Statutes at Large, p. 121-2.] AN ACT to fix the point of junction of the Union Pacific Railroad Company and the Central Pacific Railroad Company. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the common terminus and point of junction of the Union Pacific Railroad Company and the Central Pacific Railroad Company shall be definitely fixed and established on the line of jared diamond worst thesis, railroad as now located and constructed, northwest of the station at Ogden, and within the limits of the resume sections of land hereinafter mentioned, viz., section thirty-six of township seven, of range two, situate north and west of the principal meridian and base line in the Territory of Utah, and sections twenty-five, twenty-six and thirty-five of by annie, township seven, of range two, and section six of township six, and sections thirty and thirty-one of resume, township seven, of range One, and sections one and two of township six, of range two, all situate north and jared diamond thesis, west of said principal meridian and adult resume, base line; and said companies are hereby authorized to enter upon, use, and possess said sections, which are hereby granted to them in equal shares, with the same rights, privileges, and obligations now by law provided with reference to other lands granted to said railroads: Provided, however, That the Secretary of the Interior shall designate a section of land in said township seven, of range two, belonging to said companies, and reserve the same for the benefit of schools in essay by annie dillard, said territory, in accordance with the act of February twenty-one, eighteen hundred and fifty-five, establishing the office of surveyor-general of Utah, and to grant land for school and university purposes: Provided, also, That said companies shall pay for any additional lands acquired by this act, at the rate of adult resume, two dollars and to play, fifty cents an acre: And provided further, That no rights of private persons shall be affected by this act. Approved May 6, 1870. [16 Statutes at Large, p. 515.] AN ACT making appropriations for adult resume the support of the army for the year ending June thirty, eighteen hundred and seventy-two, and for other purposes. SEC.

9. That in sojourners essay dillard, accordance with the fifth section of the act approved July two, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, entitled An act to amend an act entitled ‘An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for resume postal, military, and other purposes,’ approved July first, eighteen hundred and six-two, the foreign essay Secretary of the Treasury is hereby directed to pay over in money to the Pacific Railroad Companies ment[i]oned in said act, and performing services for the United States, one-half of the compensation at the rate provided by law for such services heretofore or hereafter rendered: Provided, That this section shall not be construed to affect the legal rights of the government in the obligations of the companies,except as herein specifically provided. Approved March 3,1871. [17 Statutes at Large, p. 508.] AN ACT making appropriations for the legislative, executive, and judicial expenses of the government for adult resume the year ending June 30, 1874, and for other purposes. SEC. 2. That the Secretary of the Treasury is directed to rye essay adolescence, withhold all payments to any railroad company and its assigns, on account of freights or transportation over their respective roads, of any kind, to adult, the amount of payments made by the United States for interest upon bonds of the United States issued to any such company, and which shall not have been reimbursed, together with the five per cent. of net earnings due and unapplied, as provided by law; and any such company may bring suit in the Court of rye essay, Claims to recover the adult resume price of such freight and transportation ; and in such suit the right of dissertation, such company to recover the same upon the law and the facts of the case shall be determined, and also the rights of the United States, upon the merits of all the points presented by it in answer thereto by them, and either party to such suit may appeal to the Supreme Court; and both said courts shall give such cause or causes precedence of all other business. SEC.

4. That the Attorney-General shall cause a suit in equity to be instituted in the name of the United States against the Union Pacific Railroad Company and against all persons who may, in their own names, or through any agents, have subscribed for or have received capital stock in said road, which stock has not been paid for in full in money, or who may have received, as dividends, or otherwise, portions of the capital stock of said road, or the proceeds or avails thereof, or other property of said road, unlawfully and contrary to equity, or who may have received as profits or proceeds of contracts for construction or equipment of said road, or other contracts therewith, moneys or other property, which ought in equity to belong to said railroad corporation, or who may, under pretence of having complied with the acts to which this is an addition, have wrongfully and unlawfully received from the United States bonds, moneys, or lands, which ought, in equity, to be accounted for and paid to said railroad company or to the United States, and to compel payment for said stock and the collection and payment of adult resume, such moneys, and the restoration of such property or its value, either to sojourners essay, said railroad corporation or to the United States, whichever shall in equity be held entitled thereto. Said suit may be brought in the circuit court in any circuit, and all said parties may be made defendants in resume, one suit. Decrees may be entered and enforced against any one or more parties defendant without awaiting the final determination of the i like essay cause against resume other parties. The court where said cause is pending may make such orders and decrees and issue such process as it shall deem necessary to bring in new parties, or the representatives of parties deceased, or to carry into effect the purposes of this act. Buy A Dissertation. On filing the bill writs of subpoena may be issued by adult resume, said court against any parties defendant, which writ shall run into any district, and shall be served, as other like process, by buy a doctoral, the marshal of such district.

The books, records, correspondence, and all other documents Of the resume Union Pacific Railroad Company, shall at all times be open to inspection by the Secretary of the of learning foreign essay Treasury, or such persons as he may designate for that purpose. The laws of the adult resume United States providing for proceedings in bankruptcy shall not be held to apply to said corporation. No dividend shall hereafter be made by such company, but from the actual net-earnings thereof; and no new stock shall be issued, or mortgages or pledges made on the property or future earnings of the company without leave of Congress, except for of learning essay the purpose of funding and resume, securing debt now existing, or the renewals thereof. No director or officer of said road shall hereafter be interested, directly or indirectly, in games to play essay, any contract therewith, except for adult his lawful compensation as such officer. Any director or officer who shall pay or declare, or aid in paving or declaring, any dividend, or creating any mortgage or pledge prohibited by dissertation, this act, shall be punished by imprisonment not exceeding two years, and by fine not exceeding five thousand dollars. The proper circuit court of the United States shall have jurisdiction to bear and determine all cases of mandamus to compel said Union Pacific Railroad Company to operate its road as required by law. Approved March 3, 1873. [18 Statutes at Large, p. Resume. 111-12.]

AN ACT making additions to the fifteenth section of the act approved July 2, 1864 , entitled An act to of learning foreign, amend an act entitled ‘An act to aid in the construction of resume, a railroad and telegrapb line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to games i like essay, the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes,’ approved July 1, 1862. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the resume United States of America in Congress assembled, That there shall be, and is hereby, added to the fifteenth section of the act approved July second, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, entitled An act to catcher rye essay, amend an act entitled ‘An act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the ‘government the use of the same for adult resume postal, military, and advantage of learning, other purposes,’ approved July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, the follow ing words, namely: And any officer or agent of the companies authorized to construct the aforesaid roads, or of any company engaged in operating either of said roads, who shall refuse to resume, operate and use the road and telegraph under his control, in which he is engaged in operating for all purposes of communication, travel, and transportation, so far as the public and the govern ment are concerned, as one continuous line, or shall refuse, in such operation and use, to afford and secure to jared worst mistake, each of said roads equal advantages and adult resume, facilities as to rates, time, or transportation, without any discrimination of any kind in favor of, or adverse to, the road or business of any or either of said companies, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined in any sum not exceeding one thousand dollars, and may be imprisoned not less than six months. In case of failure or refusal of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, or either of sojourners, said branches, to comply with the requirements of this act and the acts to which this act is resume, amendatory, the party injured, or the company aggrieved may bring an action in the district or circuit court of the United States in the territory, district, or circuit in mistake thesis, which any portion of the road of the defendant may be situated, for damages on account of such failure or refusal; and, upon recovery, the plaintiff shall be entitled to judgment for treble the amount of all excess of freight and fares collected by the defendant, and for treble the amount of damages sustained by the plaintiff by such failure or refusal; and for each and resume, every violation of or failure to comply with the requirements of advantage essay, this act, a new cause of action shall arise; and in case of suit in adult, any such territory, district, or circuit, process may be served upon any agent of the defendant found in the territory, district, or circuit in which said suit may be brought, and such service shall be by the court held to be good and sufficient; and it is mistake, hereby provided that for all the purposes of adult resume, said act, and of the acts amendatory thereof, the railway of the Denver Pacific Railway and Telegraph Company shall be deemed and taken to be a part and foreign language, extension of the road of the Kansas Pacific railroad, to the point of junction thereof with the road of the resume Union Pacific Railroad Company at Cheyenne, as provided in the act of March third, eighteen hundred and sixty-nine. Approved June 20, 1874. [18 U. S. Statutes at Large, p. 200.] AN ACT providing for advantage foreign language essay the collection of moneys due the United States from the Pacific railroad companies. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of the adult Treasury be, and hereby is, directed to sojourners dillard, require payment of the railroad companies, their successors and assigns, or the successors or assigns of any or either of said companies, all sums of money due or to become due the United States for the five per resume centum of the games i like essay net earnings provided for by the act entitled An act to aid in the construction of a rail road and telegraph line from. the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes, approved July first, eighteen hundred and adult resume, sixty-two, or by any other act or acts in relation to the companies therein named, or any other such company or companies; and in case either of said railroad companies shall neglect or refuse to pay the same within sixty days after demand therefor made upon the treasurer of worst mistake, such railroad company, the Secretary of the Treasury. shall certify that fact to the Attorney-General, who shall thereupon institute the adult necessary suits and proceedings to collect and essay dillard, otherwise obtain redress in respect of the same in the proper circuit courts of the United States, and prosecute the same, with all convenient despatch, to resume, a final determination.

Approved June 22, 1874. NOTE: in the original appear within the text above in blue boldface type enclosed in . Courtesy CPRR.org Collection. Use of this Web site constitutes acceptance of the User Agreement ;