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APPLICATION OF FAYOL’S FUNCTIOS AT MCDONALD#8217;S Essay Sample. Henry Fayol is considered to be the father of Modern Operational Management Theory. He was one of the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management, having proposed that there are five primary functions of management:- Application in sociological essays the Modern Workplace. Fayol’s elements of management are recognized as the main objectives of modern managers. Fayol believed management theories could be developed, then taught and suggested that it is important to have unity of review command: a concept that suggests there should be only one supervisor for each person in an organization. Fayol suggested that management is a universal human activity that applies equally well to the family as it does to the corporation. Application of Fayol’s 14 principles of Administrative theory at McDonald’s. Sociological Essays? 1. Division of work- The first thing one would notice in a Mc Donald’s kitchen is the tools, the what literary research, work process and the actual food. Each food item has its own machine. There is one toaster-grill for each kind of bun, and one fryer for sociological each kind of burger.
The area is laid out for maximum efficiency and minimum movement by the worker for example the buns, toaster grill and trays all being one on top of the for a research paper, other. In this way the job becomes very well-defined each employee knows exactly what he has to do. For example when three people are working on essays, Cheeseburgers one works on laying out burger, second on filling the burger and the third one on taking burgers out of the grill. After which the “controller” (the employee who supplies orders to customers) collects the burger and provides it to the customers while cashiers collect the deadly unna, payment. The branch manager has full authority to give orders to sociological essays, the employees. The Training Squad Members, Dining Area Host/esses, Party Entertainers, Administrative Assistants, Security Coordinators, Maintenance Staff, Night Closers, Floor Managers and Shift Running Floor Managers all report to the branch manager and mit opencourseware it is the branch managers job to ensure that the work is done. At restaurant level the hierarchy is: 1st Assistant Manager. 2nd Assistant Manager. Shift Running Manager. Staff Training Crew.
All the employees of Mc Donald’s have a clear understanding of there job. The jobs are well-defined and they also have a clear understanding of the company’s vision-mission statement which is to provide “quickest and sociological friendliest service”. Employees are allowed a five minute break every two hours and a half an hour break every four hours; they respect such rules that govern the organization. 4. Unity of command: All the jobs in Mc Donald’s are well-defined and streamlined such that each employee reports to a particular manager whereas all of them report to restaurant branch manager. For example the books and cover letters, information regarding maintenance would flow from:- General Manager?Restaurant Manager?Floor Manager? Maintenance Staff. Employees of essays Mc Donald’s are paid on an hourly basis which is introduction essay, why the attrition rate is very high. Mc Donald’s also follows the Pay and essays Reward policy wherein the better an employee performs the more salary he receives. Mc Donald’s has a mechanistic organizational structure, authority is highly centralized and the tasks and rules are clearly specified.
Yet every employee listens, communicates freely and honestly and literary for a research acts in the interest of all other employees. Each food item has its own machine. There is one toaster-grill for each kind of bun, and one fryer for each kind of burger. As mentioned earlier the materials are at the right place at essays the right time for example the buns, toaster grill and trays are all one on top of the other. Moreover in michael clay thompson order to ensure that the right person is sociological, hired for the right job Mc Donald’s ensures McDonald#8217;s inducts all new employees into the business through a Welcome Meeting, which they must attend. The Welcome Meeting gives an paper punishment research overview of the Company, including: job role, food, hygiene and safety training, Policies and procedures administration benefits. New employees also meet their trainer, and tour the sociological essays, restaurant. The company operates a 3-week probationary period, after which employees are rated on their performance and are either retained or have their employment terminated. Managers at Mc Donald’s treat their subordinates, i.e., maintenance staff, training staff and crew members indifferently. 9. Stability of on resumes and cover letters tenure of personnel:- Employees of Mc Donald’s are paid on an hourly basis which leads to high employee turnover.
But however Mc Donald’s pays a lot of sociological attention to recruiting the essay, right employees for its restaurants. Sociological Essays? Management spends a lot of time and effort in training the new recruits and is hired after an “on the job experience” training session. Good Introduction English Essay? 10. Esprit de corps:- Mc Donald’s inculcates team spirit amongst the employees of sociological a restaurant by providing performance – driven incentives to branches on the basis of their performance. This promotes a feeling of harmony and unity amongst the employees. Is this the perfect essay for you?
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Critical Review on Henri Fayol#8217;s work. Best And Cover? Henri Fayol (1841-1925) was a French engineer who rose to prominence within the fields of coal mining engineering, mining geology and finally to sociological, management practice. His career began as a#8230; Fayol and Mintzberg. In the era of modernisation these days, it appears that the purpose of managers in every single organisation is becoming so essential that we are required to understand the real#8230; Scientific Management Applied by McDonalds. Best Letters? In the sociological essays, twentieth century, the principles of Scientific Management had been formalized by the Frederick Taylor for the objectives of developing and clay thompson designing the ideas so that it gets the#8230; With the use of the principles pioneered by Henry Fayol.
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How to Write an sociological essays Effective Nursing Resume Summary. Writing an write english essay effective nursing resume summary is easier said than done. Studies show that recruiters spend mere seconds reviewing a resume and these days that’s after the resume has made its way through the applicant tracking system. An effective nursing resume summary is concise and essays easy to on resumes, read. It correlates the candidate’s experience with the job description in question. Sociological! And it piques the reader’s interest to the point that they will continue reviewing the mit opencourseware, resume in sociological, greater detail. How long do recruiters spend reviewing a nursing resume? A 2012 study conducted by the Ladders found that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing a resume. That’s right, 6 seconds. You maybe wondering why you’d even bother writing a resume summary at all.
Well, this particular study only studied the initial review of the resume. Initially, recruiters typically go straight to a review of the last two jobs held by mit opencourseware the candidate. They want to know immediately if they are working with a candidate that has experience in essays, the particular job capacity in question. So they look at best on resumes and cover letters the job title and sociological essays the dates of write introduction essay employment. Essays! Recruiters also focused on the employers and education of the candidates.
Of course, this study was conducted on recruiters reviewing the resumes of general professionals as opposed to professionals in the healthcare field. We’d expect slight variations from recruiters in the healthcare field. They may look for specialties, licenses and certifications in addition to these other attributes. But that doesn’t change the fact that candidates have a very limited amount of time to catch a recruiter’s attention. If recruiters see some or all of what they’re looking for paper punishment in an initial review, then they may give the resume a closer look.
Even then, the resume may only receive 20 seconds total. You’re probably wondering how anyone could read your summary in 20 seconds let alone your entire resume. Well, they’re actually reviewing it as opposed to reading it. And that’s important because it sets the tone for formatting your summary. How should your nursing resume summary be formatted? Like the rest of your resume, your summary should be concise and easy to read. The reader should be able to review it quickly and pick up on the keywords and concepts that they’re looking for. Essays! This is paper punishment why we recommend using bullets and stand-alone snippets in your summary. By doing this, you’re playing to the realities of the review process. Most summaries are written in sociological essays, paragraph form. This is fine for conveying large volumes of information in a more compact space, but it assumes that the essay michael thompson, reviewer is actually going to take the time to sociological essays, read it.
Unfortunately, they will not do this in the vast majority of cases. Write Good Introduction English Essay! Therefore, a summary written as a big, long paragraph may prevent the reviewer from picking up on the key points or distract them from essays, even reviewing it at all. By contrast, a summary written with bullets and stand-alone snippets allows the reviewer to physics 8.02, quickly scan this section and easily pick up on essays, the keywords and write english points you’re making. You might include a quick snippet from an sociological online evaluation or professional endorsement and provide a link to novel, the site where the rest of the essays, information can be reviewed. You may also provide a brief overarching summary of your skills in bold print and then provide bullets for what review paper the rest of the sociological essays, information you’re seeking to convey. What should be included in thompson, your nursing resume summary? There are many possibilities for your summary and there is no exact science as to what to include. Sociological Essays! Different people will have different cards to play based on their level of experience and the specifics of their job search. The only certainty is that you should always due your best to essay voyage michael, match your skills and the information you convey on your resume with the essays, qualifications and job description in question. You might include the following in your summary: Years of relevant experience.
A summary of write introduction english essay your qualifications for the job in sociological, question. A sense of your work or management style. What Is A Literary Review Paper! Personal characteristics that make you a good fit for sociological essays the job and/or company. Professional achievements. Education, certifications or special experience that might make you unique. Measurable improvements that you’ve made for physics previous employers. Accolades or awards that you’ve received from previous employers.
When considering what to write in sociological, your summary, do your best to avoid stand-alone cliches like “team player” or “results oriented”. Mit Opencourseware 8.02! Instead, try to convey these concepts with concrete examples. You might state that as a team player you accomplished X, or as a results oriented professional you accomplished Y. Finally, you’ll want to ensure that the sociological essays, rest of your resume supports your summary. Remember, your goal is to convey as much information that’s pertinent to the job in books on resumes and cover letters, question. Essays! So you don’t necessarily want to repeat information throughout your resume.
As a healthcare professional, you have no shortage of highly technical skills and diverse job duties to convey so making sure your resume isn’t repetitive shouldn’t be a problem. Below is one example of a summary: Registered Nurse with over 7 years of critical care experience. Specialized practice in cardiovascular surgery, post-operative recovery, and what is a literary review intensive care. Extensive experience and thorough understanding of essays pathophysiology and on resumes and cover letters pharmacology of critically ill patients. Honored with several merit awards as a highly effective patient/family educator. Promoted to Charge Nurse as a respected team-player with demonstrated leadership skills. Current member of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) since 2008. AACN Ambassador since 2011. 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us.
How to Write the sociological essays, Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. Deadly Unna Novel! 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to sociological, Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for essay michael clay nursing jobs. We provide. Hello, I just recently graduated from a BSN program last week so I haven’t taken the NCLEX-RN yet; I have been an LPN for essays 20 years. How do I highlight my previous healthcare experience but still tailor my resume as a new grad? Now that my scope of literary review for a research practice will be different, which skills or attributes from my experience as an LPN would be best to feature as a new grad without listing basic nursing skills? Also, how should I word the fact that I don’t have a license yet? Is it appropriate to sociological, say “license pending?” Also, should I list my name followed by BSN or LPN? Congratulations, Brandee! There are no right or wrong answers to these questions, but here are my recommendations.
Assuming you’re looking for RN jobs, list your name followed only by BSN until you get your RN license and then add the RN. In the Licenses and Certifications section of best on resumes and cover letters your resume, list the RN license as Pending and provide a status, ie. scheduled for NCLEX 5/31-2017, or passed NCLEX 5/31/2017, or Applied for sociological essays License 6/7/2017. As for the summary, I would indicate that you’re a new grad with experience as an LPN (Recent BSN graduate with 20 years experience as an LPN in various settings). From there, try your best to highlight how your experience relates to physics 8.02, the qualifications and requirements for the specific job your applying for. And remember, always be looking for ways to explain why you’re the solution to their problems….rather than explaining what they can do for you. I hope this helps! At what point is a nurse considered a New Nurse/ New Grad versus an Experienced Nurse?
I am working on my resume and do not know how to tailor it in essays, regards to the two options. I graduated Dec 14? and worked my first nursing position in May 15?. I have had one other job since then and currently seeking another. So in total, I would say I have about 1 1/2 years of nursing experience. I would say that 1 year or more of best books experience makes you experienced. However, how you approach your resume would depend on whether or not that experience was in the same specialty that you’re applying for. For example, if you have 1 year of experience in Long Term Care, but your applying for jobs in a hospital’s ICU, then you might want to include details about clinical rotations in the ICU during your schooling, in addition to your experience in sociological, LTC.
I hope this helps! I am also having difficulties creating a resume. I have two years experience working in a nursing home setting and only recently graduated from the LPN program. I’m concerned that my few years of overall experience is going to effect me finding a good job. What Is A Research! I have tried to construct a resume, but I do not feel confident in what I have so far. Any suggestions/references would be greatly appreciated! I am struggling in writing my resume.
I am not sure how to present myself. My most recent jobs included the sociological essays, Program Nurse head for a Life Skills Program for medical fragile children and the nurse in charge of all the medical needs for a camp, including managing all aspects of the clinic. I also have worked at several doctor clinics and in the early days of my career, I was an what is a for a research paper ICU nurse at several hospitals. I would like another position in some type of sociological essays nurse management. Suggestions on how to essay voyage michael thompson, summarize myself?
Thanks for essays the inquiry, Jean. There’s no easy way to summarize your experience when attempting to best books on resumes and cover, transition into a new area of the essays, field. Essay Voyage Thompson! My recommendation would be to review each job posting for hints about qualifications and requirements that you may be able to equate to essays, your past experience. Good English Essay! You can also research the employer posting the job to see if there is sociological essays some larger initiative they are pursuing or challenge they are facing that your past experience might line up with. You can also review the what literary review for a research, job descriptions for similar jobs of many different employers to find hints about the qualifications that are being sought for the type of position you’re interested in. There’s a good chance that if a qualification is important to one employer, it’s important to others.
The main goal is to convey how you are going to help solve the problems an essays employer is facing; how you are the best solution for their hiring need. It appears as though you have a broad set of write introduction english essay experience to sociological, draw on, and that’s a good thing. The tasks are 1) equating your experience with the write essay, qualifications of the new job and/or 2) conveying how your experience will help you solve an employer’s problem and 3) succinctly distilling this into 2 to 4 bullet points in your resume summary. I hope this helps! I’m a former travel nurse of many years inclusive of interim nursing leadership positions and sociological essays staff nurse positions. Honestly, my Resume’ would look more like a “rap sheet” if I listed 10+ years of what research contract work, especially as I always worked 2 jobs concurrently.
Now that I have my BSN and will complete my MSN: Nurse Executive specialty track degree within 6 months, I am looking to move from essays, Director roles into the C-Suite. Any suggestions how to english essay, summarize or should I list each contract job? Congratulations or your recent and upcoming achievements! In your particular situation, it might be best to display your travel nursing experience as one entry in your work history. For example: Worked for sociological essays various agencies completing short term assignments across the country, gaining proficiency with a diverse set of mit opencourseware charting systems, processes, procedures, organizational structures and management approaches. Then, go on to list some highlights that pertain to the job posting for sociological essays which you are applying. Donna Cardillo recommends this approach. Best And Cover Letters! Typically, we recommend listing out the hospitals, but in your case it might be too much. That said, you should definitely be prepared to list out each and every hospital you worked with as some employers require it.
I hope this helps!! Thank you for this article! Helps a lot =) Thanks for sociological letting us know; we’re glad to hear it’s useful! Great advice, thank you so much for essay voyage getting back to sociological, me! #128578; Any advice for a New Grad RN looking for good introduction essay a 1st job? Preceptorship in pediatrics but I am going to apply to medsurg positions as well.
What should I highlight in essays, my executive summary? Thanks in advance! Thanks for the question. Here is an article dedicated to new-grad nursing resumes. There’s a bit about summaries there. In addition to what’s covered there, you might consider adding pertinent volunteer work, conferences attended, any honors or awards you achieved, or a stellar GPA among other things.
As always, review the job listing, learn about the employer and the challenges the mit opencourseware physics, employer faces. Then, try to highlight anything in sociological essays, your experience that might align. I hope this helps! Thanks for sharing very informative. What about a med/surg nurse who wants to apply for physics 8.02 a psych nurse position? Have lots of experience with psych patients and psych medications while working in med/surg. Thanks for essays the inquiry, Kayla. I recommend highlighting the is a literary for a research, PSYCH experience you have along with any related Med/Surg experience in the summary.
Be sure to review the job posting carefully to see what they’re looking for so you can include any relevant work experience. What is the standard number of pages or megabites a registered resume should have ? There isn’t a standard length or file size for nursing resume. Most would say that it’s best to sociological, keep the resume to 1 to 2 pages, but that may not always be possible. Additionally, resume length isn’t as important as it once was now that Applicant Tracking Systems are the norm. Here is an article with some more considerations on the topic.
How would I present my resume as neophyte RN employed, but was been in books, the medical settings since I graduated in 2005. I worked in family doctor’s office as over all in charge. Had3 months practice as RN float temporary while working on sociological, my papers to stay for good (acute, long term and dementia) and michael clay thompson CNA of 4 yrs. Now, I started working as an RN since Nov 2014 until present as a primary nurse in a long term care. I really want to be a dialysis nurse. I had my 800 hours clinical hours wayback in 2006. My apologies, Luz, but I’m a little unclear as to your situation and primary goal.
If you’re interested in becoming a dialysis nurse, then you might want to look into the major dialysis services, Fresenius and DaVita, as potential employers. Sociological! They will sometimes hire candidates with limited experience and many aspects of what is a literary review for a research your long-term-care experience might be attractive to them. I hope this helps! I have a question- thank you. I would like to become a dialysis nurse however, I have no experience in sociological, that area I have worked in cardiac telemetry and psyche. I did do peritoneal dialysis on the cardiac medical unit which I will include in my job description. Please advise how to open the door into a new arena of nursing. Thank you so very kindly, El. Towne. Thanks for the question! Most Dialysis positions require experience in an acute care setting, which you have, so that’s a great start.
You also have some relative experience in the field. You might consider obtaining a Certified Nephrology Nurse certification as many employers prefer candidates with that certification. Next, you might consider inquiring with the good, larger private Dialysis services, Davita and Fresenius. The ratings for these employers on Glass Door and Indeed are just so-so, but they might be a great way to get 1 to 2 years of experience in the specialty before searching for sociological a more desirable hospital based position. The private Dialysis operators tend to a bit more welcoming to candidates without experience.
That said, the job market for RNs is very hot in best books and cover letters, 2016, so your chances should be better with all employers. I hope this helps! What about for a second career new nurse? I have over seven years of experience in the communications field with three years of supervisory experience. I recently graduated with my BSN and passed the NCLEX.
My nursing experience is sociological essays limited to my clinical experience and some volunteer work. Unna Essay! I am struggling how to relate my past experience with nursing to make me stand out in my Summary. Yes, it’s difficult to relate experiences in other industries to nursing because employers are typically seeking candidates with experience in the technical aspects of nursing. That said, you can certainly highlight the general aspects of your former career. Your promotion, leadership, team-work and other aspects are all good qualifications to sociological, address in punishment, your summary. Essays! Also, here is an article on new-grad nursing resumes that might be helpful.
I hope this information helps! What would you write as a nursing student looking to start applying for jobs? I have no experience other than what my clinicals have offered me. I wont be taking my boards for about 5 months still. Set to write introduction english essay, graduate in December (3 more months. How would you suggest is the sociological, best way to paper, present that as a RN, I simultaneously held the titles of ADON, Wound Nurse, and Charge Nurse at my most recent employer? Initially I was hired as a Charge Nurse, then I was promoted to ADON but I still had to work as a Charge Nurse 3 of my 5 scheduled days so I functioned in the role of ADON only on Monday and sociological essays Tuesday. Later it was determined there was a definite need for consistent and routine wound monitoring, so I evolved into the Wound Nurse for the facility.
Working with physicians I developed new protocols for wound assessment, treatment, and management and every Monday I functioned in deadly unna essay, the role of Wound Nurse. Is it best to essays, break each job into its own summary and paper bullet list? I’m in over my head trying to figure out the essays, best way to present myself in a resume now, including the physics 8.02, profile. Thanks for the inquiry. Sociological Essays! This is a great problem to have for deadly your nursing resume! I agree it’s difficult to manage though. Typically, when people have multiple roles with the sociological, same employer, they’re not simultaneous so they can be listed separately according the time-frame they were performed.
In this case, I think it would be best to do as you suggest and break each into it’s own summary and bullet list. Voyage Michael Clay! The reason is that these are all very different roles. Something like below: Employer information (location, details, etc.) Job Title: Charge RN, ADON, Wound Care Nurse. Hired as a Charge RN, I was promoted to ADON and also accepted a role as the Wound Care Nurse for sociological the facility. Charge RN: Start Date-End Date. Wound Care Nurse: Start Date-End Date.
I think something like that works well in this case. It might take up quite a bit of space, but you’ve accomplished a lot! As always, be sure to tailor your resume to the position applied for is a literary review and highlight quantifiable and tangible achievements where possible. As for your resume summary, I think it’s best say something like, “X years experience as Charge Nurse, X years experience as an ADON, and X years as a Wound Care Nurse.” And/or, “Leadership and teamwork skills recognized by essays current employer with promotions and special assignments.” Remember, the summary itself is just that, a quick summary designed to pique interest and get the reader to spend more time reviewing the write good introduction english, rest of the resume and the actual accomplishments. It’s also an excellent opportunity to essays, match your qualifications with the required qualifications for the job. So, if the job is looking for X years experience as an ADON, then you might say, “Over X years experience as an mit opencourseware physics 8.02 ADON.” I hope this information helps and please let me know if you have further questions or concerns. When listed awards won with previous employers, is it alright to add awards you were nominated for but did not receive?
Great Question! Like many things related to essays, resumes, you will find some people who say yes and others who say no. I would say that it depends on good introduction english essay, how well you can quantify the nomination. For example: One of five Staff Nurses out of 160 to sociological, be nominated for the X Award. Quantifying it this way, indicates that it was an honor just to be nominated. Deadly Novel! If you’re able to do this, or something like it, then adding the essays, nomination to your resume could be useful. I hope this helps!! Thank you. Two more questions, after my name is appropriate to include credentials or no?
I have seen differing opinions. My university awards a BS not a BSN, so my credentials will be BS, RN. Will this throw recruiters off since most are looking specifically for a BSN or will the supporting information under education provide enough information? That’s a tough one. I’m not sure that I have seen a BS instead of write english a BSN.
To be honest, I don’t think recruiters are that picky, so it should be fine to include your credentials as BS, RN. The vast majority of sociological essays recruiters are more concerned with making sure you have the required work experience. Research! That said, if you’re a new grad, it shouldn’t matter either. Like you’ve already noticed though, there are many different opinions on resumes. I typically encourage people to essays, include the credentials after their name and I think your situation is no different.
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Francis students. Deadline: Biannually; the deadline for work published between June 2015 and May 2017 is May 15, 2017. This $10,000 award recognizes “young authors,” which the rules define as any author aged 35 or younger. Submit any novel or short story published or scheduled to sociological be published in the calendar year. Works must be written for books on resumes letters adults; children’s or YA pieces are ineligible. Deadline: Annually in the fall (most recently in August or September). 2017 deadline not yet announced. This boutique publishing firm offers a full-fledged publishing deal to its contest winner. Submit a novel of 20,000 words or more in any fiction genre (no fanfic, short stories or poetry) and if it’s selected, Inkitt will provide you with professional editing, a cover design, and 25 percent royalties.
They also have a strategy to get you into the Amazon Top 100. (Not too shabby.) Inkitt runs contests regularly, so be sure to essays check back often ! Deadline: See individual contest pages. 8. Real Simple’s Life Lessons Essay Contest. Have you ever had a “eureka” moment? If you have, and physics, you can write a compelling personal essay about it in no more than 1,500 words, you may be able to win $3,000 in sociological, Real Simple’s annual essay contest. Deadline: Annually; 2017 deadline has not yet been announced. Presented by Lee Low Books, an award-winning children’s book publisher, this award is given for a previously unpublished children’s picture book manuscript (of no more than 1,500 words) written by a writer of color. The winner receives $1,000 cash and a standard publication contract. You may submit up to two manuscripts. Deadline: Submissions must be postmarked by best on resumes and cover letters, September 30 each year. 10. Ernest J. Gaines Award for sociological Literary Excellence.
This contest aims to provide visibility for essay voyage michael emerging African American fiction writers and to enable them to focus on their writing by sociological, awarding a $10,000 cash prize. Books On Resumes And Cover Letters! Eligible authors should submit a work of fiction, such as a novel or short story collection, published in the calendar year. Deadline: Annually; 2017 deadline has not yet been announced. Essays! Honoring the best work of fiction published by an American author in a single calendar year, this award has been given to the likes of John Updike, Philip Roth and Ann Patchett. Essay Thompson! The winner receives $15,000 and an invitation to read at the award ceremony in Washington, DC. Four finalists also each receive a $5,000 award. Deadline: Annually on October 31 for books published that calendar year. Presented by the Brooklyn Film Arts Festival, this annual prize awards $500 cash for sociological essays “the best Brooklyn-focused non-fiction essay which is set in Brooklyn and is about Brooklyn and/or Brooklyn people/characters.” (So it’s Brooklyn-centric, if you haven’t picked up on that yet.) Submissions should be four to 10 pages (up to 2,500 words), and five authors will be chosen to read and clay thompson, discuss their submissions at sociological essays the annual December event.
Deadline: Annually in mid-November. Fiction and nonfiction writers who have recently published a book that “contributes to our understanding of racism and deadly unna, our appreciation of the rich diversity of human cultures” are eligible for this award, which offers $10,000 cash as well media and publicity opportunities. Sociological Essays! Submissions must be published in the prior year (so books published in 2016 are eligible for the 2017 award). Deadline: Annual submission window is September 1 through December 31. 14. Marfield Prize (a.k.a. National Award for Arts Writing) Presented by the Arts Club of Washington, this award seeks to honor nonfiction books that deal with #8220;any artistic discipline (visual, literary, performing, or media arts, as well as cross-disciplinary works).” This may include criticism, art history, memoirs and biographies, and deadly unna essay, essays. Deadline: Annually in the last quarter of the year; the 2017 deadline has not yet been announced.
15. W.Y. Boyd Literary Award for Excellence in Military Fiction. If you’re a war buff, this competition is for you. It awards $5,000 to the best piece of fiction set during a period when the U.S. was at sociological essays war (war may either be the main plot of the piece or simply provide the setting).
Submissions may be adult or YA novels. Deadline: Annually on December 1. 16. Friends of American Writers Chicago Awards. FAW presents two annual awards: an Adult Literature Award for literary fiction or nonfiction, and a Juvenile Literature Award for a children’s/YA book. Authors must reside in the state of Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, Ohio, South Dakota or Wisconsin #8212; or they must set their book in one of those locations. Prize amounts vary from what research year to year but are typically between $500 and $2,000. Deadline: Annually at the end of the sociological year; 2017 deadline has not yet been announced. 17. Hektoen Grand Prix Essay Contest. Hektoen International, an online journal dedicated to medical humanities, offers two prizes annually for essays of no more than 1,600 words in best, two categories. The Grand Prize of $1,200 is given for an essay suited for sociological their Famous Hospitals section, while a Silver Prize of $1,000 is given to the best essay suited for the sections of Art Flashes, Literary Vignettes, Moments in History or Physicians of Note.
Deadline: Annually; 2017 has passed and 2018 deadline is not yet announced. 18. Nelson Algren Short Story Award. Presented by deadly unna essay, the Chicago Tribune, this award presents $3,500 to one grand prize winner, $1,000 to four finalists and $500 to five runners-up for sociological essays a short fiction story of less than 8,000 words. You may submit up to two short stories, but note that your name must not appear anywhere on your submission as the process is anonymous. Deadline: Annually; 2017 has passed and 2018 deadline is not yet announced. 19. Minotaur Books / Mystery Writers of America First Crime Novel Competition. Writers 18 and older who have never had a novel published (in any genre) are eligible for this prize, awarded for an original book-length manuscript where “murder or another serious crime or crimes is at the heart of the deadly unna essay story.” The winner receives a publication contract with Minotaur Books and essays, an advance of $10,000 against future royalties.
Deadline: Annually in the last quarter of the year. The deadline for essay voyage clay 2017 awards has passed; the sociological essays deadline for for a research 2018 awards has not yet been announced. Want to change the world? Then listen up. FutureScapes is looking for concrete, substantive pieces that “can provide a roadmap for cities, states, and nations to sociological essays follow.” If you just want to literary paper write the next Hunger Games , this isn’t the sociological contest for you, but if you’re inspired by politics and civic issues, you’ve found the right place. (Case in books and cover letters, point: the inaugural theme, “ Empowerment Cities ,” features a quote from Alexis de Tocqueville.) First place wins $2,000; second place $1,000; and four runners-up will get $500 each. Oh, and did we mention publication in an anthology that will be “distributed to sociological mayors, governors and members of the U.S. Congress”? Deadline: Annually; deadline for 2017 is TBD.
This biennial prize of $10,000 honors an American author whose work has had an impact on a critical social justice issue (as did Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin ). Mit Opencourseware! In addition to submitting a copy of your book or written work, you must also complete a 250-word statement that describes the tangible impact your piece has made in the world and outlining any social justice work you perform outside of your writing. Deadline: Biennially in odd-numbered years. The deadline for 2017 awards has passed, and the deadline for sociological essays 2019 have not yet been announced. 22. The Diana Woods Memorial Award in Creative Non-Fiction. Creative nonfiction essays of no more than 5,000 words on any subject, are eligible for consideration for this award, whose winner receives $250 and publication in Lunch Ticket , the literary and art journal produced by the MFA community of Antioch University Los Angeles. Works must not have been published elsewhere. Award winners are required to submit a 100-word biography, recent photo and a short note thanking the Woods family for their generosity and support. Deadlines: Biannual reading periods are the good introduction month of February for the Summer/Fall issue and the month of August for the Winter/Spring issue.
This contest seeks to foster collaborations between artists and writers. Select a piece of artwork from the gallery provided and submit a short story inspired by it and you could win $350 #8212; plus a spot in a future art book showcasing these collaborations. Essays! Short stories should be between 2,000 5,000 words. Deadline: Annually; 2017 has passed and essay, 2018 deadline is not yet announced. For young writers ages 13-18, this cool contest also serves as a mini writer’s camp. Recognizing that “a first draft is never perfect,” submissions actually receive peer review by authors, writing teachers and sociological essays, other experts and writers are given the chance to revise their pieces based on essay voyage this feedback before submitting them for final prize consideration. There’s a $100 prize for sociological the winner and $50 for the runner-up (plus $50 for the best peer-reviewer).
All three are featured on Write the World’s blog alongside comments from a guest judge. Capital Research! And since each month’s prompt is from a different genre, developing writers get a chance to test out essays, different styles. Stuck with writer’s block and essay clay thompson, looking for a way to jumpstart your escape? Prose offers weekly challenges meant to spark your creativity; many are just for fun, but look for the weekly numbered challenges posted by essays, Prose (rather than community members or sponsors) for a chance to win money. Prizes are typically between $100 $200 and word counts are low #8212; some as low as under 150, some as high as 500, but all say “quality beats quantity.” So even if all you get from the prompt is capital paper research, a chance to flex your brain, it’s not a bad deal. Curious about opportunities for poets?
Your stanzas #8212; rhyming or not #8212; could be worth a fair amount of money in these competitions. 26. Naomi Long Madgett Poetry Award. Open to essays African American poets, previously published or not, this award provides a $500 prize and publication by Boardside Lotus Press for the best book-length collection of poems (approximately 60 to 90 pages). Deadline: Annually on mit opencourseware 8.02 March 1. If you’re already a published poet, this is the award for you; it’s given for sociological a second book of poetry due to come out in the forthcoming year. The winner receives $5,000 and an all-expenses-paid week-long residency. 8.02! In addition, copies of her book are distributed to sociological the 1,000 members of the Academy of American Poets. Best On Resumes Letters! Deadline: Annual submission window is January 1 through May 15.
28. African Poetry Book Fund Prizes. The APBF awards three prizes annually for sociological essays African Poetry. Essay Voyage Michael Clay Thompson! The Glenna Luschei Prize for Afican Poetry gives $5,000 for sociological a book of original African poetry published in the prior year. The Sillerman First Book Prize for African Poets gives $1,000 and a publication contract for an unpublished book-length collection of poetry by an African author. The Brunel University African Poetry Prize is deadly unna novel essay, a new prize that grants ?3,000 to essays a poet who was born in Africa, is a national of an African country or has African parents, who has not yet had a full-length book of poetry published. (U.S. citizens qualify.) To submit, you’ll need 10 poems. Essay Michael Clay! Deadlines: See individual prize pages. Claremont Graduate University presents two awards each year to poets they deem to sociological essays be “outstanding.” The Kate Tufts Poetry Award grants $10,000 for a published first book of deadly unna essay, poetry that shows promise. Sociological! The Kingsley Tufts Poetry Award grants a mammoth $100,000 for a published book of paper punishment, poetry by an an established or mid-career poet. Deadline: Books published between July of the previous year and June 30 of the current year are eligible for the following year’s prize (i.e. Sociological! award for 2017 was for works publishing between between July 1, 2015 and June 30, 2016). Deadline for 2018 awards has not yet been announced.
Writing contests with multiple categories. Some contests accept submissions in multiple categories, so you could submit a novella as well as a poem or other work. 30. Binghamton University Book Awards. Sponsored by the Binghamton Center for Writers #8212; State University of New York, this competition offers a $1,000 prize for work published in the previous year in two separate categories. The John Gardner Fiction Book Award goes to the best novel or collection of fiction, while the Milt Kessler Poetry Book award goes to the best book of poems. Is A Literary Paper! Deadline: Annually on March 1 for essays books published the previous year. 31. Best And Cover Letters! Writer’s Digest Annual Writing Competition. (Editor’s note: We were so excited to include this competition that we overlooked its entry fees. We’ll leave it in the post for essays those interested in submitting their work, but please note that this contest is not free.) One of the good english longest-running writing competitions #8212; it’s now in its 83rd year #8212; this contest spotlights up and essays, coming writers in a number of categories, including Memoirs/Personal Essay, Magazine Feature Article and Genre Short story.
The Grand Prize winner gets $5,000, a feature in Writer’s Digest magazine, a paid trip to a writing conference and research, more. Runners-up earn prizes in first through tenth places. Deadline: Annually; May 5, 2017. Where to find more legitimate, free writing contests. Looking for more opportunities to submit your work to writing contests? Here are a few great sites to keep an eye on.
A number of the contests found on our list came highly recommended by this site, which compiles some of the sociological essays best free literary contests out there. You can sort contests by recommendation level (Highly Recommended, Recommended or Neutral), view plenty of info on requirements and even see which contests are better for beginners, intermediate writers and pros. They also offer a handful of contests themselves , including the Wergle Flomp Humor Poetry Contest (which sounds delightful). Another fantastic source for legitimate writing contests I consulted when compiling this list, Poets Writers vets competitions, contests, awards and voyage clay, grants to make sure they’re following legitimate practises and policies. It’s worth checking out regularly as it features both annual and one-time contests. Sociological Essays! Writer, poet and editor Cathy Bryant sources legitimate, free-to-enter writing contests and deadly novel, calls for submission. She releases a new list of contests and sociological, calls each month, so check back monthly for new opportunities. Are you planning to enter any writing contests this year?
Which ones? This post contains affiliate links. That means if you purchase through our links, you’re supporting The Write Life — and we thank you for capital that! This post originally ran in February 2016. We updated it in March 2017.
Kelly Gurnett runs the blog Cordelia Calls It Quits and is growing her own freelance writing, editing and blogging empire day by day. You can follow her on sociological essays Twitter and Facebook and hire her services here. Move from capital punishment research irregular client work and sociological, crappy pay to being a freelance leader in your field. Paul Jarvis, who#8217;s been freelancing for 16+ years, shares his advice on pricing, positioning and more. What a brilliant list! Thank you. Thank you too for the mention of Comps and is a literary for a paper, Calls I love finding free writing competitions, and some of essays, them have very impressive prizes. I#8217;m one of those old-fashioned writers who think that we should be paid for our work and essay voyage thompson, free comps are a great way of achieving that.
I#8217;m with you on that #8220;old-fashioned#8221; notion. #128578; Can I take part being Pakistan? Ha! Of course! I get emails from people all over the world who have had success via Comps and Calls. Essays! Good luck! While free writing contests are definitely great, it would be a little odd to overlook ones with fees. A lot of best books on resumes and cover, times you will be paying a fee somewhere along the way, it#8217;s just nice when it#8217;s upfront and not in the form of stealing your work. Check this one out, insider tip: Good advice, Tiffany.
For example, the Erma Bombeck Writing Competition (https://www.wclibrary.info/erma/) opens for entries on December 4, 2017, and there is a $15 fee which goes to sociological essays fund four prizes ($500 to each winner plus a free registration, valued at $400+, to the Erma Bombeck Writers Workshop at the University of Dayton, April 2018). Entry length must be 500 words or less for either a Humorous or Human Interest entry. I have problems in finding short story competitions as I live in England. If you do post any short story competitions or any in the literary format, that would excite my senses. You may want to research check out these sites- but be aware, some require subscriptions, give precedence to subscribers or charge small entry fees; but not all do, and there are some free entrance comps in Canada that are worthwhile. (These are monthly.) There are many more, I#8217;ve only begun to root those out.- I#8217;ll post more as I discover them. my problem is that I am disabled and I am looking for grant help.
Looking for a contest that my 10 old son can enter or a publishing company that can help with self-publishing. Any recommendation or advice please? Please contact the publisher to discuss self-publishing for your son. Our university just launched a new competition (no entry fee, no gimmicks) called FutureScapes. We#8217;re an innovation office, and we#8217;re looking for sociological essays help from writers to what is a literary for a help us envision cities of the future. Hugo-Award winning author Mary Robinette Kowal will be our judge this inaugural year. $2,000 for first place. I#8217;ve added it to July#8217;s list for essays Comps and calls. Many thanks for getting in touch!
Pity I cannot contest, being Sri Lankan. sigh Stop discriminating writers. Books On Resumes! I#8217;m a South African and I#8217;d like to enter this competition. I#8217;m already have the sociological essays script. Mit Opencourseware Physics! hello sir, would it be possible for me to join even if I#8217;m from the Philippines? Old fashioned notions were/are just once legitimate notions of claims for money or what else, when in a time there were hardly or very little amount of sociological, writing gigs to get; let alone having someone getting paid for it. What Is A Literary Review Research! Now it is like there are too many people as working in the business here of transposing things across for a living. That really the only thing these vetted competitions do now is, just bunch up a bunch of people who cannot write, among judges judging as judges cannot much write either, and they sit around give a small vagabond gift amount of money in sociological, discovery for those who suck less at it.
As really a sign should go up before hand about how real writers we really need not to apply here anymore. Deadly Unna Novel Essay! As none of the spirit of writing is left of writing. Everyone writes politically correct as only to affirm the lack for want of essays, any real creativity getting dispersed. Amen to paper that! I#8217;ve read winners#8217; stories of a certain contest that is sociological essays, held by a magazine every year which I will not name and when I see the judges#8217; names, I think #8220;Well, they don#8217;t know anything about writing!#8221; No wonder this was chosen. Speak for yourself, honey. I#8217;ve got a very politically INCORRECT story I#8217;m working on deadly essay right now. Who knows if anyone will publish it, though.
It#8217;s satirical and sociological, quite offensive. While I like how your not afraid to speak your mind, and I really have no say in what you put in your books, could you please try not to deadly unna novel offend too many people? This is essays, just a suggestion, so feel free to do whatever you like. My mind is full of stories to tell.. I am an idea person. Is there a place in this writers world for one like myself?
Perhaps a writer lacking an idea? My mind screams..my voice mute. #128577; Maybe you just need a writing partner. You have my attention. I love to write introduction english write, but I am almost always of of ideas#8230; Maybe you can let me know. Were do I find the legitmate ways to to get paid for entering contests? many are. scams so far that I researched, and sociological, entered. Voyage Michael Thompson! please let me know thanks. I would like to find work online and get paid weekly by check through the mail. Essays! do you know of such?
Nice Post and thanks for best books and cover letters the sharing free Legitimate contest list. can i participate from sri lanka?? Every competition has its own rules, so you#8217;d have to check the rules of the one you want to enter. Essays! Many are open worldwide, though, so good luck! I see you havent included the South African Writers college competition held annually..its free to enter and the 1st prize is michael, R10,000.. The theme this year is #8220;A person#8217;s world is only as big as his heart#8221; Deadline April 30th. Only open to sociological South African writers who have not been published. Contests with a deadline past 1st April haven#8217;t gone up yet I put them up monthly at good english essay Comps and Calls. Is there an URL with guidelines? Yes, the URL for the College is sociological essays, :www.sawriterscollege.co.za.
Its only for unpublished SA writers but the deadly unna novel prizes are pretty darned good: R10,000. R5,000 and sociological essays, R2000#8230; and paper punishment, its free to enter. Cheers Ginny. Thanks! I#8217;ve added it to sociological the list. Good English! It#8217;ll go up on 1st April and will be in the #8216;Competitions#8217; section. Thanks for that and sociological, best wishes. Capital Paper Research! Here’s another competition for your list, this one for women only, memoir and contemporary/historical fiction: http://www.storycircle.org/SartonLiteraryAward/ Susan Wittig Albert.
Sarton Award Coordinator. Thanks for sharing, Susan! TWL Assistant Editor. This one has a $60 entry fee. Got anything for children?
I#8217;m only twelve, and yet I am currently working on essays my own fantasy/science fiction that can be entered into several of these contests. Physics 8.02! I#8217;m only twelve, and yet I am currently working on my own fantasy/science fiction book (full lengh) that can be entered into several of these contests. The entry fee for the SCN competition is sociological, $90 and the prize money is $150.00 does this look enticing to anyone, considering the unna novel effort involved for the author? Thanks for this excellent list, Kelly! I#8217;ll be adding a direct link to it to my recent post over at The Kill Zone called #8220;Indie Book Contests 2015#8221; http://killzoneblog.com/2015/02/indie-book-contests-2015.html. and sociological, I#8217;ll also add a link on my ongoing, continually updated list of Writers#8217; Conferences Book Festivals in North America: Thanks for sharing this post, Jodie!
TWL Assistant Editor. Physics 8.02! I like the competitions but I#8217;m in South Africa? Can#8217;t I enter? I think taking people only in one country isn#8217;t fair because there is a great deal of talent out there that just needs to be found. Sociological Essays! Yes. Also in unna novel essay, SA, and I find it sooooo hard finding a compitition I can do. Sounds like there is a need for essays writing competitions in SA.
Why not start some?! Apologies for the n00b question but out of interest when they say #8216;unpublished#8217; do they mean unpublished which would include self published ebooks? And if you were to submit something previously published on Kindle or Smashwords or the like could you take it down for a period and still be considered? I#8217;d check the specific guidelines for each contest. Some specify whether situations like self-publication are acceptable or not. If the guidelines don#8217;t go into any detail on that, you could always try contacting the organization sponsoring the contest.
I#8217;m not sure about pulling down something that HAS previously been published, however. That feels like a risky gamble that might get you in trouble. Thanks for essay voyage posting this list. When it comes to sociological short stories, I never think about competitions and always look for publications instead. This is a great reminder of another valid option. Deadly Unna! Thanks, Kelly, for sociological essays this interesting article and list. One does have to watch out for scams and ineffective ways of mit opencourseware physics, publishing your work. And entering legitimate writing contests sounds a lot more challenging and sociological, rewarding. When I was a college student, I had written some poems and capital paper punishment, essays, and was encouraged by friends to get them published.
Being the babe in the woods I was at sociological the time, I got about 30 to 40 copies published through a local #8220;vanity press,#8221; which cost me about $80 at the time. Learned my lesson to avoid being so vain. Hello Kelly! Thank you for providing us with this awesome list! #128512; Good compilation, will be of is a review research paper, great help to me. Thanks for sharing. Essays! Correction: the Writer#8217;s Digest contests are NOT free to enter. There are different fees listed on the site, as follows: #8220;Early-Bird Entry fees are $25 for the first manuscript; $20 for each additional entry submitted during the same transaction. Poems are $15 for the first entry; $10 for each additional poem submitted submitted during the best and cover letters same transaction. Entries submitted after the sociological May 4, 2015 Early-Bird deadline are $30 for paper the first manuscript; $25 for each additional entry submitted during the same transaction.
Poems are $20 for the first entry; $15 for each additional poem submitted submitted during the same transaction.#8221; Thanks, Laura! Another reader brought this to essays our attention as well, and I#8217;ve added a note to the post. TWL Assistant Editor. You are absolutely wright and why they are not recommended on is a for a research paper Predators Editors. Your use of #8220;wright#8221; makes me wonder about any writing skills you may possess#8230; Everyone makes the odd mistake. Don#8217;t judge someone by a single typo. It is eye and I prefer to poses and to sociological essays use my pen as the double edged sword it is don#8217;t worry lady i#8217;m sure this went over his head also. This was a lot of michael thompson, work, but such a great resource for writers. Thanks for sharing this! I#8217;m just so stunned that the horrid poetry-competition people had so little concern for such a young aspirant poet, what a sick twisted lot they are, and you#8217;re right, this kind of dream-baiting continues.
Sharks and charlatans all, but the good thing is that you didn#8217;t give up on sociological your dream of writing, so you go girl -go for gold and more power to you! Sadly, there are all sorts of ways writers and wannabe writers can fall into the wrong hands, from what for a research paper scam competitions to content mills that pay pennies per word. It#8217;s all about sociological essays, knowing where to paper research look for the legitimate resources. (This site is a great place to sociological essays start.) #128578; I wrote a piece to this site called the Eber Wein publishing. how well do you know about them? is this site scam? I never. Is A For A! sent in any money I was told I could win cash, and prizes, and. my name can be in sociological, this analogy. Introduction English! then you have to buy that. Thanks for the list. Please can you give more lists for contests for African writers?
Great list of resources for free contests. I quite often scour Poets Writers for possibilities and have heard of some of the essays others, like Story Circle Network, but some of these were quite new to me. Appreciate the time it takes to curate such a list and essay, so glad you shared it with us. I#8217;ll be passing it along to some of my friends and followers. Can I join this Writing Contests ? I live in India. Kindly respond me. You#8217;ll have to check with the individual competitions to see whether they allow worldwide entries. Good luck! TWL Assistant Editor. Is there any writing contest in Peabody and I never public a book but can I still enter the writing contest is there more writing contest for Peabody with out essays, scams . This is a great list but is this just for writers in the US. I am in the UK.
Fair point, Ian #8212; we#8217;re based in the U.S. and know more about competitions here. What Is A For A! We#8217;ll see what we can do about a more international follow-up! TWL Assistant Editor. Essays! Ian, Comps and Calls (that Heather lists) is mit opencourseware, UK-based. Although I include many international calls, it is UK-centric, simply because that#8217;s my largest area of sociological essays, knowledge. Thanks for chiming in, Cathy #8212; good to know! All credit for the list goes to Kelly Gurnett, though #128578; TWL Assistant Editor. And Cover! Thank you so much. Essays! I#8217;m so inspired seeing these all lined up in one place. Cheers!
This is well time for good english essay me and I am excited. I#8217;m looking for ways to gain money for my Master#8217;s and get recognized for the love of my heart: writing. I#8217;m applying to some now and even composing new pieces. I#8217;ve even set aside a certain amount of sociological, money that I#8217;m writing to deadly give to enter. I love to write as well! I am only ten years old though, so I probably won#8217;t be able to enter many contests even if I wanted to. I#8217;m writing a novel called Cat Quest. Its not childish and sociological essays, stupid. I#8217;m actually serious.
I work on it about write good english, every other day or when I get time. I#8217;m not lying. Could you experienced authors give me some tips? Appreciate this list, my writing goal for this year- well, one of them, is to seek new writing and publishing opportunities and challenges. Thank you. We provide a contest where you get paid either way, so long as you make the cut.
It#8217;s a bit different from the average writing contest, in that it is a public head to head battle. Check out essays, thewritersarena.com for more info. Thanks for sharing, Tony! TWL Assistant Editor. That doesn#8217;t offer any prize, does it? Thanks for sharing, posted your site on my blog: hoyeocmova.com. At FanStory.com we have a membership fee $6.95 per month (or $48 for mit opencourseware one year or $67 for sociological two years). With the membership fee you can enter all of essay, our contests at sociological essays no charge. Deadly Unna Essay! That#8217;s over 50 contests every month. Some have a cash prize ($100) and sociological, others are just for the fun of the capital paper punishment research competition.
Thanks for sharing, Tom! Wish to get info on free contests for sociological essays poets in Nigeria. Hey.. I have a short story of deadly unna essay, my stolen childhood.. Its a memoir.. Sociological! It has touched a lot of ppl nd its very deep..
A lot of ppl who have read it has gained goose bumps nd a lot of others has related a lot to it.. I have councillors stating I should get it published as its very helpful to thoughts who have been through similar.. I write a lot about life nd the paper punishment deeper I go with my words the more ppl feel it.. I have had a few ppl state they felt like it was happening to them the sociological essays words stand out books on resumes letters, so much.. The only problem is as u see here with this paragraph I#8217;m not so good with my editing..
I don#8217;t know how or where to start with getting my writing seen to for hell in weather I can get my words out there.. I wouldn#8217;t mind starting with competitions but its also great to have someone around that knows where nd how to sociological essays help me start to get this out there.. What Literary Research Paper! My email is firstname.lastname@example.org I got a feeling this is a long shot but I#8217;m keen to start somewhere.. It would be a great honor if u could pls give me some advice on where or how to start.. If u could pls email me I will be an sociological honour.
You#8217;ll also get a free copy of The Freelance Writer’s Pitch Checklist.
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Counterfactual Theories of Causation. The basic idea of counterfactual theories of causation is that the meaning of causal claims can be explained in terms of counterfactual conditionals of the form “If A had not occurred, C would not have occurred”. While counterfactual analyses have been given of type-causal concepts, most counterfactual analyses have focused on singular causal or token-causal claims of the form “event c caused event e ”. Analyses of token-causation have become popular in the last forty years, especially since the development in the 1970's of possible world semantics for counterfactuals. Sociological Essays? The best known counterfactual analysis of mit opencourseware, causation is David Lewis's (1973b) theory. However, intense discussion over forty years has cast doubt on the adequacy of any simple analysis of singular causation in sociological, terms of counterfactuals. Recent years have seen a proliferation of different refinements of the basic idea to achieve a closer match with commonsense judgements about causation. The first explicit definition of causation in terms of counterfactuals was, surprisingly enough, given by Hume, when he wrote: “We may define a cause to be an object followed by research another, and where all the sociological objects, similar to the first, are followed by objects similar to the second . Or, in other words, where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed .” (1748, Section VII). It is difficult to understand how Hume could have confused the first, regularity definition with the second, very different counterfactual definition.
At any rate, Hume never explored the alternative counterfactual approach to causation. In this, as in much else, he was followed by generations of empiricist philosophers. Novel Essay? The chief obstacle in empiricists' minds to explaining causation in terms of counterfactuals was the sociological essays obscurity of counterfactuals themselves, owing chiefly to their reference to unactualised possibilities. Starting with J. S. Mill (1843), empiricists tried to voyage michael clay, analyse counterfactuals ‘metalinguistically’ in sociological, terms of implication relations between statements. Good Introduction Essay? The rough idea is that a counterfactual of the sociological essays form “If it had been the case that A, it would have been the case that C ” is true if and only if there is an auxiliary set S of true statements consistent with the antecedent A , such that the members of S , when conjoined with A , imply the consequent C . Much debate centred around the issue of the precise specification of the set S . (See N. Goodman 1947.) Most empiricists agreed that S would have to include statements of laws of novel, nature, while some thought that it would have to include statements of singular causation.
While the truth conditions of counterfactuals remained obscure, few empiricists thought it worthwhile to try to explain causation via counterfactuals. Indeed, the sociological first real attempts to present rigorous counterfactual analyses of causation came only in the late 1960's. (See A. Mit Opencourseware? Lyon 1967.) Typical of these attempts was J. Sociological Essays? L. Mackie's counterfactual analysis in english, Chapter 2 of his seminal book The Cement of the Universe (1974). As well as offering a sophisticated regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, Mackie presented a counterfactual account of the concept of a cause as “what makes the sociological essays difference in relation to some background or causal field” (1980, p.xi). Mackie's account of the concept of causation is best, rich in insights, especially concerning its relativity to a field of background conditions. However, his account never gained as much attention as his regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, no doubt because his view of counterfactuals (in his (1973)), as condensed arguments that do not have truth values, compounded empiricists' scepticism about counterfactuals. The true potential of the sociological essays counterfactual approach to causation did not become clear until counterfactuals became better understood through the development of possible world semantics in introduction english, the early 1970's. 2. Lewis's 1973 Counterfactual Analysis. The best known and sociological most thoroughly elaborated counterfactual theory of is a research, causation is sociological, David Lewis's theory in his (1973b), which was refined and extended in articles subsequently collected in his (1986a). In response to doubts about the theory's treatment of paper, preemption, Lewis subsequently proposed a fairly radical revision of the theory. (See his Whitehead Lectures, first published in essays, his (2000), and reprinted in his (2004a).) In this section we shall confine our attention to the original 1973 theory, deferring the later changes he proposed for consideration below.
2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence 2.2 The Asymmetry of books and cover letters, Causal Dependence 2.3 Preemption and Transitivity 2.4 Chancy Causation 2.5 The Theory's Advantages. 2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence. Like most contemporary counterfactual theories, Lewis's theory employs a possible world semantics for counterfactuals. Such a semantics states truth conditions for counterfactuals in terms of similarity relations between possible worlds. Essays? Lewis famously espouses a realism about possible worlds, according to which non-actual possible worlds are real concrete entities on a par with the actual world. (See Lewis's defence of modal realism in his (1986e).) However, most contemporary philosophers would seek to deploy the literary explanatorily fruitful possible worlds framework while distancing themselves from full-blown realism about possible worlds themselves. For example, many would propose to understand possible worlds as maximally consistent sets of propositions; or even to treat them instrumentally as useful theoretical entities having no independent reality. The central notion of a possible world semantics for counterfactuals is a relation of comparative similarity between worlds (Lewis 1973a). One world is said to be closer to actuality than another if the sociological essays first resembles the actual world more than the novel essay second does.
Shortly we shall consider the respects of essays, similarity that Lewis says are important for the counterfactuals linked to causation. For now we simply note two formal constraints he imposes on this similarity relation. First, the relation of similarity produces a weak ordering of worlds so that any two worlds can be ordered with respect to their closeness to the actual world, with allowance being made for ties in closeness. Is A Literary Review For A Research Paper? Secondly, the sociological actual world is closest to actuality, resembling itself more than any other world resembles it. In terms of this similarity relation, the truth condition for the counterfactual “If A were (or had been) the case, C would be (or have been) the case” is stated as follows: We shall ignore the first case in which the counterfactual is good introduction essay, vacuously true. The fundamental idea of this analysis is that the counterfactual “If A were the case, C would be the case” is essays, true just in best books on resumes and cover, case it takes less of a departure from actuality to sociological essays, make the antecedent true along with the consequent than to make the antecedent true without the consequent. In terms of michael clay thompson, counterfactuals, Lewis defines a notion of causal dependence between events, which plays a central role in his theory of causation (1973b). This condition states that whether e occurs or not depends on whether c occurs or not. Where c and e are actual occurrent events, this truth condition can be simplified somewhat.
For in this case it follows from the second formal condition on the comparative similarity relation that the counterfactual “If c were to occur e would occur” is essays, automatically true: this formal condition implies that a counterfactual with true antecedent and deadly unna true consequent is sociological, itself true. Consequently, the truth condition for causal dependence becomes: The right hand side of this condition is, of course, Hume's second definition of essay clay, causation. (As we shall see shortly, Lewis's official definition of sociological, causation differs from it, as he defines causation not in terms of causal dependence directly, but in terms of chains of causal dependence.) Why is it plausible to think that causation is conceptually linked with counterfactuals in the way specified by this definition of causal dependence? One reason is that the idea of a cause is conceptually linked with the idea of something that makes a difference and this idea in turn is best understood in terms of counterfactuals. In Lewis's words: “We think of a cause as something that makes a difference, and the difference it makes must be a difference from capital paper punishment, what would have happened without it. Had it been absent, its effects some of them, at least, and usually all would have been absent as well.” (1973b, p.161)
There are three important things to note about the definition of sociological, causal dependence. First, it takes the primary relata of deadly novel essay, causal dependence to be events . Lewis's own theory of events (1986b) construes events as classes of possible spatiotemporal regions. However, very different conceptions of events are compatible with the essays basic definition. Indeed, it even seems possible to formulate it in terms of facts rather than events. (For instance, see Mellor 1996, 2004.) Secondly, the definition requires the causally dependent events to paper punishment research, be distinct from each other. Sociological Essays? Distinctness means that the events are not identical, neither is part of the other, and capital research neither implies the sociological other. This qualification is important if spurious non-causal dependences are to be ruled out. (For this point see Kim 1973 and Lewis 1986b.) For it may be that you would not have written “Lar” if you had not written “Larry”; and you would not have said “Hello” loudly if you had not said “Hello”. But neither dependence counts as a causal dependence since the paired events are not distinct from each other in the required sense. Thirdly, the counterfactuals that are employed in the analysis are to be understood according to what Lewis calls the standard interpretation. There are several possible ways of interpreting counterfactuals; and some interpretations give rise to spurious non-causal dependences between events.
For example, suppose that the events c and e are effects of a common cause d . It is tempting to reason that there must be a causal dependence between c and e by engaging in the following piece of counterfactual reasoning: if c had not occurred, then it would have to have been the case that d did not occur, in which case e would not have occurred. But Lewis says these counterfactuals, which he calls backtracking counterfactuals, are not to be used in the assessment of causal dependence. Introduction English Essay? The right counterfactuals to be used are non-backtracking counterfactuals that typically hold the past fixed up until the time at which the sociological counterfactual antecedent is supposed to obtain. 2.2 The Temporal Asymmetry of Causal Dependence. What constitutes the direction of the causal relation? Why is this direction typically aligned with the temporal direction from past to future? In answer to these questions, Lewis (1979) argues that the direction of causation is the direction of write good introduction english essay, causal dependence; and it is typically true that events causally depend on earlier events but not on later events. He emphasises the contingency of the latter fact because he regards backwards or time-reversed causation as a conceptual possibility that cannot be ruled out sociological essays, a priori . Accordingly, he dismisses any analysis of counterfactuals that would deliver the essay voyage michael temporal asymmetry by conceptual fiat. Lewis's explanation of the essays temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence is based on a de facto asymmetry about the actual world. He defines a determinant for unna an event as any set of conditions jointly sufficient, given the laws of nature, for sociological essays the event's occurrence. (Determinants of an research event may be causes or traces of the event.) He claims it is contingently true that events typically have very few earlier determinants but very many later determinants. As an illustration, he cites Popper's (1956) example of a spherical wavefront expanding outwards from a point source.
This is a process where each sample of the sociological wave postdetermines what happens at the point at which the wave is emitted. He says the write introduction essay reverse process in which a spherical wave contracts inward with each sample of wave predetermining what happens at essays the point the physics 8.02 wave is absorbed would obey the laws of nature but seldom happens in actual fact. Lewis combines the essays de facto asymmetry of michael, overdetermination with his analysis of the comparative similarity relation (1979). According to this analysis, there are several respects of similarity to sociological essays, be taken into account in evaluating non-backtracking counterfactuals: similarity with respect to laws of nature and also similarity with respect to novel, particular matters of fact. Worlds are more similar to essays, the actual world the fewer miracles or violations of the actual laws of nature they contain. Again, worlds are more similar to the actual world the greater the spatio-temporal region of perfect match of particular fact they have with the actual world. If the actual world is governed by deterministic laws, these rules will clash in assessing which counterfactual worlds are more similar to the actual world. For a world that makes a counterfactual antecedent true must differ from the actual world either in allowing some violation of the actual laws, or in differing from the actual world in particular matters of fact.
Lewis's analysis allows a tradeoff between these competing respects of similarity in such cases. It implies that worlds with an physics 8.02 extensive region of perfect match of particular fact can be considered very similar to the actual world provided that the match in particular facts with the actual world is achieved at the cost of a small, local miracle, but not at the cost of a big, diverse miracle. Taken by itself, this account contains no built-in time asymmetry. Essays? That comes only when it is combined with the asymmetry of overdetermination. To see how the best books two parts combine, consider the famous example of Nixon and sociological the Nuclear Holocaust. An early objection to Lewis's account of counterfactuals (Fine 1975) was that, counterintuitively, it makes this counterfactual false:
The argument is that a world in which Nixon pressed the write good essay button, but some minute violation of the laws then prevented a nuclear war, is much more like the actual world than one in which Nixon pressed the button and a nuclear war took place. Sociological Essays? Lewis replied (1979) that this does not accord with his account of the similarity relation. On this account, a button-pressing world that diverges from the actual world by unna virtue of sociological essays, a miracle is more like the actual world than a button-pressing world that converges with the actual world by virtue of physics, a miracle. Essays? For in view of the asymmetry of mit opencourseware physics, overdetermination, the divergence miracle that allows Nixon to press the button need only be a small, local miracle, but the convergence miracle required to essays, wipe out the traces of Nixon's pressing the button must be a very big, diverse miracle. Of course, if the asymmetry of overdetermination went in literary paper, the opposite temporal direction, the very same standards of similarity would dictate the opposite verdict. In general, then, the symmetric analysis of similarity, combined with the de facto asymmetry of overdetermination, implies that worlds that accommodate counterfactual changes by sociological essays preserving the actual past and allowing for divergence miracles are more similar to paper research, the actual world than worlds that accommodate such changes by allowing for convergence miracles that preserve the actual future. This fact in turn implies that, where the sociological essays asymmetry of overdetermination obtains, the present counterfactually depends on physics 8.02 the past, but not on the future. According to essays, Lewis, causal dependence between actual events is sufficient for causation, but not necessary (1973b): it is possible to have causation without causal dependence. This can happen in and cover, the following way.
Suppose that c causes d in virtue of the fact that d causally depends on c , and d causes e in virtue of the sociological essays fact that e causally depends on d . Then because causation is transitive, Lewis insists, c must cause e . However, because causal dependence is not transitive like causation, the causal relation between c and physics e may not be matched by sociological a causal dependence. (We shall shortly consider an example of this kind.) To overcome this problem Lewis extends causal dependence to a transitive relation by is a literary review for a paper taking its ancestral. Essays? He defines a causal chain as a finite sequence of actual events c , d , e , where d causally depends on c , e on d , and so on throughout the sequence. Then causation is literary review, finally defined in these terms: This definition not only ensures the sociological essays transitivity of causation, but it also appears to solve an physics 8.02 additional problem to do with preemption that is illustrated by the following example. Suppose that two crack marksmen conspire to assassinate a hated dictator, agreeing that one or other will shoot the dictator on a public occasion. Acting side-by-side, assassins A and B find a good vantage point, and, when the dictator appears, both take aim. A pulls his trigger and fires a shot that hits its mark, but B desists from firing when he sees A pull his trigger.
Here assassin A 's actions are the actual cause of the dictator's death, while B 's actions are a preempted potential cause. (Lewis distinguishes such cases of sociological essays, preemption from cases of symmetrical overdetermination in which two processes terminate in the effect, with neither process preempting the what literary review for a paper other. Lewis believes that these cases are not suitable test cases for a theory of sociological, causation since they do not elicit clear judgements.) The problem raised by this example of essay, preemption is that both actions are on a par from the point of essays, view of causal dependence: if neither A nor B acted, then the dictator would not have died; and if either had acted without the other, the dictator would have died. However, given the definition of causation in terms of causal chains, Lewis is able to distinguish the preempting actual cause from the preempted potential cause. There is a causal chain running from A 's actions to the dictator's death, but no such chain running from B 's actions to the dictator's death. Capital Punishment? Take, for example, as an essays intermediary event occurring between A 's taking aim and the dictator's death, the bullet from A 's gun speeding through the air in mid-trajectory. The speeding bullet causally depends on A 's action since the deadly bullet would not have been in mid-trajectory without A 's action; and the dictator's death causally depends on sociological essays the speeding bullet since by the time the bullet is in mid-trajectory B has refrained from essay thompson, firing so that the dictator would not have died without the sociological presence of the speeding bullet. (Notice that this case illustrates the failure of voyage michael clay, transitivity of causal dependence since the sociological essays dictator's death does not causally depend on A 's actions.) Hence, we have a causal chain, and so causation.
But no corresponding intermediary can be found between B 's actions and the dictator's death; and for this reason B 's actions do not count as an write actual cause of the death. So far we have considered how the counterfactual theory of causation works under the assumption of determinism. But what about essays, causation when determinism fails? Lewis (1986c) argues that chancy causation is a conceptual possibility that must be accommodated by a theory of causation. Indeed, contemporary physics tells us the actual world abounds with probabilistic processes that are causal in character. To take a familiar example (Lewis 1986c): suppose that you mischievously hook up a bomb to a radioactive source and geiger counter in such a way that the bomb explodes when the counter registers a certain number of clicks.
If it happens that the counter registers the required number of clicks and the bomb explodes, your act caused the explosion, even though there is no deterministic connection between them. In order to accommodate chancy causation, Lewis (1986c) defines a more general notion of causal dependence in terms of chancy counterfactuals. These counterfactuals are of the form “If A were the case Pr ( C ) would be x ”, where the counterfactual is an ordinary would-counterfactual, interpreted according to the semantics above, and the Pr operator is mit opencourseware 8.02, a probability operator with narrow scope confined to the consequent of the counterfactual. Lewis interprets the probabilities involved as temporally indexed single-case chances. (See his (1980) for the theory of sociological essays, single-case chance.) The more general notion of causal dependence reads: This definition covers cases of deterministic causation in which the chance of the effect with the what is a for a research cause is 1 and sociological essays the chance of the effect without the cause is 0. But it also allows for cases of irreducible probabilistic causation where these chances can take non-extreme values. It is similar to the central notion of probabilistic relevance used in what literary paper, probabilistic theories of type-causation, except that it employs chancy counterfactuals rather than conditional probabilities. (See the discussion in Lewis 1986c for the advantages of the counterfactual approach over sociological, the probabilistic one.
Also see the entry “Probabilistic Causation”.) The rest of the literary paper theory of chancy causation follows the outlines of the theory of deterministic causation. Essays? Causal dependence is extended to mit opencourseware physics, a transitive notion by taking its ancestral. As before, we have causation when we have one or more steps of causal dependence. Before turning to survey some of the problems confronting Lewis's theory of sociological, causation, it is worthwhile pausing to consider some of the advantages it affords. At the time that Lewis advanced his original theory, regularity theories of causation were the orthodoxy. Taking Hume's first definition as their point of departure, these theories defined causation in terms of subsumption under lawful regularities.
A typical formulation went like this: c is a cause of what review for a research, e if and only c belongs to a minimal set of conditions that are jointly suficient for e , given the laws. It was well known that theories of this kind were faced with a number of recalcitrant counterexamples. Thus, while c might belong to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e when c is a genuine cause of e , this might also be true when c is an essays effect of e an effect which could not have occurred, given the punishment laws and the actual circumstances, except by sociological being caused by introduction english e . Or it might be true when c and e are joint effects of a common deterministic cause. Or when c is a preempted potential cause of e something that did not cause e , but would have done so if the essays actual cause had been absent. In contrast, Lewis's counterfactual analysis of causation is not subject to the same counterexamples, so long the counterfactuals in the definition of causal dependence and causation are interpreted in essay voyage michael thompson, a non-backtracking fashion. The theory implies that even if c belongs to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e , e will not causally depend on c when c occurs after e as its effect, since earlier events do not typically causally depend on later events. Nor will e causally depend on c when c and e are joint effects of a common cause, since the non-backtracking counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would still have occurred” will be true in view of the fact that it holds fixed the presence of the common cause. Nor will c count as a cause of e when c is a preempted potential cause of e in a typical case of essays, preemption. For, as we have seen, c will not be connected to e by a chain of causal dependences. So at the time it was first proposed, Lewis's counterfactual analysis offered considerable explanatory benefits. (For a more negative assessment of the explanatory benefits of Lewis's theory see Horwich 1987.
For extensive discussions of the merits of mit opencourseware physics, counterfactual theories of causation, including Lewis's, see Moore 2009: Chaps. 16-17; Paul 2009; Paul and Hall 2013 passim ). 3. Problems for Lewis's Counterfactual Theory. In this section we consider the principal difficulties for Lewis's theory that have emerged in essays, discussion over the last thirty years. 3.1 Context-sensitivity 3.2 Temporal Asymmetry 3.3 Transitivity 3.4 Preemption. In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to the context-sensitivity of causal statements. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Hitchcock, forthcoming; Hitchcock 1996a, 1996b, 2007; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009; Maslen 2004; Menzies 2004a, 2007, 2009; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005, 2013) In so far as Lewis's theory overlooks this context-sensitivity, it represents a shortcoming of the theory. The theory assumes that causation is an absolute relation whose nature does not vary from one context to another. (This follows from the way the counterfactuals that define the central notion of causal dependence are governed by a unique, context-invariant system of weighted respects of similarity.) According to the theory, any event but for which an novel effect would not have occurred is one of the effect's causes.
But this generates some absurd results. For example, suppose a camper lights a fire, a sudden gust of wind fans the sociological fire, the fire gets out of control and the forest burns down. It is true that if the camper had not lit the fire, the forest fire would not have occurred. But it is capital paper research, also true that the forest fire would not have occurred if any of essays, a vast number of contingencies, including the camper's birth and his failure to be struck down by essay a meteor before striking the match, had not occurred. But commonsense draws a distinction between causes and background conditions, ranking the camper's lighting of the sociological fire among the former, and his birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor, among the latter. H. L. A. Hart and A. Honoré (1965; 2nd ed 1985) argue that the distinction between causes and conditions is relative to context in at least two different ways. One form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of occurrence.
If a forest is destroyed by fire, the presence of oxygen would be cited as a mere condition of the forest's destruction. On the other hand, if a fire breaks out in a laboratory where oxygen is deliberately excluded, it may be appropriate to cite the presence of oxygen as a cause of the fire. The second form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of enquiry. For example, the write good cause of a great famine in India may be identified by an Indian farmer as the drought, but the World Food Authority may identify the Indian government's failure to build up reserves as the cause, and the drought as a mere condition. For the essays most part, Lewis ignores these subtle context-sensitive distinctions, as he says he is interested in a broad, non-discriminatory notion of cause. In his view (1986d), every event has an objective causal history consisting of a vast structure of events ordered by causal dependence. The human mind may select parts of the is a research paper causal history for attention, perhaps different parts for different purposes of enquiry. However, Lewis does not specify the ‘principles of invidious selection’ by which some parts of the causal history are selected for attention, except to mention the relevance of sociological essays, Grice's maxims of conversation. But Grice's maxims of essay michael thompson, conversation, as general principles of rational information exchange, are not well suited to essays, explaining the causation-specific distinctions we draw. 8.02? As several philosophers have pointed out (A.
Garfinkel (1981); C. Hitchcock (1996a, 1996b); P. Essays? Lipton (1990); J. Woodward (1984); and mit opencourseware B. Van Fraassen (1981)), some of the contextual principles behind our causal judgements seem to rely on considerations concerning which class of situations the effect is sociological essays, contrasted with. Thus, in the example of the Indian famine, we contrast the actual situation in which a famine occurs with another situation in which normal conditions prevail and a famine does not occur. A cause is then thought of as a factor that makes the difference between these situations; and paper punishment research the background conditions are thought of as those factors that are common to the two situations. In different contexts of enquiry, the contrast situation is framed in different terms. A farmer may take the contrast situation to be the normal situation in which the sociological government does not stockpile food reserves but there is no famine. What Is A Literary Research? In this case it would be reasonable for the farmer to identify the drought as the factor that makes the difference between this contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is famine.
On the essays other hand, an official of the books letters World Food Authority with a different conception of what normally happens may take the contrast situation to essays, be one in which governments build up food reserves as a precaution against droughts. Consequently, it would be reasonable for is a for a research the official to see the failure of the government to build up food reserves as the factor that makes the difference between the contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is sociological, a famine. (For discussion of the relevance of contrastive explanation to the causes/conditions distinction see Menzies 2007 and Schaffer 2005.) A good case can be made that causal statements display contrast-relativity not only at the effect-end but also at the cause-end. (See Hitchcock, 1996a, 1996b; Maslen 2004; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005) Recognising this helps to deal with a problem affecting Lewis's original theory. In evaluating whether an is a literary review research paper event c caused an sociological essays event e , Lewis's theory says we have to consider what would have happened in those closest worlds in which c did not occur. For example, in evaluating whether the and cover letters camper's lighting of the fire caused the forest, we have to consider what would have happened in those closest possible worlds in which the camper's action of sociological essays, lighting the fire did not occur. Are these worlds in which the camper does not light the essay voyage michael fire but does something else instead, or are they worlds in which he lights the fire in slightly different manner (perhaps with a lighter instead of matches) or at a slightly different time (three minutes later when the wind died down)?
In order to answer such questions, Lewis says it is necessary to sociological, say how much of write english, a change or a delay it takes for an event to sociological essays, become an altogether different event, rather than a different version of the same event. (Lewis sometimes discusses this issue as the question of how fragile events are: a modally fragile event is one which cannot occur in a different manner or at a different time from its actual manner and write good time of occurrence. Sociological? See Lewis 1986b.) The problem, as he sees it, is that there is no unique principled way in good introduction, which we do this: there is linguistic indeterminancy about what event nominals refer to. He writes: “We have not made up our minds: and if we presuppose sometimes one answer and sometimes another answer, we are entirely within our linguistic rights. This is itself a big problem for a counterfactual analysis of causation, quite apart from the problem of preemption.” (2000, p.186) However, if we recognise that the cause-end of causal statements displays contrast-relativity as well as the effect-end, we can obviate the need to provide an account of the sociological identity of events under counterfactual changes. For example, suppose we are interested in what literary paper, why the forest fire took one path P 1 rather than another path P 2 . Variation in sociological essays, the starting point of the fire will be relevant to this difference. So it would be appropriate to say that the camper's lighting the fire in mit opencourseware 8.02, location L 1 rather another location L 2 caused the forest fire to take path P 1 rather than P 2 . Sociological? On the unna other hand, suppose that we are interested in why the forest occurred rather did not occur at all. Variation in the starting point of the fire will probably not be relevant to this contrast. Rather the appropriate causal statement will be one that says the camper's lighting the essays fire (in some or other location) rather his not lighting it (in any location) caused the fire to occur rather than not to occur. Books On Resumes And Cover? Such causal statements reveal the relevant contrasts at sociological both the what is a literary review research paper cause- and sociological the effect-ends. Sometimes, such contrasts are indicated by the use of voyage michael clay thompson, emphasis as in “The fire's starting in location L 1 caused the fire to take path P 1 ”.
But more often than not the surface form of causal statements does not disclose the contrasts that are intended and they must be supplied by context. This fact means that there may be linguistic indeterminacy in causal statements. But it is not indeterminacy about the reference of event nominals, but rather about the situations that are intended as contrasts for the cause and the effect. Once these are resolved the linguistic indeterminacy is resolved as well. The contrast-relativity of causal statements, if it is genuine, has significant implications for the form that a counterfactual analysis should take. Those who accept the arguments above for the context-relativity of causal statements think that the canonical form of causal statements is “ c rather than c* caused e rather than e* ”, where the contrast situations c* and e* are supplied by context. Essays? This suggests that the definition of paper punishment, causal dependence should not be formulated in terms of the counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would not have occurred”, but the more specific counterfactual “If c* had occurred instead of c , then e* would have occurred instead of sociological, e ”. This formulation has several advantages over voyage clay, the old formulation. (For discussion of this point see Schaffer 2005. For criticisms see Steglich-Petersen 2012; Reiss 2013) Its chief advantage from the point of sociological essays, our discussion is that it obviates the capital need for the counterfactual theory to provide an account of the identity of events under hypothetical changes. With this new formulation, there is no need to work out whether c* and e* are identical with, or different from, c and sociological e ,respectively. It is simply stipulated on the basis of contextual considerations that c* and e* are intended to act as contrasts to c and e . There have been several important critical discussions of Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of essay, causation. (See Elga 2000; Frisch 2007; Hausman 1998: Chap.
6; Horwich 1987: Chap. 10; Loewer 2007; Kutach 2013: Chaps. 3-7; Price 1996: Chap. 6.; Price and Weslake 2009) One kind of criticism has focused on the psychological implausibility of Lewis's explanation. (See Horwich 1987.) Recall that the explanation appeals, on the one hand, to a system of weighted respects of essays, similarity between possible worlds that is delivered by a priori conceptual analysis and, on the other hand, to an asymmetry of overdetermination that is claimed to be a contingent a posteriori truth about the actual world. Physics? The two-part explanation is supposed to sociological essays, employ facts that are sufficiently well known to play a role in the explanation of our linguistic use of counterfactuals. However, it is mit opencourseware, psychologically implausible that the intricate system of weighted respects of similarity involving comparison of miracles of sociological, different sizes could capture the intuitive similarity relation used in counterfactual reasoning. Why should we have developed such a baroque notion of similarity?
Moreover, the asymmetry of overdetermination is an esoteric scientific hypothesis that is not common knowledge to everyone using counterfactuals. So it is very unlikely that this hypothesis could account for ordinary speakers' mastery of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. (For Lewis's reply to this criticism see Postscript E to “Counterfactual Dependence and Time's Arrow” in his (1986a, p. 66).) Another criticism is that the asymmetry of overdetermination does not exist in the form required to support Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. Lewis's idea is that any event e has many postdeterminants and few predeterminants, where a predeterminant or postdeterminant of an event is a set of conditions that are jointly sufficient, given the physics laws of nature, for the occurrence of the event. But if Lewis is assuming that the laws involved are like those of classical mechanics, he is essays, mistaken on this score. For a theory that is time symmetric and deterministic in both the books on resumes letters forward and backward direction will imply that for any local event e and any time t , there is a unique set of sociological, conditions obtaining at t that are necessary and sufficient, given the laws, for the occurrence of the event e . The conditions may not be localized conditions that are typically regarded as events, but nonetheless they will qualify as predeterminant or postdeterminants. For example, consider Popper's example of the wave spreading out from unna novel essay, a point source. Sociological? If there is a process that postdetermines what happens at the point at which the wave is emitted, there is also a process, perhaps a very unlocalized process, that predetermines this. Pace Popper and Lewis, both processes are equally likely; and whether they occur depends on the boundary conditions of the system. (For discussion of this point see Arntzenius 1993; Frisch 2005; North 2003; Price 1996. Also see the entry “Thermodynamic Asymmetry in Time”.)
A related criticism concerns the asymmetry of physics, miracles that is sociological essays, central to Lewis's account of the temporal asymmetry of causation. The asymmetry of miracles consists in the fact that a miracle that realises a counterfactual antecedent about particular facts at deadly essay time t by having a possible world diverge from the actual world just before the time t is smaller and less diverse than a miracle that realises the same counterfactual antecedent and makes a possible world converge to the actual world after the time t . Adam Elga (2000) has argued that the asymmetry of miracles does not hold in many cases. Elga's argument proceeds by way of an sociological example: Gretta cracks an egg into a hot frying pan at 8:00am and at 8:05am the egg is cooked. Consider the process that occurs in the period from 8:00am to 8:05am, run backwards in time: a cooked egg sits in unna, the frypan; it coalesces into essays a raw egg and leaps upward; and a shell closes around it. The laws of thermodynamics allows that this process is physically possible but extremely rare. These laws also state that the process is write, very sensitive in sociological essays, its initial conditions: even the slightest changes in the molecules making up the state of the cooked egg would result in the process evolving in such a way that the cooked egg continues to sit in the pan rather than coalescing into a raw egg and write introduction english leaping upwards. But this is, Elga points out, exactly the kind of change that would make for a “convergence miracle”. Take the state of the actual world at 8:05am, holding fixed its future after this point; make some small changes to the molecules making up this state; and then run the essays laws of thermodynamics backwards in time, and physics we will almost certainly arrive at a state in essays, which the egg sits in the pan growing colder.
This state will be one in which Gretta does not crack the egg. The small change in the state of the actual world at 8:05am is a “convergence miracle” that yields a possible world that realises the counterfactual proposition that Gretta does not crack the egg at 8:00am while holding fixed the actual future after 8:05am. What Is A Review Research Paper? But this miracle is not the large, diverse miracle that Lewis claims a convergence miracle would have to be. As we have seen, Lewis builds transitivity into causation by defining it in terms of chains of causal dependence. The transitivity of essays, causation fits with some of our explanatory practices.
For example, historians wishing to explain some significant historical event will trace the explanation back through a number of on resumes letters, causal links, concluding that the event at essays the beginning of the causal chain is physics 8.02, responsible for the event being explained. On the other hand, a number of counter-examples have been presented which cast doubt on transitivity. (Lewis 2004a presents a short catalogue of these counterexamples.) Here is a sample of two counterexamples. First, an example due to Ned Hall (2004). A person is walking along a mountain trail, when a boulder high above is dislodged and comes careering down the mountain slopes. The walker notices the boulder and ducks at the appropriate time. The careering boulder causes the walker to duck and this, in turn, causes his continued stride. (This second causal link involves double prevention : the duck prevents the collision between walker and boulder which, had it occurred, would have prevented the walker's continued stride.) However, the careering boulder is the sort of thing that would prevent the walker's continued stride and so it seems counterintuitive to say that it causes the stride. Second, an sociological essays example due to Douglas Ehring (1987). Jones puts some potassium salts into mit opencourseware a hot fire.
Because potassium compounds produce a purple flame when heated, the flame changes to a purple colour, though everything else remains the same. The purple flame ignites some flammable material nearby. Here we judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the essays purple flame, which in turn caused the flammable material to on resumes and cover, ignite. But it seems implausible to judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the flammable material to ignite. Various replies have been made to these counterexamples. The second counterexample seems the sociological essays most easily deflected. For example, Maslen (2004), who endorses the contrast-relativity of causal statements, has argued that this example is misdiagnosed as a counterexample to transitivity, as the contrast situation at write english the effect-end of the first causal statement does not match up with the contrast situation at the cause-end of the second causal statement. Sociological? Thus, the mit opencourseware 8.02 first causal statement should be interpreted as saying that Jones's putting potassium salts in the fire rather not doing so caused the flame to turn purple rather than yellow ; but the second causal statement should be interpreted as saying that the sociological essays purple fire's occurring rather than not occurring caused the flammable material to ignite rather not to best books letters, ignite. Where there is sociological, a mismatch of this kind, we do not have a genuine counterexample to transitivity.
L. Paul (2004) offers a similar diagnosis of the second example, though her diagnosis proceeds in terms of event aspects, which she takes to be causation's primary relata. She argues similarly that there is mismatch between the event aspect that is the effect of the first causal link (the flame's being a purple colour) and 8.02 the event aspect that is the cause of the second causal link (the flame's touching the flammable material). The first example cannot be handled in the same way. Some defenders of transitivity have replied that our intuitions about the intransitivity of causation in these examples are misleading. For instance, Lewis (2004a) points out that the counterexamples to transitivity typically involve a structure in which a c -type event generally prevents an e -type but in the particular case the c -event actually causes another event that counters the threat and causes the e -event. If we mix up questions of sociological, what is generally conducive to what, with questions about what caused what in this particular case, he says, we may think that it is reasonable to paper research, deny that c causes e . But if we keep the focus sharply on the particular case, we must insist that c does in fact cause e . The debate about the transitivity of essays, causation is not easily settled, partly because it is tied up with the mit opencourseware physics issue of how it is best for sociological a counterfactual theory to deal with examples of preemption. As we have seen, Lewis's counterfactual theory relies on the transitivity of causation to handle cases of preemption. If such cases could be handled in some other way, that would take some of the essay voyage michael thompson theoretical pressure off the theory, allowing it concede the persuasive counterexamples to transitivity without succumbing to the difficulties posed by preemption. Sociological? (For more on this point see Hitchcock 2001.
For an extensive discussion of the is a literary review for a paper issues around transitivity see Paul and Hall: Chap. 5.) As we have seen, Lewis employs his strategy of defining causation in terms of chains of causal dependence not only to make causation transitive, but also to deal with preemption examples. However, there are preemption examples that this strategy cannot deal with satisfactorily. Difficulties concerning preemption have proven to be the biggest bugbear for Lewis's theory.(Paul and Hall 2013: Chap 3 contains an extensive discussion of the problems posed by preemption and other kinds of redundant causation for counterfactual theories.) In his (1986c), Lewis distinguishes cases of early and sociological essays late preemption . Novel? In early preemption examples, the process running from the preempted alternative is cut short before the sociological main process running from the preempting cause has gone to completion. Punishment Research? The example of the two assassins, given above, is an example of this sort. The theory of sociological, causation in terms of chains of causal dependence can handle this sort of example.
In contrast, cases of late preemption are ones in which the process running from the capital punishment preempted cause is cut short only after the main process has gone to completion and brought about the effect. The following is an example of late preemption due to Hall (2004). Billy and Suzy throw rocks at a bottle. Suzy throws first so that her rock arrives first and shatters the glass. Without Suzy's throw, Billy's throw would have shattered the bottle. Sociological Essays? However, Suzy's throw is the actual cause of the shattered bottle, while Billy's throw is voyage, merely a preempted potential cause. This is a case of late preemption because the alternative process (Billy's throw) is cut short after the main process (Suzy's throw) has actually brought about the sociological essays effect. Lewis's theory cannot explain the good english essay judgement that Suzy's throw was the actual cause of the shattering of the bottle. For there is no causal dependence between Suzy's throw and the shattering, since even if Suzy had not thrown her rock, the bottle would have shattered due to Billy's throw. Nor is there a chain of stepwise dependences running cause to effect, because there is sociological essays, no event intermediate between Suzy's throw and the shattering that links them up into a chain of essay thompson, dependences.
Take, for instance, Suzy's rock in mid-trajectory. Certainly, this event depends on Suzy's initial throw, but the problem is sociological essays, that the shattering of the bottle does not depend on it, because even without it the 8.02 bottle would still have shattered because of Billy's throw. To be sure, the bottle shattering that would have occurred without Suzy's throw would be different from the bottle shattering that actually occurred with Suzy's throw. For a start, it would have occurred later. This observation suggests that one solution to the problem of late preemption might be to essays, insist that the events involved should be construed as fragile events. Accordingly, it will be true rather than false that if Suzy had not thrown her rock, then the good english essay actual bottle shattering, taken as a fragile event with an essential time and manner of occurrence, would not have occurred. Essays? Lewis himself does not endorse this response on the grounds that a uniform policy of construing events as fragile would go against our usual practices, and would generate many spurious causal dependences. For example, suppose that a poison kills its victim more slowly and painfully when taken on a full stomach. Then, the mit opencourseware physics 8.02 victim's eating dinner before he drinks the poison would count as a cause of his death since the time and manner of the death depend on the eating of the sociological dinner. (For discussion of the limitations of this response see Lewis 1986c, 2000.) When we turn from preemption examples involving deterministic causation to those involving chancy causation, we see that the what is a literary review paper problems for sociological Lewis's theory multiply.
One particularly recalcitrant problem is described in what is a for a research, Menzies 1989. (See also Woodward 1990.) Suppose that two systems can produce the same effect, perhaps at the same time and in the same manner. (It does not matter whether this is an example of early or late preemption.) However, one system is much more reliable than the other. The reliable system starts and, left to essays, itself, will very probably produce the effect. But you do not leave it to itself. You throw a switch that shuts down the reliable system and turns on the unreliable one. As luck would have it, the unreliable system works and deadly unna novel essay brings about the effect. This kind of example presents a problem for essays the probabilistic generalisation of the counterfactual theory because the preempting actual cause decreases the capital paper punishment research chance of the effect while the preempted potential cause increases its chance. In addition to the problem of explaining how the preempting cause qualifies as a cause when the effect does not causally depend on it, the probabilistic counterfactual theory faces the problem of sociological essays, explaining how the preempted cause is not really a cause when the effect does causally depend on it.(Examples of this kind have been the subject of extensive discussion in the context of both counterfactual and probabilistic theories of causation. For discussions about how best to deal with them within theories admitting of indeterminism, see Barker 2004; Beebee 2004; Dowe 2000, 2004; Hitchcock 2004; Kvart 2004; Noordhof 1999, 2004; Ramachandran 1997, 2004.) In this section we shall consider some recent developments of the counterfactual approach to causation, which have been motivated by the desire to overcome the deficiencies in Lewis's 1973 theory, especially with respect to preemption. 4.1 Lewis's 2000 Theory 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.
In an attempt to deal with the deadly unna novel essay various problems facing his 1973 theory, Lewis developed a new version of the essays counterfactual theory, which he first presented in good introduction english essay, his Whitehead Lectures at Harvard University in March 1999. (A shortened version of the lectures appeared as his (2000). The full lectures are published as his (2004a).) Counterfactuals play a central role in sociological essays, the new theory, as in the old. But the counterfactuals it employs do not simply state dependences of paper punishment, whether one event occurs on whether another event occurs. The counterfactuals state dependences of sociological essays, whether , when , and physics 8.02 how one event occurs on whether , when , and how another event occurs. A key idea in the formulation of these counterfactuals is that of an alteration of an event. This is an actualised or unactualised event that occurs at a slightly different time or in sociological essays, a slightly different manner from the given event. An alteration is, by definition, a very fragile event that could not occur at physics a different time, or in a different manner without being a different event. Sociological Essays? Lewis intends the terminology to be neutral on the issue of whether an alteration of an event is a version of the same event or a numerically different event.
The central notion of the is a literary review new theory is that of influence. Where one event influences another, there is a pattern of counterfactual dependence of whether, when, and how upon whether, when, and how. As before, causation is sociological essays, defined as an ancestral relation. One of the points Lewis advances in favour of this new theory is that it handles cases of late as well as early pre-emption. (The theory is restricted to deterministic causation and so does not address the example of probabilistic preemption described in section 3.4.) Reconsider, for instance, the physics example of late preemption involving Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle. The theory is supposed to explain why Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, is the cause of the shattering of the bottle. If we take an alteration in sociological essays, which Suzy's throw is slightly different (the rock is lighter, or she throws sooner), while holding fixed Billy's throw, we find that the shattering is different too. Unna Novel? But if we make similar alterations to Billy's throw while holding Suzy's throw fixed, we find that the shattering is unchanged. Another point in favour of the new theory is that it handles a type of sociological, preemption Lewis that have come to be called trumping . (Trumping was first described by Jonathan Schaffer(2000).) Lewis gives an example involving a major and a sergeant who are shouting orders at the soldiers. The major and sergeant simultaneously shout “Advance”; the review for a paper soldiers hear them both and advance. Since the sociological soldiers obey the superior officer, they advance because the major orders them to, not because the sergeant does.
So the major's command preempts or trumps the sergeant's. Where other theories have difficulty with trumping cases, Lewis's argues his new theory handles them with ease. Altering the major's command while holding fixed the sergeant's, the soldier's response would be correspondingly altered. In contrast, altering the sergeant's command, while holding fixed the major's, would make no difference at all. There is, however, some reason for scepticism about whether the new theory handles the examples of late preemption and trumping completely satisfactorily.
In the example of late preemption, Billy's throw has some degree of influence on the shattering of the bottle. Deadly Essay? For if Billy had thrown his rock earlier (so that it preceded Suzy's throw) and in a different manner, the bottle would have shattered earlier and in a different manner. Essays? Likewise, the sergeant's command has some degree of influence on the soldiers' advance in that if the sergeant had shouted earlier than the major with a different command, the soldiers would have obeyed his order. In response to these points, Lewis must say that these alterations of the events are too-distant to be considered relevant. Essay Voyage? But some metric of distance in alterations is essays, required, since it seems that similar alterations of what is a literary review research, Suzy's throw and the major's command are relevant to sociological, their having causal influence. It has also been argued that the new theory generates a great number of essay clay, spurious instances of causation. (For discussion see Collins 2000; Kvart 2001.) The theory implies that any event that influences another event to a certain degree counts as one of its causes. Sociological Essays? But common sense is more discriminating about 8.02, causes. To take an example of Jonathan Bennett (1987): rain in December delays a forest fire; if there had been no December rain, the forest would have caught fire in January rather than when it actually did in February. The rain influences the sociological fire with respect to its timing, location, rapidity, and so forth.
But common sense denies that the rain was a cause of the fire , though it allows that it is a cause of the delay in the fire . Similarly, in the example of the poison victim discussed above, the victim's ingesting poison on a full stomach influences the capital punishment time and manner of his death (making it a slow and sociological essays painful death), but common sense refuses to countenance his eating dinner as a cause of his death , though it may countenance it as a cause of its being a slow and painful death . What Literary Review For A? Pace Lewis, common sense does not take anything that affects the time and manner of an sociological event to be a cause of the event simpliciter . 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation. One way of treating preemption that has been recently discussed departs from what is a research paper, a purely counterfactual analysis of essays, causation. It has been argued that preemption examples highlight the intuitive idea that causation is an intrinsic relation between events, which is to say it is a local relation depending on the intrinsic properties of the events and what goes on between them, and nothing else. The proposed treatments of best on resumes and cover letters, preemption marry this intuitive idea with a crucial deployment of counterfactuals. At one time Lewis himself resorted to this way of treating late preemption examples when he invoked the notion of quasi-dependence . (See his (1986c).) To explain this notion consider a case that resembles the case of Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle.
Suzy throws a rock and shatters the bottle in exactly the same way in sociological, which she does in the original case. Unna? But in this case Billy and his rock are entirely absent. Lewis argued that since the process in the original case and the process in the comparison case are intrinsically alike (and also obey the same laws), both or neither must be causal. However, the comparison process is surely a causal process since, thanks to Billy's absence, it exhibits a causal dependence. Accordingly, the process in the original case must be a causal process too, even though it does not exhibit a causal dependence. Sociological? In such examples Lewis has said that the actual process that does not exhibit causal dependence is, nonetheless, causal by courtesy: it exhibits quasi-dependence in unna essay, virtue of its intrinsic resemblance to the causal process in the comparison case.
A related idea is pursued in Menzies (1996; 1999). Menzies argues that there is an element in our concept of causation that resists capture in sociological essays, purely counterfactual terms. This element consists in the idea that causation is a structural relation that underlies and supports causal dependences. This idea can be captured by treating the concept of causation as the concept of a theoretical entity. Applying a standard treatment of best books on resumes and cover letters, theoretical concepts, he argues that causation should be defined as the unique occupant of a certain characteristic role given by the platitudes of the folk theory of sociological essays, causation. One platitude is that causation is an intrinsic relation between events. Another platitude is that it is typically , but not invariably, accompanied by michael clay thompson causal dependence.
Accordingly, causation is defined in sociological, the following way: On this account, causation is not constituted by essay michael thompson causal dependence. It is, in essays, fact, a distinct relation for which causal dependence is, at best, a defeasible marker. The relation may be identified a posteriori with some physically specifiable relation such as energy-momentum transfer. It may, indeed, be identified with different relations in different possible worlds. This definition is supposed to explain common sense intuitions about preemption examples.
For example, Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, caused the shattering of the bottle, because the deadly essay intrinsic relation that typically accompanies causal dependence connects Suzy's throw, but not Billy's throw, with the shattering of the bottle. Lewis later rejected the approach to preemption via quasi-dependence in favour of his 2000 theory in terms of influence. In Lewis 2004a and 2004b, he claims that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation do not do justice to the full range of our intuitions about causation. (For related points see Hall 2002, 2004.) He offers several reasons, but one reason will suffice for our discussion. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic matter does not apply to cases of sociological, double prevention. Suppose that billiard balls 1 and 2 collide, preventing ball 1 from continuing on books letters its way and sociological essays hitting ball 3. If the collision of review research, balls 1 and 3 had occurred, ball 3 would not have later collided with ball 4. So, we have double prevention: the collision of balls 1 and essays 2 prevented the essay michael clay collision of balls 1 and essays 3, which would have prevented the later collision of balls 3 and 4. Here it seems reasonable to say that the collision of balls 1 and 2 was a cause of the later collision of balls 3 and 4. Lewis observes that the causation in such cases of double prevention is partly an extrinsic matter. If there had been some other obstruction that would have stopped ball 1 from books and cover letters, hitting ball 3, the collision of 3 and 4 would not have depended on the collision of 1 and 2. Sociological? Moreover, he notes that much of the spatiotemporal region between the collision of balls 1 and 2 and the collision of balls 3 and 4 is simply empty so that there is no chain of events to novel essay, serve as a connecting process between cause and effect. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic relation does not apply in this case. More generally, he argues that theories of causation as an sociological essays intrinsic relation are overhasty generalisations of one specific kind of causation, and they fail to do justice to our intuitions about causation involving absences (as causes, effects or intermediaries). 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.
A number of contemporary philosophers (Hitchcock 2001, 2007; Woodward 2003; Woodward and Hitchcock 2003) have explored an alternative counterfactual approach to causation that employs the structural equations framework. This framework, which has been used in capital punishment research, the social sciences and biomedical sciences since the 1930s and sociological 1940s, received its state-of-the-art formulation in Judea Pearl's landmark 2000 book. Hitchcock and Woodward acknowledge their debt to Pearl's work and to the related work on causal Bayes nets by Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour, and Richard Scheines (1993). However, while Pearl and Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines focus on issues to do with causal discovery and inference, Woodward and Hitchcock focus on issues of the meaning of causal claims. For this reason, their formulations of the structural equations framework are better suited to the purposes of this discussion.
The exposition of books and cover letters, this section follows that of Hitchcock 2001, in particular. While philosophical work using this framework has only just begun, it would seem that this framework looks likely to rival Lewis's framework in terms of its theoretical richness and fruitfulness. The structural equations framework describes the causal structure of a system in terms of a causal model of the system, which is identified as an ordered pair V , E , where V is a set of variables and E a set of structural equations stating deterministic relations among the variables. (We shall confine our attention in this section to deterministic systems.) The variables in V describe the different possible states of the system in question. Sociological Essays? While they can take any number of values, in the simple examples to be considered here the variables are typically binary variables that take the value 1 if some event occurs and the value 0 if the event does not occur. For example, let us formulate a causal model to describe the system exemplified in the example of late preemption to do with Billy and Suzy's rock throwing. We might describe the review paper system using the following set of variables: BT = 1 if Billy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; ST = 1 if Suzy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; BH = 1 if Billy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; SH = 1 if Suzy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; BS = 1 if the bottle shatters, 0 otherwise. Here the variables are binary. Sociological? But a different model might have used many-valued variables to represent the different ways in which Billy and Suzy threw their rocks, their rocks hit the capital bottle, or the bottle shattered.
The structural equations in sociological, a model describe the dynamical evolution of the system being modelled. There is michael clay, a structural equation for each variable. The form taken by sociological essays a structural equation for what is a review research paper a variable depends on which kind of variable it is. The structural equation for an exogenous variable (the values of sociological essays, which are determined by factors outside of the model) takes the form of Y = y , which simply states the voyage clay thompson actual value of the variable. The structural equation for an endogenous variable (the values of which are determined by factors within the model) states how the value of the variable is determined by sociological the values of the punishment research other variables.
It takes the form: What does this structural equation mean? There are in fact competing interpretations. Pearl (2000) regards the structural equations as the sociological essays conceptual primitives of his framework, describing them as representing the basic mechanisms of the system under investigation. However, for the purposes of exposition, it is more convenient to follow the interpretation of Woodward (2003) and capital paper punishment Hitchcock (2001), who think of the structural equations as expressing certain basic counterfactuals of the following form:
As this form of counterfactual suggests, the structural equations are to essays, be read from right to left: the voyage michael antecedent of the counterfactual states possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n and sociological essays the consequent states the corresponding value of the endogenous variable Y . There is what review, a counterfactual of this kind for every combination of possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n . Sociological? It is important to note that a structural equation of this kind is not, strictly speaking, an identity since there is a right-to-left asymmetry built into it. This asymmetry corresponds to the asymmetry of non-backtracking counterfactuals. For example, supposing that the what literary review for a paper actual situation is one in which neither Suzy nor Billy throws a rock so the bottle does not shatter, the non-backtracking counterfactual “If either Suzy or Billy had thrown a rock, the bottle would have shattered” is sociological, true. But the counterfactual “If the bottle had shattered, either Suzy or Billy would have thrown a rock” is false. As an illustration, consider the set of structural equations that might be used to model the late preemption example of Billy and Suzy. Given the variables listed above, the structural equations might be stated as follows: In these equations logical symbols are used to represent mathematical functions on binary variables: X = 1 − X ; X v Y = max X , Y ; X Y = min X , Y . The first two equations simply state the actual values of the essay thompson exogenous variables ST and BT . The third equation encodes two counterfactuals, one for each possible value of sociological, ST . Literary Research? It states that if Suzy threw a rock, her rock hit the bottle; and if she didn't throw a rock, her rock didn't hit the bottle. The fourth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of essays, values for BT and. SH . It states that if Billy threw a rock and is a research Suzy's rock didn't hit the bottle, Billy's rock hit the sociological essays bottle; but didn't do so if one or more of these conditions was not met.
The fifth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of values for SH and BH . It states that if one or other (or possibly both) of Suzy's rock or Billy's rock hit the bottle, the bottle shattered; but if neither rock hit the good introduction bottle, the bottle didn't shatter. The structural equations above can be represented in sociological, terms of a directed graph . The variables in the set V are represented as nodes in unna, the graph. Essays? An arrow directed from best books on resumes and cover letters, one node X to another Y represents the fact that the sociological variable X appears on punishment research the right-hand side of the sociological structural equation for essay voyage clay thompson Y . In this case, X is said to be a parent of Y . Exogenous variables are represented by nodes that have no arrows directed towards them. A directed path from X to sociological, Y in a graph is a sequence of arrows that connect X with Y . The directed graph of the model described above of Billy and Suzy example is depicted in Figure 1 below: The arrows in this figure tell us that the bottle's shattering is paper research, a function of sociological, Suzy's rock hitting the bottle and best and cover letters Billy's rock hitting the bottle; that Billy's rock hitting the bottle is sociological essays, a function of introduction english essay, Billy's throwing a rock and Suzy's rock hitting the essays bottle; and that Suzy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of her throwing the rock. As we have seen, the structural equations directly encode some counterfactuals. Best Books On Resumes And Cover Letters? However, some counterfactuals that are not directly encoded can be derived from them. Sociological? Consider, for example, the counterfactual “If Suzy's rock had not hit the bottle, it would still have shattered”.
As a matter of fact, Suzy's rock did hit the bottle. But we can determine what would have happened if it hadn't done so, by replacing the structural equation for the endogenous variable SH with the equation SH = 0, keeping all the other equations unchanged. So, instead of having its value determined in the ordinary way by the variable ST , the value of SH is set “miraculously”. Pearl describes this as a “surgical intervention” that changes the value of the variable. In terms of its graphical representation,this amounts to wiping out the arrow from the variable ST to the variable SH and treating SH as if it were an exogenous variable. After this operation, the letters value of the essays variable BS can be computed and shown to be equal to 1: given that Billy had thrown his rock, his rock would have hit the bottle and shattered it. So this particular counterfactual is true. This procedure for evaluating counterfactuals has direct affinities with Lewis's non-backtracking interpretation of counterfactuals: the best books and cover surgical intervention that sets the variable SH at its hypothetical value but keeps all other equations unchanged is similar in its effects to Lewis's small miracle that realises the counterfactual antecedent but preserves the past. In general, to evaluate a counterfactual, say “If it were the case that X 1 ,,X n , then ”, one replaces the original equation for each variable X i with a new equation stipulating its hypothetical value,while keeping the other equations unchanged; then one computes the values for the remaining variables to see whether they make the consequent true. This technique of replacing an equation with a hypothetical value set by a “surgical intervention” enables us to capture the notion of counterfactual dependence between variables:
How does the sociological essays structural equations framework deal with examples of late pre-emption that pose such problems for Lewis's counterfactual theory? Can this framework deliver the intuitively correct verdicts in the example about Suzy and Billy? Halpern and Pearl (2001,2005), Hitchcock (2001),and Woodward (2003a) all give roughly the is a literary review for a same treatment of examples of late preemption. The key to their treatment is the employment of sociological essays, a certain procedure for testing the existence of unna essay, a causal relation. The procedure is to look for an intrinsic process connecting the putative cause and sociological essays effect; suppress the influence of their non-intrinsic surroundings by “freezing” those surroundings as they actually are; and then subject the putative cause to a counterfactual test. So, for example, to test whether the variable Suzy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter, we should examine the process running from ST through SH to BS ; hold fix at its actual value the variable BH which is write introduction, extrinsic to this process; and then wiggle the variable ST to see if it changes the value of BS . The last steps involve evaluating the counterfactual “If Suzy hadn't thrown a rock and Billy's rock hadn't hit the bottle, the bottle would not have shattered”. It is sociological essays, easy to see that this counterfactual is true. In contrast, when we carry out is a literary research paper, a similar procedure to test whether Billy's throwing a rock caused the sociological essays bottle to shatter,we are required to consider the counterfactual “If Billy hadn't thrown his rock and Suzy's rock had hit the bottle, the bottle would not shattered”. This counterfactual is false. It is the difference in the truth-value of these two counterfactuals that explains the fact that it was Suzy's rock throwing, and not Billy's, that caused the bottle to shatter. (A similar theory is developed in Yablo 2002 and 2004 though not in the structural equations framework.) Hitchcock (2001) presents a useful regimentation of this reasoning.
He defines a route between two variables X and Z in the set V to be an ordered sequence of variables X , Y 1 ,, Y n , Z such each variable in the sequence is in V and is a parent of its successor in the sequence. A variable Y is intermediate between X and Z if and essay only if it belongs to essays, some route between X and Z . Paper? Then he introduces the new concept of an active causal route: This definition generalises the informal idea sketched in the example of Suzy and Billy. Sociological Essays? There is an active causal route going from Suzy's throwing her rock through her rock hitting the bottle to the bottle shattering: when we hold fixed Billy's rock not hitting the bottle, which is the actual value of the only intermediate variable BH that is not on this route, we see that the bottle's shattering counterfactually depends on Suzy's throwing her rock. There is, however, no active causal route between Billy's throwing his rock and the bottle shattering. In terms of the michael clay notion of an active causal route, Hitchcock defines actual or token causation in essays, the following terms: A crucial notion in this definition is that of “an appropriate” model. It would be undesirable to have multiple structures of causal relations being posited by different models willy-nilly. Is A Review For A? So Hitchcock insists causal relations are revealed only by sociological “appropriate models”.
He mentions a number of criteria for appraising whether a model is appropriate, the most important one being that the structural equations posited by is a for a research paper the model must not imply any false counterfactual. In order to deal with examples of symmetric overdetermination, Hitchcock (2001) defines a notion of a weakly active route , the essential idea being that there is sociological essays, a weakly active route between X and Y just when Y counterfactually depends on X under the freezing of some possible, not necessarily actual, values of the variables that are not on the route from X to Y . As we shall not be considering any examples of oversymmetric overdetermination, we shall focus on the stronger notion of an active causal route. This account of causation differs from Lewis's accounts in a number of respects. One difference is that the capital paper account does not appeal to sociological, the transitivity of causation to deal with preemption examples, in contrast to deadly essay, Lewis's accounts, both early and late. Hitchcock (2001) is at pains to sociological, stress that the structural equations framework described above allows for failures of books, transitivity. Sociological Essays? Another difference between the accounts is that the structural equations account appeals to special counterfactuals with complex antecedents in order to handle preemption examples. These counterfactuals describe what would happen if a causal variable were changed when certain other variables are held fixed at what is a review research their actual values. Sociological? (Hitchcock calls these “explicitly nonforetracking counterfactuals”.) Lewis's accounts does not make use of such counterfactuals, relying as it does on counterfactuals with simple antecedents that describe single changes in the causal variables. The differences between the accounts should not, however, overshadow the similarities that also exist. Both accounts make central use of what for a paper, non-backtracking counterfactuals and essays they interpret these counterfactuals in roughly the same fashion. Setting aside complications to do with backwards causation, Lewis's account and the structural equations account have us evaluate a non-backtracking counterfactual in much the same way: we are to hold fixed the past history of the system, imagine that the antecedent is realised “miraculously” by a surgical intervention from outside the system, and then consider how the new state of the system would evolve in conformity with the structural equations or laws of the system without any further interventions. How plausible is paper punishment, this new counterfactual approach to sociological essays, causation?
It is too early to say with any confidence, as the approach is still being developed. Nonetheless, some early problems have emerged. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Pearl 2005; Halpern and unna novel Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock 2007; Menzies 2004b; Weslake forthcoming.) Consider, for instance, the sociological following example, which is a variant of one described by Hitchcock (2007). An assassin puts poison in the king's coffee. The bodyguard responds by essay voyage michael thompson pouring an antidote in the king's coffee. If the bodyguard had not poured the antidote in the coffee, the king would have died. On the other hand, the antidote is fatal when taken by itself; and if the essays poison had not been poured in first, it would have killed the write good english essay king. The poison and sociological the antidote are both lethal when taken singly but neutralise each other when taken together. In fact, the what is a literary review for a paper king drinks the coffee and survives. Suppose we model this scenario using the following variables: A = 1 if the assassin pours poison into essays the king's coffee, 0 otherwise; G = 1 if the bodyguard responds by pouring antidote into the coffee, 0 otherwise; S = 1 if the king survives, 0 otherwise. And also suppose that we employ these structural equations:
The directed graph for this model is depicted in books letters, Figure 2. Testing for active causal processes, we can see that the process that goes directly from the assassin's pouring the poison in the coffee to sociological essays, the king's survival is active. Holding fixed the fact that the bodyguard poured the lethal antidote into the coffee, we note that the king would not have survived if the assassin had not put the poison in write english essay, the coffee first. So the theory licenses the verdict that the assassin's pouring in the poison caused the king to survive. However, many regard this as a mistaken causal verdict: putting poison in the king's coffee is exactly the kind of thing that is likely to kill the king. Sociological? It might be argued that the causal verdict is justified in view of the fact that the assassin's action caused the bodyguard's action, which in turn caused the what literary review research king's survival. But this appeal to the transitivity of causation is not open to the defenders of this theory, who deny the validity of transitivity.
One counterexample by sociological essays itself is not enough to disprove the whole structural equations framework. Strictly speaking, it only casts doubt on the theory of best books on resumes and cover, causation that defines causation in terms of the presence of an active causal route. There are alternative definitions within the structural equations framework that might fare better. (See Halpern and Pearl 2005; Weslake forthcoming.) One possibility explored by several philosophers is to sociological essays, appeal to a distinction between what Hitchcock has called “default” and “deviant” values of letters, variables.(See Hitchcock 2007.) The default value of some variable represents a normal or to-be-expected state of the system, whereas a deviant value represents an abnormal or unusual state of the system. The correlative notion of the default course of evolution for a system can be characterised as a temporally-ordered sequence of values that the essays variables in a model take when the default values of the exogenous variables are plugged into best books and cover the structural equations of the model. Thus, if we set the value of the exogenous variable A in the example above at its default value 0 instead of its actual value 1, we can see that the scenario described above will evolve in essays, the following way: the assassin doesn't put the poison in the coffee, the bodyguard doesn't put the antidote into the coffee, and the king survives. Now if we evaluate counterfactual dependences with counterfactuals centred on the default course of evolution rather than the books and cover letters actual course of evolution, we can see that the bodyguard's action counterfactually depends on the assassin's action and the king's survival depends on the bodyguard's action, but the sociological king's survival doesn't depend on clay the assassin's action. If counterfactual dependences centred on the default course of evolution are taken to essays, indicate causal relations, these counterfactual dependences more accurately reflect our intuitive causal judgements. (For further discussion of this idea, see Hall 2007 and Menzies 2004b, 2007.) It remains to be seen whether the various attempts to augment the structural equations framework with a distinction between default and deviant values are successful or not. (For other attempts see Hitchcock 2007; and Halpern and Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009. For a critical discussion of these attempts see Schaffer 2013. Literary For A Research Paper? For general discussion of the role of the default/deviant distinction in causal judgements see Maudlin 2004.)
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