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Essays about the american dream

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The Forgotten Cause of the Civil War. A New Look at the Slavery Issue. A book review by Danny Yee (, Copyright © 1998. One of the essays about, things that has always puzzled me about the history of the analyzing essay, United States is dream how a civil war could be fought and analyzing visuals won to end slavery, but full civil rights not be granted to about, blacks until a century later. Tenzer's The Forgotten Cause of the Civil War suggests that one of the thesis, major contributions to tension between North and essays the american dream South - and hence one of the causes of the civil war - was white slavery, or the perception of slavery by Northerners as a personal threat. Tenzer begins with the legal definition of slavery and of terms such as White, Black, and mulatto (which often differed from the social definitions). The partus sequitur ventrem rule made the offspring of a slave mother slaves, regardless of telecommunication papers their colour. (No slave could be White, of about dream course, so white slaves were classified as mulattos.) Chapter two looks at the consequence of this rule, the math tests, presence of white slaves in the South. Tenzer makes no attempt to provide quantitative figures here, stressing instead the accessibility of accounts of white slaves in the North (notably advertisements for runaway slaves who could pass as white). However many of them there actually were, the idea of slaves indistinguishable from free whites was widespread in the North.

Chapter three looks at Southern racial theory, in about dream, particular the fabrication of figures for insanity in the 1840 census and Dr Nott's idea that mulattos were unhealthier and shorter lived than black slaves. This leads to a chapter on process, the illicit slave trade, which Tenzer argues is the explanation for census results showing an essays about, apparently higher fecundity for black slaves than for free blacks and telecommunication research mulattos. His argument for about dream an extensive illicit slave trade (continued in an appendix) is indirect but persuasive. The 1850 Fugitive Slave law allowed runaway slaves to be reclaimed without due process, creating the possibility that free whites could be seized accidentally, or even kidnapped. This was perceived as an how to a list, attack on freedoms inside the North and many states passed personal liberty laws in response. The political power of the South and events such as the destruction of the Missouri Compromise and about dream the Dred Scott decision also raised fears of slavery being extended into the territories and Northern states.

Mixed with ideas that capital should own labor and that slavery was right, regardless of colour, this produced an explosive atmosphere. However seriously leaders in the South may have contemplated the nationalization of slavery or the possibility of enslaving free white laborers in the North, there was enough evidence for this to how to a list, make it a major theme in anti-slavery campaigns and Republican political propaganda. Detailed references and some of the argument are left to the endnotes, and The Forgotten Cause of the Civil War is accessible to the non-specialist - despite having only a slender background knowledge of the period I had no trouble following it. I found Tenzer's thesis convincing: it resolved my perplexity about a war being fought to essays the american dream, end slavery without blacks being granted civil rights. In any event, The Forgotten Cause of the research papers, Civil War , with its extensive quotations from newspapers and other texts of the period, both Southern and Northern, paints a vivid picture of attitudes to slavery in essays about, the decades before the Civil War. Disclaimer: I received a review copy of The Forgotten Cause of the Civil War from the Scholars' Publishing House, but I have no stake, financial or otherwise, in its success. %T The Forgotten Cause of the Civil War. %S A New Look at the Slavery Issue. %A Lawrence R. Math Tests. Tenzer. %I Scholars' Publishing House. %O paperback, bibliography, index. “One of the things that has always puzzled me about the about the american, history of the United States is math tests how a civil war could be fought and won to end slavery, but full civil rights not be granted to blacks until a century later. Tenzer's The Forgotten Cause of the Civil War suggests that one of the major contributions to tension between North and South - and hence one of the essays the american, causes of the civil war - was white slavery, or the perception of slavery by Northerners as a personal threat.” This introduction in essay, two sentences is short.

The first sentence injects the writer into the work with a question that catches the reader’s interest, “One of the things that has always puzzled me about the history of the United States is how a civil war could be fought and the american dream won to end slavery, but full civil rights not be granted to blacks until a century later.” The second sentence identifies the author, the book, and the authors thesis; the issue of white slavery. “Tenzer's The Forgotten Cause of the Civil War suggests that one of the major contributions to tension between North and South - and hence one of the causes of the civil war - was white slavery, or the perception of slavery by Northerners as a personal threat.” The writer has clearly identified both the authors thesis and essays his own. In this example the writer’s thesis is presented as a question that is being covered by the writer and essays the american the reader can expect the conclusion at the end. The body of the essay explains the theme of the book in three paragraphs that elaborate on points made in the introduction. The first paragraph explains the colour and physical characteristics of how to White, Black, and Mulatto slaves. The second paragraph compares Mulatto to essays, Black slaves, and write a list the illicit slave trade. The third paragraph discusses slave laws and the possibility that free whites could be seized accidentally, or even kidnapped. The author’s thesis, the case for Northern concerns being sufficiently aroused to provoke the civil war, is wrapped up in the last two sentences of the the american dream, third paragraph. “Mixed with ideas that capital should own labor and that slavery was right, regardless of colour, this produced an explosive atmosphere. Math Tests. However seriously leaders in the South may have contemplated the nationalization of slavery or the possibility of about enslaving free white laborers in the North, there was enough evidence for this to make it a major theme in anti-slavery campaigns and Republican political propaganda.” The concluding paragraph states the writers thesis and answers the question asked in the first line. The conclusion also provides the writer’s opinion of the author’s work and recommends the book to readers with little knowledge of the fun college, period. This book review provides enough insight into the contents of the essays, book for the reader to get a snap shot of the fun college essays, entire book.

A book review for history then is dream simply an write a list, essay with three parts, an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. Essays Dream. The three parts of the critical book review for the historian are: who wrote it, why, and what does the thesis, author have to about the american, offer. In “ The Forgotten Cause of the Civil War : A New Look at the Slavery Issue” these three questions are readily answered. In addition, the answer to the last question, what does the author have to offer, perhaps also poses an interesting question for further research “…ideas that ‘capital should own labour’ and essay that slavery was right regardless of colour“. It is about dream important to identify the historical genre of the book. The genre may be characterized by style, form, or content as: biography, cultural, demographic, economic, environmental, ethno-history, feminist, intellectual, labour, legal, military, diplomatic, political, psychohistory, religious, social, or urban. How To A List. Evidence and Credibility of Sources. A clear distinction must be made between primary and secondary evidence. Evaluating a book for history requires detective work and essays about the american dream critical evaluation. Books are usually secondary evidence, but good books are supported by adequate primary evidence.

The credibility of the author also must be considered. Primary evidence is contemporary to the problem being studied. Journals, diaries, letters, autobiographies, personal papers, government publications, maps, census reports, newspaper articles, pamphlets, treatises, sermons, oral histories, and artifacts. Secondary evidence is a synthesis of thesis primary sources written by a historian for the purpose of argumentation or explanation. The quality of the synthesis is very important. Scholarly books, journal articles, and theses. Academic Historians are ranked by their degree, B.A., M.A., or Ph.D.. Amateur Historians may have been journalists who write history and maintain high standards. Lawyers, politicians, civil servants, and fiction writers may also turn to essays about the american dream, writing history. Non-Historians may be propagandists, holocaust- deniers, and those who deliberately falsify history for many different reasons.

Documentation is research papers extremely important to Historians. Proper documentation is easy if you have a guide. If you do not want your professor to have a hairy fit, and use a lot of red ink, pick up A Handbook For UCC History Students and use it. This guide was written by essays dream the History Faculty at UCC for history students. Another useful guide for documentation, and recommended by a member of the history faculty at math tests UCC is A Pocket Guide To Writing In History, by Mary Lynn Rampolla.

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My American Dream essays

Public Administrations and about dream The Columbine Chooting custom essay. The following are the requirements and fun college article on which the case study is about the american dream, based. MPA 5400 CASE Study Project Criteria and References. Greg Browning 937-605-1096. Please feel free to contact me at the phone number above with any questions. I’m requesting approximately 16 total pages of written work based on the Article: The Shootings at statemants, Columbine High School. The first portion of the assignment, u06a1 Annotated Bibliography, must contain a 2-3 page outline of the final project with a 2-3 page annotated bibliography including a minimum of 10 sources, for a total of 6 pages. The second portion of the assignment , u09a1 Case Study Analysis Final Project Criteria, must be 10 pages in length for which the criteria is listed after the article. Thanks! u09a1 Case Study Analysis Final Project Criteria:

Write a paper analyzing your findings from essays about, your research, the literature reviews conducted in your annotated bibliography assignment, and articles in the Course Articles and telecommunication Media repository, along with your recommendations for how the public administration system could have been altered to change the outcome of the case study you chose. Complete the about, following: • Discuss and evaluate the relationship between public administration theory and statemants the case study you chose. • Discuss and evaluate internal and external environmental relationships that affect the case study you chose. • Discuss and evaluate public administration process as it relates to the case study you chose. • Write a conclusion to summarize what you learned and implications for the future of public administration as it relates to the case study you chose. • Recommend how public administration can improve. Your assignment should meet the essays about the american dream, following requirements: • Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message. • APA formatting: Include a minimum of 10–15 resources and citations formatted according to APA sixth edition style and formatting guidelines. Include APA subheadings. • Length of paper: 15–20 double-spaced pages.

• Font and font size: Arial 12 point. • Contents: Include a title page, abstract, table of analyzing visuals contents, reference list, a literature review of the essays dream, theories and constructs in public administration, and case study analysis. The Following is the fun college essays, article on which the assignment is based: Peters, T., and A. Waterman. 1982. About The American? In Search of Excellence. New York: Warner Books.

Polman, D. Write A List? 1999. Echoes of Scandal May Go Past 2000. The Philadelphia Inquirer, 14 February. Tullock, G. 1965. The American Dream? The Politics of Bureaucracy. Math Tests? Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press. Walton, E. 1962. A Magnetic Theory of Organizational Communication. China Lake, Calif. U.S. Naval Ord- nance Test Station.

Zimbardo, P. G., E. B. Ebbesen, and C. Maslach. Essays Dream? 1977. Influencing Attitudes and Changing Behavior. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. I am grateful to colleague Dianne Rahm for bringing the Fernald case of nuclear waste cleanup to research papers my attention. As Dr. Garnett’s essay stresses, for essays about the american, public administrators today, internal and external commu- nications are central to influencing their work, both in terms of helping to set the agenda for what they do and then decisively shaping public opinion about book process, how well or poorly they per- form their roles. External media such as radio, TV and newspaper coverage, its volume and content, as well as various “internal players,” help to create the issues public agencies address, how they perform or fail to perform their tasks, and then largely determine public perceptions of what they accomplish.

In our modern communications-drenched environment, communi- cations, its success or failure, may well be the most important factor shaping public programs today. Possibly the most glaring recent instance of communications breakdown at about dream, the local level oc- curred during the tragic shootings at Columbine High School, Littleton, Colorado, on April 20, 1999. The attack that left twelve students and one teacher dead shocked the nation, devastated a community, captured headlines, and generated controversy for days afterward. For many, the inconceivable happened: Two heavily armed teenagers, Eric Harris and math tests Dylan Klebold, from the american, quiet, upper–middle class suburbia, deliberately prepared and executed the mass killings. In- deed, as authorities would find out telecommunication research, later, if their planned attack had been fully implemented the death toll would have been considerably higher. The shooters had scattered seventy-six bombs through the school, two in nearby fields, and thirteen in two cars inside the parking lot, for a total of dream ninety-nine bombs. If the two twenty-pound propane tank bombs they set to det- onate at 11:17 a.m. in the cafeteria had exploded, as originally planned, the room would have been full of 500 students eating lunch. As one sheriff’s deputy observed afterward, “Bad bomb makers made for a lot of live kids. . . .” Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. Certainly, this terrible tragedy raises numerous questions for which many grieving friends, relatives, and public officials still struggle to find answers. However, from an papers, administra- tive perspective, at the heart of the american dream law enforcement’s combined response to this new sort of homegrown terrorism lay a crucial problem of statemants poor communication.

From the first Jefferson County sheriff dispatcher’s call “female down” at Columbine at essays about the american, 11:23 a.m., a series of write administrative communications flaws unfold. The following story by Susan Rosegrant, written for the Kennedy School of Government Case Program, focuses upon many of the about dream, communication breakdowns that took place throughout all phases of the statemants, emergency response to the shootings. As you read this thoughtful, retrospective study, try to look specifically at how ineffective communications influenced the decisions that the responders made. How did the preceding essay’s point regarding the vulnerability and potential for misinter- pretation of oral messages play a role in the Columbine tragedy? What effect did the unavailability of essays about the american dream up-to-date floor plans for math tests, Columbine High School have on police choices? Why were current maps not readily on hand? Why did ultimately a thousand law enforcement officers arrive at about dream, Columbine from how to write a list, sur- rounding metro-Denver jurisdictions?

What were the effects upon essays about, those already there at- tempting to cope with the emergency? What accounted for such ineffective coordination among various units? How did the perceptions of each type of emergency responders—for example, SWAT teams, bomb experts, and medical crews—shape their communications, both what they saw and math tests how they related what they saw to dream others at the scene? Were there differences between their intended and actually expressed communications? If so, can you cite examples? What caused the delay in setting up a central command post, and how did that add to the confusion of visuals operational communications and decision making among law enforce- ment personnel? How did the management style of Jefferson County Sheriff John Stone complicate and confuse communications at Columbine? What assumptions did Stone make about the situation, and what would you recommend that he should have said or done differently during the crisis? In what ways did the media add to the difficulties of the first responders? How might the media coverage have been better handled by public officials?

What lessons can law enforcement and about the american emergency responder agencies learn from the math tests, ineffective communication at Columbine? Overall, who were the essays about the american dream, major sources of miscommunication throughout this case? Can you generalize about the overall impacts of flawed information upon the effectiveness of law enforcement during the math tests, emergency? What can be done in the future to prevent the repe- tition of such mistakes? Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at the american, Columbine High School 259 The Shootings at Columbine High School: The Law Enforcement Response.

On April 20, 1999, a Jefferson County, Colorado, sher- iff’s dispatcher sent out a call about a “female down” in the south parking lot of Columbine High School. The radio message at 11:23 a.m. that Tuesday morning was the essays, first official word alerting area law enforcement to the fact that something had gone very wrong at the large suburban school about eight miles southwest of the american Denver. By 11:32, a deputy on fun college the scene had called for mutual aid, and within a half hour, hundreds of emergency re- sponders were arriving to help stop a bloody siege at the school by an unknown number of gunmen—gunmen who were said to be armed with automatic weapons, bombs, and about grenades. The chaotic scene that law enforcement and emer- gency medical personnel faced, however, seemed designed to math tests frustrate their best efforts. Witnesses were providing conflicting reports about the number of armed attackers, their location in the building, and the american their ages. The commanders who had rushed to the scene didn’t have and papers couldn’t find an about the american, up-to-date map of the school’s sprawling maze of rooms and corridors. By the time the first Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) team entered the school shortly after noon, the gunmen had grown quiet—removing the clear objective of an active target. Telecommunication Research Papers? As SWAT members moved cautiously through the about the american, school, the piercing sirens of fire alarms triggered by math tests, bombs made it almost impossible to communicate. Not only that, co- ordinating the growing crowd of responders outside had become increasingly difficult, particularly since the radios used by essays, different agencies often weren’t compatible. Over the next few hours, the Jefferson County Sheriff’s Office and analyzing other law enforcement agencies first secured the perimeter of the building so that the shooters could not escape, then struggled to evacuate students, teachers, and essays about the american staff—particularly those who had been wounded— and to apprehend the killers. Not until almost 4:00 p.m. would SWAT members discover that two student gun- men, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, were already dead, having committed suicide in the library just minutes after the first SWAT team entered the building.

Horrified SWAT members also discovered the ten students that Harris and Klebold had executed in telecommunication papers, the library about a half hour before killing themselves. In all, the two had killed or fatally, wounded 12 students and one teacher and in- jured 24 others in the span of 16 terrifying minutes.1. Before the week was out, the deadliest school shoot- ing in US history would spark impassioned debates across the essays about dream, nation about such issues as school safety, gun control, the impact of essay violent video games, and essays the american dream the pres- sures of suburban life. Within the emergency response community, the attack also spurred a crucial question: Could law enforcement and emergency medical person- nel in essays, the Columbine area have done anything better in about dream, responding to write a list the terrorist act or in reducing its grave toll? The Jefferson County Sheriff’s Office. Jefferson County—locally known as JeffCo—was Col- orado’s most populous county in 1999, with 512,000 residents.

Twelve police departments operated within the county’s towns and cities, but the essays about the american dream, JeffCo Sheriff’s Of- fice provided law enforcement for the 173,000 resi- dents in unincorporated areas of the county, including Columbine High School, where a JeffCo deputy was on duty every day as the telecommunication research, school community resource officer.2 The office’s 400 deputies and 185 non-uniformed personnel were headquartered in an imposing cluster of modern buildings in Golden, Colorado, that some locals referred to essays about dream as the Taj Mahal. Thesis Statemants? JeffCo had its own bomb squad and a part-time SWAT team, whose 12 members worked as regular members of the essays about the american, force unless called in for a tactical emergency.3. In April 1999, the JeffCo Sheriff’s Office was in a pe- riod of transition. John P. Stone, who had served as a county commissioner for 12 years, had been elected to a four-year term as sheriff the previous November, and. Reprinted by permission of the Kennedy School of Government Case Program, Harvard University. 260 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of thesis statemants Its Professional Centrality.

Jefferson County Sheriff’s Office. John P. Stone—Sheriff John Dunaway—Undersheriff Dave Walcher—Lieutenant Terry Manwaring—Lieutenant and SWAT. commander John Kiekbusch—Lieutenant Steve Davis—Public information officer Phil Hy—Sergeant Barry Williams—Sergeant and SWAT team leader Allen Simmons—Deputy and SWAT team leader Neil Gardner—Deputy and school community. resource officer Paul Magor—Deputy Scott Taborsky—Deputy Paul Smoker—Deputy. Littleton Fire Department.

William Pessemier—Chief Ray Rahne—Battalion Chief Chuck Burdick—Division Chief James Olsen—Paramedic Captain Wayne Zygowicz—Division Chief for essays about, emergency. Arapahoe County Sheriff’s Office. Patrick Sullivan—Sheriff Robert Armstrong—Captain Mark Campbell—Captain Bruce Williamson—Lieutenant and SWAT. commander Louis Perea—SWAT team leader Joe Dempsey—Deputy Inspector and fun college bomb. squad team leader Dan Davis—Deputy and bomb squad member. Littleton Police Department.

Bob Brandt—Commander Bill Black—Sergeant. Arvada Police Department. Ron Sloan—Chief Daryl Hoffman—Sergeant and member of the. Jefferson County Regional SWAT Team A.J. DeAndrea—Officer and member of the Jefferson County Regional SWAT Team. Denver Police Department. Gerry Whitman—Division Chief Vincent DiManna—Captain and SWAT commander.

Golden Police Department. Columbine High School. Frank DeAngelis—Principal Chris Mikesell—Dean of students Peter Horvath—Dean of students. Exhibit A: Cast of about dream Characters. had assumed office in January, at the same time bring- ing on math tests board a new undersheriff, John Dunaway (see Exhibit A for a partial list of individuals involved in essays about dream, the response to or aftermath of the Columbine High School shootings). Thesis? Although Stone had been out of law enforce- ment for more than a decade, earlier in essays, their careers both men had been patrolmen for the Lakewood Police Department—the county’s largest police department— and Dunaway, who had risen to police captain at Lakewood, had most recently served as director of the. JeffCo Public School District’s Risk Management Department, responsible, in part, for physical security in the schools. While Stone was new to the Sheriff’s Office, though, he was well acquainted with the how to, county’s overall emer- gency response capabilities.

Outside of routine SWAT team training, the Sheriff’s Office hadn’t invested signif- icant time or resources over the years in pre-incident planning—for example, for essays the american dream, hostage situations in telecommunication, major public buildings. But both the Sheriff’s Office and the. county had extensive experience in coordinating disas- ter and emergency responses because of the regular in- cidence in the region of major brush and forest fires, often in difficult and mountainous terrain. Essays The American Dream? In addition, in 1997, while still a commissioner, Stone had helped organize a trip to Emmitsburg, Maryland, for county representatives and local organization leaders to attend a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) dis- aster training course. The four-day session, which FEMA designed spe- cially to address the needs of fun college essays Jefferson County, Stone says, included training and “tabletop” exercises that had improved the county’s implementation of “incident command”—a clearly defined incident management structure designating, among other things, command roles, tasks to be accomplished, and a system to assign responsibility for each task. Essays Dream? According to visuals essay some law en- forcement officials, the county’s focus had paid off. “JeffCo is about the american, one of the most interactive places I’ve ever worked, in visuals essay, terms of people working together,” says Ron Sloan, chief of the Arvada Police Department, “and that’s not only the law enforcement agencies, but all the human services agencies.” Nevertheless, like most other law enforcement agen- cies in the area, the JeffCo Sheriff’s Office rarely held inter-jurisdictional exercises with the police or fire de- partments in the county, other than an about the american dream, occasional natu- ral disaster response exercise. Joint exercises were even rarer with agencies outside of the county.

In addition, while the essays, Sheriff’s Office often helped out police depart- ments within JeffCo, it had not often had to call on other agencies for mutual aid. Criminal responses and inves- tigations, in essays about the american dream, particular, Stone says, were almost always handled with the county’s own internal resources. The Initial Attack: The JeffCo Sheriff’s Office Responds. On Tuesday morning, April 20, 1999, JeffCo Sheriff’s Deputy Neil Gardner, the school community resource officer assigned to Columbine High School, was eating lunch in his car near an area northwest of the school known as the Smokers’ Pit. Just minutes earlier, a sher- iff’s dispatcher had reported a brushfire and explosion in a field about three miles south of statemants Columbine, but that wasn’t Gardner’s concern. Essays The American? At 11:22, however, Gardner got a call over his school radio from an papers, alarmed custo- dian, saying he needed Gardner in the school’s back. parking lot. One minute later, a sheriff’s dispatcher, re- sponding to a 911 report of a “paralyzed” girl in the american dream, the south lower parking lot of the school, radioed Deputy Paul Magor, who had been heading towards the fun college essays, brush- fire, and directed him instead toward Columbine, say- ing, “Female down in the south lot of Columbine High School.” Gardner, who was already driving toward the school, heard the message and turned on his lights and siren (for a chronology of events, see Exhibit B).4. Gardner later recalled that he expected to find noth- ing more than a car accident victim when he reached the school . About The American? . . . Math Tests? But the reality was far grimmer. Two Columbine seniors, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, had just launched a brutal armed attack on their fellow stu- dents. When students and staff first heard shots at essays, 11:19 that morning, many assumed it was part of visuals essay Senior Prank Day, or that the two, who were toting guns and wearing long black dusters, were filming a video.

By the about the american, time Gardner arrived five minutes after the shooting began, however, Harris and statemants Klebold had already shot at essays about the american, 11 stu- dents on the west and southwest side of the building, killing two and injuring six.5. As Garder pulled to a stop at 11:24, he saw students running from the school and write smoke rising from the south parking lot’s west end, and heard explosions and gunfire. The next several minutes would seem horribly unreal. As the deputy stepped from his car, he heard over essays about the american, the school radio, “Neil, there’s a shooter in the school.” Almost at the same moment, a gunman, who had been firing into the west entrance of the visuals essay, school along with a second shooter, turned and shot at Gardner from about 60 yards away with a semi- automatic rifle. The American Dream? Gardner, armed only with a 45 semi- automatic handgun, returned fire. The gunman, later identified as Eric Harris, spun, shot at Gardner again, then followed the other shooter into thesis, the school’s west entrance. The American Dream? The two would never emerge from the school again alive. Inside Columbine, the chaos worsened. At 11:25, Patti Nielson, a teacher hiding in the library who had been sprayed with glass and metal fragments when Klebold and fun college essays Harris shot at the west doors, called 911 on a cell phone to report shooting outside the essays about, library. More than 50 students also hiding in statemants, the room crouched under tables as Nielson cried out for them to stay down.

A minute later, William “Dave” Sanders, a teacher who had run upstairs after heroically warning students in the cafeteria to escape, was shot in about the american dream, the hallway outside the library and critically wounded. Telecommunication Research? A second teacher helped Sanders into a science classroom on the south side of the. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 261. 262 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. Exhibit B: Chronology of Events. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold begin shooting at essays about the american dream, fellow Columbine High School students after bombs planted inside the school fail to explode. A Jefferson County Sheriff’s deputy heads towards a reported explosion in a field about three miles from papers, Columbine High School. A Columbine custodian radios Deputy Neil Gardner, the school community resource officer, for help. A JeffCo dispatcher sends an alert about a “female down” at Columbine High School.

Deputy Gardner exchanges gunfire with Eric Harris outside the school. Deputy Gardner calls for reinforcements. Deputies exchange shots with Eric Harris, who is just inside the school. Teacher Dave Sanders is shot and critically wounded. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold enter the library and during the next seven minutes kill ten students, wound 12 more, and essays about the american dream shoot out the windows at students and deputies. Deputy Gardner calls for emergency medical help. A JeffCo Sheriff’s Office deputy broadcasts a call for mutual aid. JeffCo Undersheriff John Dunaway appoints JeffCo Lieutenant Dave Walcher as incident commander. Local television stations begin full-time live coverage of shootings at a list, Columbine. Littleton Fire Department paramedics rescue three student shooting victims from behind the essays dream, school.

A first SWAT team led by JeffCo Deputy Allen Simmons enters the east side of Columbine as JeffCo Lieutenant Terry Manwaring leads a second group around the math tests, school. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold commit suicide in the library. Littleton Fire sets up the first of essays about dream four medical triage sites. Leawood Elementary is established as the research, primary debriefing site. Lieutenant Manwaring’s SWAT team rescues one shooting victim outside west end of school. Incident command post begins operating out of JeffCo’s mobile command bus. JeffCo Sergeant Barry Williams leads SWAT team into west side of school. SWAT team led by Williams evacuates large group of students from essays about the american, kitchen area. JeffCo Public Information Officer Steve Davis holds his first hourly news conference in Clement Park. SWAT leader Sergeant Williams hears first accounts alluding to statemants critically injured teacher Dave Sanders.

12:08 12:10 12:25 12:34. 12:40 1:09 1:26 1:30. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 263. Exhibit B: (continued) Rooftop sniper radios SWAT leader Williams about “1 bleeding to death” sign in window. SWAT leader Williams splits his team, putting one half under Deputy A.J. DeAndrea. Deputy DeAndrea and his team locate and evacuate some 60 students. Soon after, they evacuate an essays, additional 60 students.

SWAT leader Williams and his team reach Dave Sanders and 60 students and call for medical help. A Denver paramedic declares Dave Sanders dead. Williams’s SWAT team enters the library and finds twelve students dead, including Eric Harris and editing process Dylan Klebold. SWAT members call paramedics to rescue one injured student. SWAT teams complete a second search of the school and bomb technicians begin their search. New SWAT teams launch a third sweep of the about dream, high school as bomb technicians continue their search. Parents of missing children are told to go home for the night after bomb experts suspend search until morning. Investigators return to essays Columbine and identify the victims. building overlooking the parking lot, and two students who were Eagle Scouts began giving him first aid. The JeffCo Sheriff’s dispatch had already sent out a message declaring, “Attention south units. Possible shots fired at essays about, Columbine High School.” At 11:26, Gard- ner called for reinforcements.

Panic-stricken students were running from different sides of the building, and two JeffCo deputies, Scott Taborsky and Paul Smoker, ar- riving from the northwest discovered a student who had been shot in the first phase of the fun college, attack lying behind an athletic shed on the west side of the school. Another badly wounded student lay nearby. As the two deputies went to about the american dream help the fun college, second student, Gardner, who was just down the hill from them, spotted a gunman inside the west doors and essays shouted, “There he is!” The gunman, Harris again, shot through the opening of how to a broken window at Gardner as first Gardner, and then Deputy Smoker, re- turned fire. As the gunman retreated, and Gardner ra- dioed in a “Code 33” for about, emergency assistance, the deputies heard more gunfire from editing process, within the school. Over the next few minutes, the already desperate scene degenerated. Teacher Patti Nielson, who was. under a counter just inside the library, reported over her cell phone that there was smoke drifting in and shots right outside the essays dream, door. Escaped students huddling behind pa- trol cars told deputies that an unknown number of gun- men in the school were shooting people—maybe with Uzis or shotguns—and throwing hand grenades.6 None of the fun college essays, students could identify Harris or Klebold as the per- petrators, nor did they know if the dream, shooters were high- school age or older.

Gardner, who could see four victims lying injured, including the girl originally reported as “down” in the parking lot, radioed for book process, emergency med- ical assistance. Sheriff’s dispatch, meanwhile, was send- ing almost constant messages: there were possible hand grenades in the school; deputies had been shot at; there were gunmen in the school with large weapons. At about 11:30, the gunmen shot out some of the west windows of the library, aiming at escaping students and the handful of deputies who had arrived. Although teacher Patti Nielson had stopped talking on her cell phone when the about the american dream, gunmen entered the library, over the next several minutes, the dispatcher could hear numerous gunshots, and a person shouting, 264 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. “Yahoo!” Investigators would later discover that Harris and Klebold had killed ten people and wounded 12 in the seven-and-a-half minutes they spent in the library.7. Outside, meanwhile, a deputy began loading students hiding behind a patrol car into a separate sheriff’s car and driving them to safety, three or four at a time. Telecommunication Research Papers? The dis- patch center called in off-duty dispatchers, and switched to 12-hour shifts to increase available personnel. At the same time, the media, which had heard of a shooting in- cident at Columbine, began calling the JeffCo Sheriff’s Office for information.

Less than ten minutes had passed since the first dispatch alert about an injured student in essays dream, the parking lot of Columbine High School. At 11:32, Deputy Paul Magor, who was guarding the entrance to the south parking lot, radioed for fun college, mutual aid. The Growing Response: Reinforcements Arrive. Deputy Magor’s mutual aid request produced an almost immediate response. In fact, since agencies in essays the american dream, the area had been monitoring the JeffCo dispatches, dozens of re- sponders were already on visuals essay the way, and would soon transform Columbine into essays, a major multi-jurisdictional response.

This kind of “self-dispatching” to a large inci- dent was not uncommon. Moreover, because Columbine lay near several law enforcement jurisdictions, a number of responders had personal reasons for editing process, wanting to arrive quickly. . . . The American? A student hiding in the school kitchen with 17 others had already called the Denver Police Depart- ment, hoping to speak with his police officer father, and several of the first Denver and Littleton police officers to arrive had children in the school. When Lieutenant Terry Manwaring, JeffCo’s SWAT commander, arrived at book editing, 11:36, law enforcement repre- sentatives had already begun to congregate a couple of blocks north of the school on Pierce Street, the north- south access road that ran along Columbine’s east side . . . About The American? . Manwaring had already paged JeffCo’s SWAT team and its command staff on the way over. Now, as JeffCo’s first command level representative present, Manwaring told dispatch that the command post and SWAT staging area would be placed at the point where officers were already gathering, the intersec- tion of Pierce and Leawood. A JeffCo sergeant who had arrived minutes earlier, Phil Hy, sat in thesis statemants, his patrol car monitoring radio traffic, while Manwaring and others desperately tried to piece together how many gunmen there were, what. they looked like, and where they all were located. The information coming over about the american, the radio was sketchy and often inconsistent.

Dispatch had reported a possible suspect on the football field, as many as six to eight gunmen in the school, shooters in paramilitary garb, and the possibility of hostages being held inside. Moreover, a JeffCo deputy had spotted a man on the roof, an apparent sniper, who posed an additional risk to approaching officers.8. Most of this information, though, was dead wrong. Book Editing Process? As Manwaring arrived, Harris and Klebold—still in about the american, the library—had just shot the last person they would kill other than themselves. The two gunmen would spend the next half hour, investigators later concluded, wandering through the school, firing at random targets, and a list throw- ing bombs. The two returned to the cafeteria, at one point, and essays dream shot at essay, two large bombs in duffel bags they had placed there earlier that had failed to explode, hoping— but failing—to trigger an explosion. They wandered back upstairs to the main office area and about the american fired shots into ceil- ings and walls. Although the gunmen looked into locked rooms and made eye contact with trapped students, they made no further attempts to kill anyone. Outside, though, none of this was clear. At 11:38, a pipe bomb thrown by the shooters blew out windows near the cafeteria, and students hidden inside ran to research papers a nearby deputy in the parking lot, and ducked behind cars. The student holed up in the kitchen with a cell phone told the Denver police officer on about dream the line that he could hear a gunman nearby with school keys and telecommunication research a walkie talkie.9 At 11:40, four minutes after Harris and Klebold left the essays about dream, library, some 30 students ran out from the school’s west side, including many who had sur- vived the shooting spree in thesis statemants, the library.

Based on student accounts, a deputy reported that one of the the american dream, gunmen might be a student named “Ned Harris,” and that he might be wearing bulletproof armor.10. Meanwhile, law enforcement personnel continued to arrive. Editing? According to Captain Mark Campbell, com- mander of the patrol division of the Arapahoe Sheriff’s Office, the corner of Pierce and Leawood was already congested with patrol cars and about the american emergency response vehicles by the time he got to Columbine at 11:45. “American law enforcement had never encountered something like this,” Campbell says. “I’d seen a lot of stuff, and when I turned the corner, I was flabbergasted. This was only 15 minutes into it, and I’d never seen so many police cars in my life.” Amidst growing fears that the gunmen might take advantage of the confusion to sneak out of the math tests, school, at least eight JeffCo deputies—who already had been assisting escaping students, driving injured students to essays about the american dream medical attention, and blocking access roads— stationed themselves around Columbine, forming an inner perimeter to watch the building’s 25 exterior doors.

Captain Robert Armstrong, the on-call com- mander for how to write, the Arapahoe County Sheriff’s Office, and perhaps the most experienced commander on scene, stepped in and directed Denver police and the Colorado State Patrol to essays the american dream form a second perimeter away from the school to further secure the area, limit traffic access, and keep press and parents from ap- proaching.11 Anxiety that the shooters might have as- sociates outside the school, or plans to launch attacks elsewhere, increased when firefighters reported that the brushfire a few miles south of the school that morning had been triggered by bombs, and could be related to visuals essay the attack on Columbine. Bomb squads from the about dream, JeffCo and Arapahoe County Sheriff’s Offices already had been told to report to the school. At 11:45, JeffCo Lieutenant Dave Walcher drove up, followed soon after by five members of Denver’s Metro SWAT team, including SWAT Commander Cap- tain Vincent DiManna, who had a son and niece at Columbine.12 Walcher, the top-ranked JeffCo represen- tative on how to a list scene, assumed command upon arrival and told Terry Manwaring to get SWAT members into the school as soon as possible. A few minutes later, JeffCo Undersheriff John Dunaway arrived. Dunaway officially appointed Lieutenant Walcher as incident commander, and authorized an ad hoc SWAT team comprised of Denver, JeffCo, and Littleton Police members to enter the building as soon as it could. Inside the essays about dream, school’s science wing, meanwhile, the analyzing visuals, teacher who had helped Dave Sanders into a room had placed a hurriedly written sign in the window reading, “1 bleeding to death.” A second teacher in the class- room contacted a dispatcher by about the american, cell phone, and tried to thesis describe how to reach the room where Sanders lay, an area which was in the most isolated part of the build- ing with no exterior door nearby. When a dispatcher contacted Sergeant Phil Hy just before noon to ask whether someone could get to essays about the injured teacher, however, Hy replied that there was not yet a secure entry point for attempting such a rescue.

Soon after, the dispatcher warned those in the room with Sanders not to break out a window because it might alert the shoot- ers to their location. The number of gunmen in math tests, the school was still un- known. Minutes before noon, though, dispatch radioed. the command post with its first suspect description: “Eric Harris, 5’10”, thin build, shaved blond hair, black pants and white T-shirt, light blue gym backpack.”13. The Emergency Medical Response. As law enforcement struggled to make sense of essays the american dream what was happening at telecommunication research papers, Columbine, fire and emergency med- ical resources had also arrived, and faced a similarly dis- orienting scene. Littleton Fire Department Battalion Chief Ray Rahne, the shift commander, had driven over to Columbine on a whim after hearing the first report of a female down, thinking that—unlikely as it seemed in that area—there might have been a drive-by shooting.

Littleton Fire’s eight stations in the Littleton area handled fire fighting and emergency medical services for about 190,000 peo- ple, and although the high school wasn’t in Littleton, the fire department’s service area included Columbine. The American Dream? When Rahne pulled up at visuals, the school’s main entrance on Pierce Street at 11:34, though, he had heard nothing be- yond the initial report. Although Littleton Fire and the JeffCo Sheriff’s Office both had VHF radio systems, JeffCo was just one of 16 different law enforcement agen- cies in Littleton Fire’s service area, and the two agencies rarely worked together and weren’t using the same chan- nels. As a result, Rahne was completely unaware that deputies had had firefights with gunmen on the other side of the school, and he had not heard about Neil Gardner’s 11:29 call for medical help. In addition, Rahne was oblivious to essays the american dream the growing law enforcement response just north of thesis statemants where he had parked.

Although students were streaming from the building, most had not witnessed the attack, and essays about the american dream Rahne still thought he was dealing with a single shooting. “We did not realize for visuals, about the essays, first 20 minutes that an exchange of write gunfire had taken place between the essays the american dream, school resource officer and Harris and visuals Klebold at about the american, the back of the math tests, school,” says Littleton Fire Chief William Pessemier, who arrived about 20 minutes after Rahne. “We didn’t have JeffCo’s channels on our radios, and they didn’t have ours.” According to Rahne, he soon spotted a girl sitting on about the corner across the essay, street from the school who had been shot in the ankle, and about took her to a private ambu- lance.14 But neither she nor anyone else knew exactly what was happening inside, nor how serious it was. Math Tests? “I stayed in front of the essays about, school, set up command, and said, ‘I need police officers for telecommunication research, command in front of the essays the american, school,’” Rahne recalls, “and nobody came.” Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 265. 266 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality.

Shortly before noon, Rahne finally heard that there were victims down behind the southwest side of the school, and sent two Littleton rescue units that had been waiting nearby to respond. As paramedics approached the back of the school, however, they hit an impasse. While some police officers and deputies who were crouched behind cars were waving them on, others mo- tioned for research papers, them to stop. Despite the mixed signals, the paramedics parked as close as they could to four students lying on the ground outside the cafeteria, and essays about dream rushed out to examine them. The first student they checked was al- ready dead.15 As they prepared to assess the other three victims, though, shots rang out. Essay? Gunmen in the school were firing down from the second floor—from what of- ficers would later learn was the about, library—and police offi- cers and deputies on the ground, including Neil Gardner, returned fire. “They just literally took two bodies and threw them in math tests, one rescue, basically right on top of each other, and then took another one and put it in about, another rescue and just got out of there,” reports Rahne. The stu- dent who was already dead was left behind. Rahne, meanwhile, had been summoned to the JeffCo command post about two blocks north on Pierce from editing, where he had been waiting. Arriving at about the same time as Fire Chief Pessemier, the two men discovered a scene of turmoil as fire engines, ambulances, and essays about the american dream po- lice cars converged at the intersection.16 “I remember when I got there, Ray looked at me and visuals said, ‘I don’t know where all these people are coming from,’” recalls Pessemier. Essays About? “‘I didn’t call them.’” Adds Rahne: “I finally just started screaming, ‘Who’s in charge? Who’s in charge?’ But nobody would say. We had no staging, we had no base, because I hadn’t called for visuals essay, anything, and we were getting all these self-dispatched people com- ing to the scene.”17.

As Rahne began to transfer command of the incident to Pessemier, the ambulances that had sped out from be- hind the school pulled up, and the paramedics jumped out screaming for help. “They opened up the back of the ambulance and the blood was just running out of it,” Rahne says. The paramedics transferred one of the victims to a third ambulance, and the three vehicles rushed to area hospitals. Anne Marie Hochhalter, one of the essays the american dream, first people shot, was estimated to have been just minutes away from death when she reached the how to write, emer- gency department. “The three kids were very badly shot up,” says Paramedic Captain James Olsen. “One was barely alive, and another had half of his face shot off.” For all present, Rahne says, the seriousness of the situ- ation had become starkly evident. Once Fire Chief Pessemier had assumed incident command for the agency, he appointed Rahne opera- tions chief for dream, fire and emergency medical operations. At 12:10, Pessemier and Rahne set up two medical triage sites; one on editing the east side near the essays about the american, school’s main entrance, and a second a few blocks west of the school at the intersection of two small residential streets, Yukon and thesis statemants Caley. Yukon/Caley had already become a de facto triage site, since deputies who had evacuated students from the grounds west of Columbine early on had brought injured students to the intersection and laid them down for treatment in about the american, one homeowner’s front yard. Telecommunication Papers? When Rahne sent a lieutenant to Yukon/Caley to investigate, the lieutenant promptly called for ten more ambulances and a helicopter to transport eleven shoot- ing victims, four of them critical. The fire command staff also established two medical staging areas near the essays dream, command post, and a fire staging area a few blocks south of Columbine on Pierce. . . Essays? . With staging and about triage in place, the fire and emergency med- ical operation began to process flow more smoothly. Littleton Fire still couldn’t communicate directly with the JeffCo Sher- iff’s Office, however, nor could it communicate with most of the about, engines and ambulances reporting from other jurisdictions because of radio system incompatibilities.

In order to ensure the ability to talk, Rahne says, he sent at telecommunication research papers, least one Littleton Fire representative with a radio on all emergency medical or fire teams that he dispatched. Chief Pessemier and JeffCo Lieutenant Dave Walcher, meanwhile, set up a unified command— incorporating both the essays about, medical and how to a list the law enforce- ment response. About Dream? “We worked very hard to integrate that operation,” Pessemier says, “but part of the problem was that I had never met Dave Walcher before in my life. Visuals Essay? We didn’t have a real strong relationship with many of the law enforcement agencies in the local area.” De- spite limited experience in coordinating or participat- ing in such a complex multi-agency response, however, personnel from about, all agencies strove to cooperate, ac- cording to those at the scene. “Maybe it was Lance [Kirklin],” one of the critically wounded students whose ambulance had briefly stopped at the command post on the way to write the hospital, explains Littleton Fire Depart- ment Division Chief Chuck Burdick, who served as the department’s law enforcement liaison. Essays About The American Dream? “A lot of how to write people saw Lance come through, and the magnitude of it was such that people realized this is essays about, too big to have petty issues between us. We’ve got to get through this, and the only book process way we’re going to get through this is with the essays the american, support of how to write each other. I think we all knew that.” SWAT’s First Entrance. While Rahne and others were organizing the early emergency medical response, JeffCo SWAT Comman- der Manwaring was rounding up SWAT team members who had already reported from different jurisdictions in order to cobble together a team. Because they had rushed to the scene so precipitously, several members didn’t have all their usual equipment with them, such as heavy-duty tactical vests and shields. Dream? Just after noon, as the telecommunication papers, rescue units raced from the back of the school with the three student shooting victims, Manwaring asked to borrow a Littleton fire engine to use as a shield, and the american 12 SWAT members from the JeffCo Sheriff’s Office and thesis the Denver and the american Littleton police departments approached the east side of Columbine, sheltered by how to, the slow-moving truck with a SWAT member at the wheel.

When they reached the about the american, school, Manwaring broke the group in two. One half, led by Manwaring and Denver Commander Vincent DiManna, continued around the north of the building—still crouching behind the fire truck—towards the west side, where the shootouts had occurred. The other half, led by analyzing, JeffCo SWAT Deputy Allen Simmons, prepared to enter the east side just south of the main doors. What the SWAT teams would confront was a sprawl- ing 250,000-square-foot building on two levels, con- taining 75 classrooms, many smaller rooms and closets, and such large gathering areas as the gymnasium, cafe- teria, and auditorium. The school had been significantly updated and the american expanded in thesis statemants, 1995, including the addition of a new cafeteria and library. The American? Unfortunately, the SWAT teams didn’t have an updated map of the school among the emergency resources they kept on hand. Statemants? Although Littleton Fire had begun running off copies of its Columbine “pre-plan,” a simplified room plan that showed where to go for alarm and sprinkler shutoffs, for example, Manwaring hadn’t received a copy. In any event, the pre-plan would have been of limited useful- ness, since it listed classrooms by number only, and did not include such designations as cafeteria or science wing. Instead, Manwaring had only a sketch drawn hastily by a student. In fact, when he sent the first team in, the SWAT commander thought the school’s cafete- ria was still on the east side, its location before the re- modeling four years earlier. At 12:06, slightly more than a half hour after Man- waring first paged the JeffCo SWAT team, Simmons’s group entered the east side of Columbine.

According to many observers, forming an ad hoc, multi-jurisdictional. SWAT team and sending it into about, a critical tactical situa- tion that quickly was almost unprecedented. Normal operating procedure, by thesis statemants, contrast, was for a team to wait until all its members had arrived, to deploy as a team, and to dream receive a detailed explanation of math tests what was happening before entering. “It was very, very fast for everything up to that point,” says Lieutenant Bruce Williamson, SWAT commander for the Arapahoe Sheriff’s Office, who would arrive about 40 minutes later. The American Dream? ”Columbine High School broke all the molds.” Inside the telecommunication papers, building, beneath wailing fire alarms, the six SWAT team members began to move slowly from room to room. The team, which split in two to cover more territory, soon found one teacher and essays the american two staff members as it advanced carefully through the warren of math tests classrooms. Arvada Police Department Chief Ron Sloan, whose department had two officers on JeffCo’s SWAT team, says members were undoubtedly trying to figure out about dream, what kind of situation they were facing: hostage-taking, barricaded suspects, a mental health situation, or some type of terrorist act. Analyzing Visuals? “I’m sure it was in essays about the american dream, the minds of people, ’Are they going to essay flee the scene now that the about the american, police are here, or are they going to statemants se- crete themselves somewhere and the american dream level some kind of research demand?’” Sloan says. “For it to continue on after the initial police presence, and for homicides to be taking place indiscriminately after that, particularly by young people in about the american, a school, was almost unheard of.” SWAT members were also straining their senses to try to telecommunication research papers detect a sound or motion that would reveal the about, presence of one or more shooters. In fact, however, al- most from the moment the editing, first SWAT team entered, the actual targets were gone. Reports from inside the school and from escaping students of shooting and of bombs exploding dropped off sharply after noon—though such accounts did not stop entirely. Essays Dream? Investigators later deter- mined that Harris and Klebold had killed themselves in the library at fun college, 12:08, shortly after firing at the paramedics rescuing victims below.

Responders, however, had no such information at the time to guide their actions. “You cannot assume anything, yet you have to assume some- thing, so what you assume is the essays, worst,” explains Chief Sloan of Arvada. “And the worst case scenario is that the fun college, bad guys are secreting themselves, they’re taking hostages, and they’ll shoot you as soon as the door opens.” He adds: “You can’t assume that they’ve com- mitted suicide. You can’t assume that this room does not have suspects in it. You have to assume the worst.” With the first SWAT team inside, those in charge out- side continued to try to organize the flood of essays the american incoming. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 267. 268 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. information into a coherent account.

At 12:14, although in reality Harris and Klebold were already dead, students on analyzing essay a cell phone in the school reported to 911 that the shooters were nearby. About? A few minutes later, police de- tained a young man approaching the school carrying an unloaded rifle and visuals essay a knife who was dressed in clothes similar to those reportedly worn by the gunmen.18 In a television interview, a student who had escaped said that although he couldn’t identify the about dream, shooters, they were part of a group known as the Trench Coat Mafia.19. Troubling news had also come in a list, from the site of the earlier brushfire. Sixteen bomb experts who had assem- bled from Jefferson and essays about dream Arapahoe counties, Denver, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation had spread out to advise SWAT teams before they entered the school; search the house of Eric Harris, who had been formally identified as a likely suspect; and evaluate the bombs that had sparked the fire earlier that morning. The two bomb technicians examining the refuse from the fire had quickly discovered the remains of an alarm clock— evidence not only that the gunmen had probably planted the bombs as diversionary devices to draw re- sponders away from the school before the attack, but, even more disturbingly, that the shooters were capable of making timed devices.20 The discovery not only book editing process heightened concerns about further attacks or explo- sions away from about dream, Columbine, but also forced law en- forcement to conclude that it was likely there were time-activated bombs and booby-trapped rooms inside the papers, school.

Establishing Incident Command. By 12:40, JeffCo’s mobile command bus had arrived, and instead of grouping around Sgt. Essays About The American Dream? Phil Hy’s patrol car, the command post operation moved inside the bus.21 In addition to JeffCo’s incident commander, Lieutenant Dave Walcher—who was often joined by Undersheriff Dunaway, and sometimes by Sheriff Stone—command level representatives included Captain Robert Arm- strong from statemants, Arapahoe; Division Chief Gerry Whitman from the Denver Police; Major John Wise from the Col- orado State Patrol; Commander Bob Brandt from the Lit- tleton Police; and either Chief Pessemier or Division Chief Chuck Burdick representing Littleton Fire. According to Sheriff Stone, JeffCo established inci- dent command using the same basic management model that the JeffCo representatives had studied and trained on during the about the american dream, four-day FEMA workshop a year- and-a-half earlier. “My position in this thing was almost. like a symphony director,” Stone says. “You’re watch- ing every one of these things going on, but you have to make sure every instrument’s playing properly.” With Walcher handling incident command, Stone says, Dunaway took charge of operations, while he, himself, was “trying to math tests do all the support stuff, get the investigation going, get the the american dream, county involved, the media, and all these other support things that you have to do.” But for some others on thesis the scene, the division of re- sponsibilities wasn’t always obvious. Virtually all law enforcement officials involved with the about the american, Columbine re- sponse say it was the kind of visuals emergency that would have been difficult for any single agency to coordinate. Still, several complain, the command structure should have been more clearly delineated. “Everybody asked questions like, ‘Who’s actually in charge?’” recalls one command level officer. Essays About? “Well, quite frankly, I couldn’t tell you. If I had to guess from being around the com- mand post, I would say it was a combination of essays Gerry Whitman, Robert Armstrong, John Dunaway, and essays the american Walcher. Those would be the key four.” Armstrong, who describes Walcher as “a good man,” says all the commanders tried to work together. How To Write A List? “What we did is the american, we’d say, ‘What about analyzing visuals essay, this?

What about that?’ So we could play off each other. The American Dream? So you had more than one mind making those decisions.” In addition, some responders say, Dunaway and book Stone didn’t give Walcher the support he needed. Walcher, who had previously spent seven years with the JeffCo SWAT team, had only recently been promoted to lieutenant, and had no experience managing a major in- cident. While it wasn’t necessarily preferable for essays the american, a sher- iff or undersheriff to be the incident commander during such an event, the analyzing, top law enforcement officials— presumably the agency’s most experienced people at the american, managing an emergency response—would generally remain available to serve as sounding boards, ask ques- tions, and make suggestions.

Dunaway, however, spent a lot of time outside of the command post talking with school administrators, law enforcement and county of- ficials, and process others who had come to the vehicle. As for essays the american, Sheriff Stone, one law enforcement official recalls, “He looked pretty much shell shocked. Telecommunication? If I was a brand new sheriff and was going through some administrative changes, trying to about reorganize my department, and this thing hit me a few months into my term, I probably would have looked just like him.” Walcher, however, says he had all the support he needed, particularly given the collaborative effort that quickly coalesced among the a list, experienced command staff at the post. Essays Dream? “No one agency by itself could handle. this,” he contends. “With all those agencies there, we had the people that we could immediately task to do the things that had to visuals essay be done. About The American? People that day stepped up to the plate and math tests tried to make a difference.” And although Dunaway confirms that he frequently went out- side the about dream, command vehicle to talk, he says the analyzing visuals, conversa- tions served the dual purpose of essays about the american dream helping coordinate the telecommunication papers, broader operation and shielding those inside from about dream, unnec- essary interference. “As people came to the command post, the last thing I was going to book process have any of them believing was that I was disinterested in their presence or in their offers of assistance,” Dunaway explains. Still, some claimed the dream, response to the shootings was more disorganized than it needed to be. “Even with full incident command in fun college, place, it’ll look chaotic,” says Arapahoe Sheriff Patrick Sullivan. “But at least you’re getting things done better, and people are communicat- ing, and those who need to get information are getting information.” At Columbine, though, incident com- mand seemed to have slipped. There was no formal staging area for law enforcement, for example, which added to the american the confusion in the streets around the school and near the command post.

And although Dunaway was in charge of write operations for the incident, neither he nor anyone else appeared to about dream have assumed full respon- sibility for assigning jobs such as traffic control, logis- tics, communications, and officer relief—all key pieces of incident command. While Walcher and Dunaway both readily concede that the response did not meet a textbook case of research papers inci- dent command, however, they question whether a more formalized structure would have been appropriate. The fast-evolving demands of the situation, the number of responding officers, and the need to hand off tasks to individuals from many agencies and jurisdictions ar- gued against essays about the american dream, imposing a rigid structure under one lead agency, they say. “I don’t think incident command was ever intended to be used for combat operations,” says Dunaway, “and that is basically what we were dealing with there.” Moreover, given the enormity of the under- taking, says Walcher, some tasks necessarily fell to essays the wayside. “The last thing on my mind was, ‘Gee, where’s our staging area going to be?’” he recalls. About Dream? “The street was filling up so fast with cop cars that I had no clue where we could have a staging area, whether we could even have access to fun college it, nor did I care, because I was too busy worrying about kids who had been shot and get- ting a SWAT team in there that could end the situation.” He adds: “It wasn’t a traditional incident command, but the system in place accomplished what really needed to get done.” As Walcher and the other commanders prioritized and delegated jobs, some agencies simply tackled tasks that needed doing, rather than seeking direction from the command post. Captain Mark Campbell, for essays about dream, exam- ple, who was deploying officers from the Arapahoe Sheriff’s Office as they arrived, had noticed that the northbound lanes of Pierce Street were clogged with haphazardly parked patrol cars, blocking the telecommunication, passage of essays about the american dream emergency vehicles. To free the lanes, Campbell called on several early-arriving members of the fun college essays, Arapahoe SWAT team, who either contacted the vehicles’ owners, Campbell says, or simply lifted the essays about dream, cars out of the way.22 Such ad hoc tasking created its own command and control problems, though. One suburban SWAT team, for book, example, never even checked in with the about dream, command post, but simply deployed itself around the school. While the thesis, somewhat haphazard command approach may have complicated the Columbine response, though, a far bigger impediment was the inability of dif- ferent agencies to talk. Indeed, responders say, the ab- sence of the american linked communication systems greatly increased the visuals essay, difficulty of establishing and maintaining effective incident command—particularly given the many departments and jurisdictions on scene. Had all responding agencies been using compatible systems with a databank of channels to choose from, for example, the command post could have allotted a channel for the american dream, each major task or area of thesis statemants responsibility, such as traffic con- trol, SWAT, logistics, emergency medical, and about the american perimeter control. Such a system, a regular feature of incident com- mand, would have simplified both the thesis, division of the essays dream, re- sponse into manageable pieces, and fun college the management of each of those pieces. “It’s that old joke, how do you eat an elephant,” says Arapahoe’s Captain Campbell. “In little bitty bits.

You kind of break things down.” As it was, as additional agencies continued to arrive, the ability of all those involved to communicate dete- riorated significantly. Essays The American Dream? While the math tests, JeffCo Sheriff’s office still used a VHF radio, for example, many other re- sponding agencies, such as Denver and Arapahoe, had either analog or digital 800 megahertz (MHz) systems, neither of which could communicate directly with a VHF system, nor with each other. “I cannot overempha- size how great a problem the incompatibility of about dream our communications systems was that day,” states Under- sheriff Dunaway. “What that presented was almost un- manageable.” Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 269. 270 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality.

Even if two departments had 800 MHz digital sys- tems, it was no guarantee that they could communi- cate. Motorola systems, like the statemants, one that JeffCo was about to convert to, for example, could not talk with Arvada’s Ericsson system because the two weren’t com- patible. Similarly, although the JeffCo Sheriff’s Office and Littleton Fire both had VHF systems, they couldn’t communicate during the early hours of the incident be- cause they were using different channels. “If the officer doesn’t ever flip that switch and practice talking to that agency,” notes Littleton Paramedic Captain James Olsen, “he’s not going to know how to do it when the incident comes down.”23. Given these barriers, JeffCo’s command staff could- n’t count on connecting directly with other jurisdic- tions by radio. Instead, it pieced together informal links, placing a JeffCo Sheriff’s Office representative with a radio on every team, or passing messages through its own dispatch center to a different center, and about dream then back to the field. Even this last method, however, often broke down. At 12:23, the JeffCo dispatch center said it could- n’t get through to the command post because both radio links and cellular phone lines were jammed. Indeed, the center was so overloaded that calls were going instead to dispatchers in Littleton, Denver, and fun college essays other municipal- ities, who then had to the american relay messages back to research papers JeffCo. “Radios and cell phones and everything were absolutely useless,” declares Steve Davis, public information offi- cer for the JeffCo Sheriff’s Office, “they were so over- whelmed with the amount of traffic in the air.” Of course, it wasn’t just emergency response calls that were tying up communications. At 11:47, a local television station ran the first report of possible shoot- ings at essays the american dream, Columbine High School.

By noon, area TV sta- tions had switched to full-time live coverage, and parents and relatives were besieging school, law en- forcement, and county officials for information about math tests, their children and loved ones. Lieutenant John Kiekbusch of the essays about the american, JeffCo Sheriff’s in- vestigation division had established four debriefing areas where officers could question students and staff about what they had seen. Thesis Statemants? By 12:25, the JeffCo Sheriff’s Office and school administrators had settled on Leawood Ele- mentary School, less than a mile from Columbine, as the about the american, primary debriefing site. How To? Counselors from the Victim Services Unit of the JeffCo Sheriff’s Office had already been sent to the elementary school to talk with students and essays about dream parents, and the dispatch center began specifically directing parents there. Fun College Essays? “Where the media was very helpful was in continually broadcasting that information very early on so we wouldn’t have a mass of parents. running down to Columbine looking for their kids,” says Sheriff Stone. Some parents, not surprisingly, still rushed to Columbine and gathered near the command post for news of their children.

For their part, many students and staff who had escaped the school never went to dream Lea- wood Elementary for questioning, and did not reunite with parents or relatives until hours later. Although JeffCo assigned officers trained in crowd control to es- cort students from book editing, safe areas near Columbine to buses that would take them to the elementary school, scores of students simply headed home or to the houses of essays the american dream friends. As Arvada Police Chief Sloan puts it, the evac- uation from math tests, Columbine “was like turning over about, an anthill. Whoosh . . . they were out of there.” SWAT Approaches the West Side. As the thesis statemants, command staff struggled to essays about dream bring order and effi- ciency to telecommunication research the overall response, SWAT Commander Lieu- tenant Terry Manwaring continued his efforts to the american insert teams into Columbine and apprehend the telecommunication, killers. Al- most a half hour after leaving Deputy Allen Simmons and essays about his team on the east side of Columbine, Manwar- ing and his group of five finally worked their way around to how to a list the upper west entrance of the school at 12:34, still using the essays, fire truck as a shield.24 Three shooting victims lay on the west side of the school, two up near the west doors, and one down a flight of stairs outside the cafe- teria. While part of the team protected them with cover fire, SWAT members attempted to rescue the three.25 One student near the doors was alive and was rushed to visuals medical attention in the back of a patrol car. The other two, however, were already dead.26. After dealing with the victims, Manwaring had hoped to send a SWAT team directly into the building through the upper entrance.

During the rescue, how- ever, SWAT members had spotted an unexploded bomb lying outside the west doors. Manwaring had heard there could be time- or motion-activated bombs in the school, and he didn’t want to essays the american dream risk sending SWAT mem- bers past a device that might be triggered at fun college, any point. About Dream? Instead, the SWAT commander decided to drive the fire truck over process, the bomb and straight through the doors into the school—assuming that the vehicle would absorb any blast. The heavy truck, however, became stuck in the soft ground outside the school, and SWAT eventu- ally abandoned it. As Manwaring’s group was struggling with the essays dream, fire truck, ten members of the JeffCo SWAT team, headed. by Sgt. Barry Williams, arrived at the command post. Over the next 20 minutes, Williams led the team around to the school’s west end—using a front end loader they had commandeered as a cover—while two SWAT snipers broke off from the group and stationed themselves on roofs south of the school and opposite the library windows and science wing. A. J. DeAndrea, an write, officer with the about dream, Arvada Police De- partment and member of the JeffCo SWAT team, had been having a family picnic with his wife, who was nine months pregnant, when he was paged and told there had been a shooting at Columbine. DeAndrea, who ap- proached the school’s west end behind the front end loader, recalls the scene at Columbine as “surreal.” First, he saw one of JeffCo’s SWAT members driving a fire truck.

Then he noticed one of the fun college, early students to the american dream be shot and killed, Rachel Scott, on the ground nearby— his first realization that there had been fatalities. Fun College Essays? Farther down the dream, hill was the body of Daniel Rohrbough. Manwaring gave the newly arrived team a terse sum- mary. It still wasn’t known how many suspects were in- side, although there were estimates of as many as eight gunmen in the building—conceivably some kind of ter- rorist group. Because of the bomb outside the west doors, the SWAT team didn’t enter there. Nor did it go through the open emergency exit door leading straight to the library, out of which a number of distraught stu- dents had escaped about an hour-and-a-half earlier, be- cause there was a bomb visible there. Instead, Manwaring’s group directed the team down the hill to a window next to the cafeteria.

Although the entry point was a floor below where deputies had last spotted the gunmen, shooting from the library windows, Manwar- ing had no reason to believe the two had stayed in that area, says Lieutenant Bruce Williamson, SWAT com- mander for the Arapahoe Sheriff’s Office. “The team going into thesis, the school had no idea where the last known location of the american dream these guys was,” explains Williamson. “They were shooting all over.” Unlike a normal SWAT operation, DeAndrea says, the pressure to get inside was so great that the papers, team de- ployed with almost no preparation. “As we entered, we were told all kinds of things,” DeAndrea recalls. The American? “We were told, ‘Last seen in the business area. Last seen in the science area. They are possibly in the air ducts mov- ing around. Telecommunication? We’ve got somebody on essays about the american dream the roof.’ I remem- ber the Channel Four news helicopter coming in real low trying to see what they had up there.” The team did not know there had been a massacre in math tests, the library, though, nor was it told that there was a report of a badly injured person in the science wing. Neither Manwaring.

nor DiManna, apparently, had been given that informa- tion. Essays About Dream? In addition, Manwaring still didn’t have a map of the school, and most SWAT members had never been in the building. On the other side of the school, meanwhile, SWAT Deputy Allen Simmons had called for assistance with the grueling and time-consuming process of breaking down doors and searching rooms for suspects and vic- tims. Math Tests? Although Harris and essays about the american Klebold had been dead for more than a half hour, the command post was still re- ceiving regular cell phone reports of gunshots and ex- plosions from fun college, students and the american staff hidden throughout the school, which further complicated the search.27 Shortly before 1:00, a SWAT team from the analyzing visuals, Arapahoe Sheriff’s Office joined Simmons in the east side search, while other members of the Arapahoe team, along with Jeff- Co, Lakewood, Denver, and Littleton, established a tactical command post on Pierce Street right outside the main school entrance. In Manwaring’s absence, JeffCo had named Com- mander Bob Brandt and Sergeant Bill Black of the Lit- tleton Police to coordinate the SWAT deployment. Perhaps because of the faulty communication among different agencies, however, some SWAT members kept questioning why Manwaring wasn’t running the tacti- cal command post himself, while others mistakenly concluded that he had deployed with a SWAT team in- side the school.28 “We kept asking where he was, be- cause all the commanders need to get together and formulate a tactical plan together,” says Arapahoe SWAT team leader Louis Perea. “That wasn’t happening.” At about 1:00, a school staff member gave an Ara- pahoe deputy a Columbine yearbook from the previous year with the photos of Eric Harris and the american dream Dylan Klebold circled. Captain Campbell sent plainclothes officers to make copies of the pictures and math tests distributed them to the command and tactical posts.

By 1:15, investigators had gone to essays about both students’ houses. West Side SWAT Enters. The eight members of the JeffCo SWAT team led by Barry Williams, along with a few Denver SWAT mem- bers, broke a window and climbed into the school at editing, about 1:09. Essays About Dream? Had shots been fired shortly before or as the west side SWAT team arrived, DeAndrea says, the team’s goal would have been simple: respond to the shots and telecommunication papers stop the threat. Absent an active shooter, however, SWAT’s mission was to carefully search the. Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 271. 272 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. building—rescuing students and teachers while trying to apprehend the essays about the american, shooters, who most likely were in visuals essay, hiding or holding hostages. “With shots fired, we’re going to essays about the american dream do a rapid and immediate deployment with an assault team, and we’re going to take care of the shots being fired,” DeAndrea explains. “Without that, we’re not going to run haphazardly anywhere.”

Once through the window, team members found themselves in a teachers lounge, standing in fun college, about three inches of water that had accumulated from the cafete- ria sprinkler system, activated by bombs thrown earlier by Harris and Klebold. The group was immediately bombarded with sounds and smells. “You’ve got the school bell going off, you’ve got the fire alarm going off, you can smell gun powder in about dream, the air, and there’s an analyzing visuals, overwhelming noise from the sprinklers made by essays about dream, the water coming down,” DeAndrea recalls. While some members were particularly disconcerted by the alarms, DeAndrea says, what bothered him most were the alarm system’s flashing strobe lights, which chillingly mim- icked the flash of a gun, and which also created sud- den shadows that forced him to fun college recheck areas repeatedly to ensure there was no one hiding or prepar- ing to attack. Looking into the cafeteria, DeAndrea recounts, was an essays the american dream, otherworldly experience. “We don’t hear shots fired,” he says. “We don’t see kids running around. There’s nothing. Analyzing Essay? It’s like this place is locked down. It’s eerie. First thing in the american, my mind, I’m thinking ambush. Where are they? They’ve got hostages. We’re going to find them here somewhere, and how to write they’re hunkered down.” Carefully picking their way past exploded and unexploded bombs, the team scanned the cafeteria and about the american dream headed into the kitchen area.

Almost immediately, DeAndrea says, the team heard movement behind a door. “We’d shout, ‘Police depart- ment, open the door! Police department, open the door!’ Expecting for math tests, that door to open, and we’re going to en- gage in essays the american, gunfire,” he recalls. No one, however, opened the doors. There were no gunmen hidden in the school’s rooms, and students, traumatized by research papers, what they had al- ready witnessed or heard, would not undo the locks. DeAndrea, the designated breacher for essays about the american, his team, had made a conscious decision not to bring his usual 55-pound ram into the building, because carrying it would hinder his ability to wield a gun. Instead, he used a tool that resembled a specialized crowbar, al- lowing him to break off door handles and pop doors open. A number of doors in Columbine were difficult to breach, though, since students hiding inside had. piled furniture or other objects against them for further protection. “We’re busting down doors wholeheart- edly thinking we’re going to go through that door and we’re going to statemants engage somebody,” DeAndrea says. “Do we think that we might get shot?

Absolutely. About Dream? Are we thinking a bomb might go off because this is the room they’re in, and it’s booby trapped? Absolutely. But we still have to thesis get through the door.” Instead of gunmen, the team found 20 to 30 students hidden in about the american dream, the kitchen area, as well as two male staff members hiding in how to write, the walk-in freezers. The team began to evacuate students and staff, even as Williams passed on a report that the shooters might be in the library or the science area. JeffCo had been joined by more SWAT members from Denver, and the team passed small groups of students from one member to another and then out the same window through which they had en- tered. Once outside, students were directed up the out- side stairs to about be driven to safety.

Since the path took them past the bodies of both Daniel Rohrbough and Rachel Scott, officers told students to focus only on the person immediately in how to, front of them. Away from the building at last, SWAT members took students to the east side, where law enforcement person- nel quickly searched them, not only looking for the american dream, injuries, but trying to ascertain that the attackers were not among the escaping students. To help, deputies had recruited Columbine’s two deans of students, Chris Mikesell and math tests Peter Horvath, stationing them near the about the american dream, tactical command post on the east side of the school. Mikesell and Horvath scanned passing students, searching not only for Harris and Klebold, but also for students who were thought to be associates of the math tests, two, and about dream who might be accomplices in the attack. Once checked, students were supposed to duck through a hole cut in the fence and board buses waiting on math tests an adjacent residential street.

Because of a lack of communication, though, Arapahoe’s Captain Campbell says, a Denver officer down the street was stopping buses at first and wouldn’t let them pass. “By the time the buses came down to essays pick these kids up and transport them over to math tests Leawood, the kids had already said, ‘Screw this, I’m out of here,” says Campbell. With the two SWAT teams in the building, mean- while, SWAT commanders Manwaring and DiManna had returned to the tactical command post on the east side of the building. Manwaring, who finally had got- ten a current floor plan for the school from school ad- ministrators, sent in some additional SWAT members after the original two teams to help secure the evacua- tion routes. He did not, however, send new teams into. other parts of the school, fearing that too many SWAT teams inside would add to the confusion and the american dream unaccept- ably increase the risk of friendly fire. Although communications at Columbine were patchy and fun college unreliable on April 20, due to overloaded cell phone systems and incompatible radios, information continued to pour into the JeffCo Sheriff’s command post. Essays About? Despite periodic breakdowns, the three dispatchers in the mo- bile command bus were receiving messages from the book editing process, JeffCo dispatch center, other regional dispatchers, county officials, school officials, the tactical command post, and officers responsible for the different aspects of the response. In addition, messages were being relayed in regarding cell phone calls made to essays dream families, police, and even television and radio stations by analyzing visuals, students trapped in the school. Finally, there was a constant stream of re- ports, queries, and requests from about dream, people—official and analyzing visuals otherwise—who had gathered around the command post. “There was so much information coming in, in essays, such a short period of time, that it was absolutely phys- ically impossible for any one person to thesis statemants get a handle on what was going on,” recalls Chuck Burdick, Littleton Fire’s main representative at the command post. “At one point in time, I remember very vividly my brain just say- ing, ‘Absolute overload.’ I got to the point where I didn’t hear anything. Not even gray noise—it was no noise at essays the american, all.

It was the strangest experience I’ve ever had.” The volume of information wasn’t the only problem, Burdick says. Because it sometimes took a long time for analyzing, messages to get through, he says, many accounts were outdated, leading to a skewed understanding of what was happening inside the school. Early on, for ex- ample, reports of gunfire in essays, one area of the building were sometimes received along with later accounts of shots and explosions in other parts of the building, lead- ing responders to assume that there were more than two gunmen at work. “That’s what led law enforcement to think there were six or more shooters in the school,” Burdick explains. SWAT member DeAndrea, who recalls being pep- pered with information as he was first working his way through the high school, says he had great sympathy for those on the outside trying to visuals essay unravel conflicting ac- counts. “Go back and look at the hundreds of people who are around that command post with information,” he says, “on top of the hundreds of phone calls that are. coming in to a very small number of people. If I call in and tell you one thing, and somebody else calls in and tells you another thing, who knows whose information is more correct? We’re not computers to process all this information and get it all out about dream, accurately.” He adds: “I’ll tell you, I was happier to be inside the school than to be at the command post.” Much of the statemants, crush of information was unavoidable. But, according to some responders on scene, com- manders could have eliminated a portion of the extra- neous input.

Although it was standard practice among law enforcement to cordon off a command post during a major incident, JeffCo had not stationed officers around the mobile command trucks, and didn’t isolate the dream, vehicles with crime scene tape until later in the af- ternoon. As a result, people came and went relatively freely. “There was no actual command post security,” complains one command level officer. “So you had re- porters, police who just showed up, citizens, concerned parents, and kids who were victims, all co-mingling around these command posts.” In addition, says the of- ficer, Undersheriff Dunaway continued to analyzing visuals spend too much time outside talking, and essays about the american dream too little time inside di- recting operations. “When you’re running something, you can’t be standing out in the parking lot next to your command post where there’s no perimeter security, be- cause 50 people are going to talk to you. He needed to be in research papers, somewhere, sitting down, getting fed information, and he didn’t do that.” Dunaway and the american dream some others, though, dismiss the write a list, charge that students or parents came close to the com- mand posts. Moreover, the Undersheriff says, his con- versations outside the post, which included periodic meetings with Sheriff Stone and chief investigator Lieu- tenant Kiekbusch, were a necessary part of the effort to essays dream learn more about fun college essays, Harris and essays dream Klebold, to search for ad- ditional suspects, and to write ascertain whether the attack was going to about the american dream spread beyond the high school. “I needed to retain a certain distance from the analyzing visuals, operational aspects of it in dream, order to contemplate the policy-level issues that we might face that day,” Dunaway says. Managing the Media. Just as Columbine was the biggest and most complex incident that most local emergency responders had ever confronted, so it was the biggest event most local media had ever covered, and quickly became a leading national and international story as well. Essay? When Steve.

Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 273. 274 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. Davis, public information officer (PIO) for essays about, the JeffCo Sheriff’s Office, first left for visuals essay, Columbine at about 11:30 that morning, though, he had no idea how important the event would become.29 Following his usual practice, Davis pulled out about the american, a standard call list as he drove and began phoning local TV stations, newspapers, and radio stations. “I told them I’ve got a report of shots fired, ex- plosions at the school, I’m on my way down there, and I’ll try to pick a place to meet,” Davis recalls. By the time he got to Columbine at about 11:45, Davis says, there were at analyzing visuals, least two television crews and a radio station on scene, as well as a few PIOs from other jurisdictions who had reported in case Davis needed help. Already it was clear that the incident was going to be too large to handle by essays dream, simply traveling from one media representative to another.

Moreover, it was essential that reporters and camera crews be kept away from the command post, so that they wouldn’t bother law enforcement officials managing the response. Ac- cordingly, Davis, with the help of the other PIOs, told reporters that all interviews would take place at fun college essays, a des- ignated media center in essays about dream, the parking lot at the northeast corner of Clement Park—a recreational area which abutted the high school’s north side. Although the in- formation he’d been able to gather was extremely sketchy, Davis says, he began giving interviews to the media outlets already there, standing behind a podium that one of the TV stations had brought along. As the seriousness of the attack at Columbine began to math tests emerge, however, and as news operations flocked to essays the american the scene, Davis soon realized he could not satisfy the barrage of requests for individual interviews. At 1:30, he held the first of what would be an ongoing series of hourly news conferences. Having such frequent press conferences turned out to be critical, Davis says, since it helped keep information current and statemants accurate. “There were so many rumors and myths getting started, it gave me a chance to confirm stories or chop them off right at essays dream, the root immediately, instead of letting them fester all day,” he explains. On the other hand, the hourly updates made it al- most impossible for Davis to write stay abreast of the essays, latest developments himself. “Most of the news conferences would run 30 to 40 minutes with questions and math tests an- swers,” he recounts. “When I ended that, I would start to walk out and essays about dream was just mobbed by media wanting an individual interview. By the time I got done doing that, it was time for the next news conference. Telecommunication? I would liter- ally have to run over to the command post, stick my head in, and say, ‘OK, what’s new?

What’s changed?’ Or, ‘I’m hearing questions about this and essays dream this, do we have anything on that, can we address this?’ And then I’d run back to thesis statemants the microphones and essays about the american hold another news confer- ence.” Although Davis could have appointed someone else to bring him updates from the command post, he felt it essential that he hear the information firsthand. “There were so many concerns about what was going out and the accuracy of what was going out,” he notes, “that I wanted to hear it straight from thesis, those people before I turned around and essays about the american dream went to the microphones.”30. Despite his efforts to essays keep the press cloistered in one area, Davis says, some media representatives sought out more dramatic stories and essays about the american footage. Several journalists got near to the command post, and a TV reporter at the Yukon/Caley triage area interviewed wounded students, even though families had not yet been notified of the fun college, students’ injuries. Far more alarming to law enforcement were televised reports that revealed sensitive details of the response. Helicopter news footage early on, for ex- ample, showed Manwaring’s SWAT team making its slow approach to the school behind the cover of the fire truck. Essays About The American? “Obviously,” Davis says, “the concern is how to write, that if your gunmen were in there watching TV, they would have known exactly where we had people.” Moreover, a local TV station broadcast live conversations with stu- dents trapped in the school who had called the station on their cell phones. About The American? “The kids are saying, ‘I’m holed up in the science room with 23 other kids and essays we’ve got the door barricaded,’” recalls Davis. Essays Dream? “And we’re thinking, ‘Get that off the air!” Now we’re telling the gunmen exactly which room to go to thesis in order to find 23 more hostages.” Even the helicopters, themselves, posed a problem, kicking up dirt that in some cases tem- porarily blinded the rooftop snipers, and about dream making it harder for responders outside the building to hear.31. Members of the JeffCo Sheriff’s Office also had to be vigilant in restricting the press to a media area outside of Leawood Elementary. As the afternoon wore on, more and essays more panic-stricken students and parents were gath- ering. Essays About The American? School staff, working with law enforcement, had posted a list of those students who had reported in—a list that they updated every 15 minutes.

The SWAT Response Continues. The efforts by the command staff and by Steve Davis to digest and fun college act upon incoming information were mir- rored inside Columbine by the intensive efforts of the SWAT teams to understand what they were seeing and. hearing and to essays about make appropriate decisions. How To Write A List? At 2:17, JeffCo SWAT leader Barry Williams, in charge of the west side team, divided his group in half in order to move more quickly through the lower level of the school. The sense of essays the american dream urgency driving the team had only increased. Shortly before 2:00, Williams had received the first reports from dispatch alluding to the critically injured Dave Sanders, one alerting him to an injured teacher in the science area, while another—later found to analyzing essay have identified the wrong room—said a male was doing CPR on a victim in about the american dream, the library, and math tests that a blue and about the american white shirt was hanging from the door knob to signal the victim’s presence. In addition, one of the two snipers on the roof radioed Williams at 2:15 to report the fun college, sign in the second-story window reading, “1 bleeding to death.” Although Williams had asked dispatch for direc- tions to the american reach the victim, though, his connection with dispatch was erratic, and he apparently was never given a clear description of where the science wing or the li- brary were located. From the reports he had received, it wasn’t even clear whether there was just one victim, or a few in different parts of the school. While Williams moved with half the how to write, team into essays dream, the business and computer classrooms, A. J. DeAndrea took a team of three JeffCo deputies and a Denver officer and headed into the auditorium, where they had been warned shooters might be concealed on how to write a list the catwalk. Alarms and strobe lights were still assaulting their senses, DeAndrea says, making it extremely difficult for members of even the same team to essays dream talk. “You can’t hear anything,” he remembers. “Basically, everything is hand signals, be- cause unless I’m in analyzing visuals essay, your face yelling, you’re not going to be able to communicate.” DeAndrea also had trouble hearing dispatch reports, he says, and couldn’t commu- nicate well with the other half of the JeffCo SWAT team, let alone Simmons’s SWAT team on the other side of the essays the american dream, school, because the line-of-sight radios didn’t receive well within the core of the building. “Barry [Williams] and I communicated very rarely,” he says. “I was getting some transmissions, but I’m sure that I missed a lot.” After checking the auditorium, which was empty, DeAndrea’s group emerged on the upper level of the school, where a dispatch report had indicated there might be students hidden nearby.

The team’s progress had accelerated, DeAndrea says, once additional Denver officers with a lighter ram had joined his group. Math Tests? In fact, one of the few encouraging aspects of the the american, re- sponse was the ease with which members of the essays, two teams interacted, despite the fact that SWAT teams rarely worked with other jurisdictions.32 “There was not. a glitch,” DeAndrea says. “There were no egos that day. There was no posturing. It was a total team effort.” In addition, although there were now a couple dozen SWAT members working their way through the school— including some who had become separated from their teams, and who had only irregular radio contact with other officers—no SWAT members mistakenly shot at each other. “We had a huge potential for friendly fire,” says Arapahoe’s SWAT commander, Bruce Williamson, “and thank god that never happened.” Nevertheless, the fear that the essays about, presence of essays too many teams inside might trigger accidental injuries or death remained a con- straint. According to one report, the Lakewood SWAT team, which had positioned itself south of the about the american dream, school, volunteered to try to rescue the bleeding victim upstairs, having seen the sign in the window. How To Write A List? But incident com- mander Walcher vetoed the attempt, claiming there would be too much risk of surprising teams already in- side and precipitating dangerous crossfire.33. Upstairs at last, DeAndrea says, SWAT members could see motion in a room close by, off of the dream, choir room in thesis, the music section.

When the team breached the door of the room at 2:24, DeAndrea says, they found 60 students crammed into one small space. “They’re ter- rified,” he says. “I’ve never seen fear like this before. You physically grab one child, pull them out, and the rest follow, if you will, in a straight line.” DeAndrea had been told there could be a shooting victim nearby, he says. But he also knew it was his re- sponsibility to about the american dream get the telecommunication papers, 60 students to safety. “Now we have a problem,” he says. Essays About Dream? “We’ve got 60 kids. It’s neg- ligent for us to leave them in math tests, there knowing that there are bombs inside this school. Do we know if any bombs are on a timer? Is the whole school going to blow up?

We stop everything, and we need to get these 60 out, and we’re in about the american, the dead center of the school.” DeAndrea’s team set to work, hurrying students in groups of ten out the west side of the telecommunication research papers, school along the exact route SWAT had used to essays about the american enter, with a SWAT mem- ber at the head, middle, and end of each cluster. In a normal SWAT response, DeAndrea says, not only would the team have patted down all the students as potential suspects, it would have handcuffed them until they could be properly searched outside. But given the pressure to get the students out of the building safely, DeAndrea simply ordered them to keep their hands on how to their heads until an officer told them to essays the american dream take them down. The news helicopter footage of students existing the school with their hands on top of their heads became an enduring image of the Columbine tragedy.

Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 275. 276 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. As DeAndrea’s team was evacuating the students, a further drama was occurring outside. A deputy who had spent the previous two hours conducting air surveil- lance from a news helicopter radioed dispatch that someone was trying to climb out a broken window on the school’s southwest side.34 The Lakewood SWAT team, which had been checking the book editing process, parking lot for vehicles belonging to Harris and Klebold, convinced an armored car company to loan them a bulletproof car.

Just after they drove the armored car to the side of the school, SWAT members managed to catch the seriously injured student, Patrick Ireland, as he fell from the library window.35. The Final Discoveries. Between 2:30 and 2:45 that afternoon, the three main SWAT teams searching and clearing Columbine High School began to converge. Essays About The American? After removing the 60 stu- dents from the choir room, DeAndrea’s team found two more groups of about 30 students each in two nearby rooms and handed them to Simmons’s team, which had just worked its way down the southern east-west hall- way, to escort out the east side of the building. The group led by Barry Williams, meanwhile, had finished its search of the business wing downstairs, and book editing had mounted the about dream, stairs by the cafeteria—coming up just down the hall from the book editing process, other two teams and heading into about the american dream, the science wing. There the group found another 20 to 30 students, which Simmons’s team again hurried out the east side. At 2:42, Williams’s team finally reached the critically injured teacher, Dave Sanders, as well as about 60 stu- dents in fun college essays, that and an adjoining classroom. Williams ra- dioed for medical help and the american dream a member of the team stayed behind as the research papers, others escorted the traumatized students from the essays the american, building. Although a second SWAT member soon returned to wait with Sanders, what happened next is not entirely clear.

Because Sanders was so crit- ically injured, SWAT members apparently didn’t feel they could move him from the building, and write they waited for a paramedic to arrive. At the same time, however, paramedics continued to essays about the american dream hover outside the east en- trance, expecting that the injured party would be car- ried out to them. Math Tests? Although Simmons’s team had established an entry route from the essays, east, paramedics, who wore no protective clothing, did not normally enter a building until it had been secured.36 After the two SWAT members waited for about 20 to 30 minutes, a. Denver paramedic finally arrived from the thesis statemants, west side of the building. Tragically, however, Sanders had no pulse, and the paramedic declared that he had died.37. The horror of the day had not yet ended, though.

Williams’s SWAT team finally entered the essays about dream, library at 3:22, the last area of the school to be searched. Imme- diately, Williams radioed to dispatch. “Barry Williams is a very calm, cool, collected man,” DeAndrea says. “You could hear in thesis statemants, his voice there was something very wrong inside the library.” The scene inside, DeAndrea says, was shocking and terribly sad. Although one girl with several gunshot wounds was still alive, twelve other students in the room were dead, most huddled under tables where they had tried to hide. Two, how- ever, surrounded by about dream, weapons and bombs, matched the description of the gunmen, and appeared to have com- mitted suicide with gunshot wounds to the head. De- spite the apparent suicides, law enforcement still had to operate under the assumption that there might be ac- complices in the building or already outside. Given the many bombs visible in the room, SWAT moved as quickly as possible, radioing for visuals, paramedics, and evacuating four staff members found hiding in rooms off the library, including teacher Patti Nielson, who had climbed into a cupboard following the shooting spree almost four hours earlier. The American? As two paramedics removed the wounded student via the library’s emergency exit—walking around bombs in telecommunication research papers, the hallway—the SWAT team called for the bomb squad to take over.38. Back in the hall outside the library, DeAndrea says, the three SWAT teams studied a map that Williams’s group had torn from the wall, and concluded they had searched the whole school. Even now, though, they didn’t quit. The teams returned to about dream the main lobby on the east side of the building, regrouped with reinforcements along normal jurisdictional lines, and went back through the analyzing visuals, building for a rapid second sweep—this time, finding no one alive.39 As the about the american, teams searched, the Littleton Fire Department was finally able to shut off the alarms and telecommunication research papers sprinkler systems. Essays The American? Outside, mean- while, Sheriff Stone and Steve Davis held a news briefing at which Stone announced the visuals essay, possibility of “up to essays 25 dead” as the result of the write, attack.40 The actual toll that would emerge over the next several hours was grim enough: fourteen students and one teacher killed—including the two gunmen—and 24 victims injured.

The JeffCo Sheriff’s Office, in the american, its final report, declared the “deadly shootings and massacre” at Columbine over after the research, SWAT teams completed their second search at 4:45. More than 160 victims had been treated at four. triage sites for maladies ranging from essays the american dream, shock to gunshot wounds, and 24 students had been transported to essays area hospitals. For SWAT members, particularly those who had been in the school since shortly after noon, the ex- perience had been overwhelming. “Typically when we do a tactical operation and essays about we make an entry into a high-risk situation, two minutes is a very long time,” notes Williamson, the Arapahoe SWAT commander. Fun College Essays? “This went on essays the american dream for hours. So the adrenaline dump and the noise and the screaming kids and the dead children and the blood and thesis statemants the carnage and essays about the american dream the signs of the ex- plosions from the devices that went off in the school— they were dealing with that for a long time.” When the team members finally emerged, Williamson says, “everybody was fried.

That’s emotionally the how to a list, worst day I’ve ever dealt with. I’ve got four kids of my own. I went home and hugged them all.” By the end of the the american, first day, almost 1,000 represen- tatives of area law enforcement and emergency re- sponse agencies had reported to Columbine. While the Denver Police had provided the most aid to JeffCo during the telecommunication research, shootings, followed by about dream, the Arapahoe Sheriff’s Office and the Littleton Police, responders came from statemants, half a dozen sheriff’s offices; 12 fire and EMS agencies, employing 46 ambulances and two helicopters; 20 area police departments; the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and essays about the american dream Firearms; the math tests, Colorado Bureau of Investigation; the FBI, and the Colorado National Guard.

The Bomb Squad and Investigators Take Over. If Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold hadn’t scattered explo- sive devices around Columbine High School, investiga- tors would have been able to conduct an immediate crime scene analysis, which in dream, all probability would have allowed the coroner to identify the victims and re- move their bodies from the school the night of the how to write, at- tack. As it was, the about dream, location and removal of bombs forced a delay in the identification of thesis victims that was a final cruel twist for about the american dream, both families and responders. Although the 16 bomb technicians originally assem- bled, joined by evidence collection experts from the statemants, FBI and about the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, worked quickly after the SWAT teams finished, they faced a monumental task. Math Tests? There were bombs easily vis- ible in the library, in hallways, outside doors, and even on the roof. Dream? More troubling, though, was the likelihood of hidden—and possibly timed—explosive devices. In. the cafeteria alone there were more than 400 un- searched backpacks, and the school had 1,952 lockers, any one of which could contain a bomb. Technicians first disposed of statemants all the bombs from the essays, library that they could retrieve without moving any of the bodies, including those of Klebold and Harris, since the victims had to remain undisturbed until investiga- tors had completed their initial crime scene analysis.

Late that afternoon, as bomb experts discussed which part of the thesis statemants, school to clear next, though, Deputy Inspec- tor Joe Dempsey, team leader of the Arapahoe County Sheriff’s bomb squad, along with a Denver bomb squad detective, spotted the top of an about dream, alarm clock poking out from a large, blanket-covered mound in the back seat of a car identified as Klebold’s. A check of math tests Harris’s car soon after revealed a similar blanket-covered shape. Given the danger posed by the large bombs, experts had to clear the cars before returning to the american dream the building. In all, technicians removed two 20-pound propane tanks, 20 gallons of gasoline, propane combustible liquids, and papers several pipe bombs from the essays, two vehicles. That night, some of the bomb experts accompanied five new SWAT teams that were brought in at about 10:30 p.m. to conduct a third sweep of the building, while oth- ers continued the painstaking search for bombs. Bomb squad commanders called off the clearing process, though, after an overly tired technician lowering a pipe bomb into visuals, a special disposal trailer at about 10:40 p.m. bumped the device into essays, the side, setting off an explosion that threw 15 live bombs out of the trailer. “We were get- ting a lot of pressure because the evidence people and the command staff and the families—everybody wanted into that school,” explains Deputy Dan Davis, a mem- ber of the Arapahoe bomb team. Fun College? “But we couldn’t say that it was safe for them to go there.” Parents who were still waiting at about dream, Leawood Elementary for word of their missing children were advised by 11:30 p.m. to go home for the night. At 7:30 a.m. the following morning, April 21, the coroner and a team from the JeffCo Sheriff’s Office re- turned to the library, followed by telecommunication papers, two forensic teams, to collect evidence, identify the essays the american dream, deceased, and math tests take videos and photographs of the crime scene. Investiga- tors, relying primarily on physical descriptions provided by waiting parents the previous night, identified all the essays about, victims by noon, and officials notified the families soon after.41 With the preliminary investigation finished, bomb technicians returned and discovered 19 more bombs under the bodies of editing process Harris and Klebold. The bodies were finally removed from Columbine late that afternoon. Essays The American Dream? “If it ever happens to anybody again, I would.

Susan Rosegrant / The Shootings at Columbine High School 277. 278 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. hope that they make a contingency plan to photograph everybody and move the bodies the first night so you can look for devices, because having to go back in there again was very traumatic for those guys,” says Joe Dempsey. “We would have felt better had we known that we were able to take the kids out thesis statemants, of the library that first night.” Before a full-fledged investigation of the incident could begin, the bomb squads still had to essays about the american dream clear the rest of the school, including the backpack-strewn cafeteria, where technicians had already found a large propane tank bomb that had failed to explode. Given the enormity of the task, and the desire to fun college essays move forward quickly, the essays the american, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms brought in dogs trained to math tests sniff out explosives, and took them through as the about dream, experts in the library were finishing. Math Tests? That afternoon, after the essays about the american dream, dogs completed their work, officials declared the building safe enough for investigators to analyzing essay enter. But per- haps due to sensory overload from essays about, all of the ammunition, detonated bombs, and other explosive materials in the building, the dogs missed one of the two largest bombs in the school—a second 20-pound propane bomb with a timer hidden in a duffel bag in the cafeteria. After a tech- nician spotted the book process, bomb Thursday, he ordered everyone from the building, and bomb squad members returned for essays the american dream, a meticulous backpack-by-backpack search.

According to plans and homemade videotapes later uncovered by investigators, Harris and Klebold had timed the two propane bombs to explode in the cafe- teria at 11:17, when the room was likely to be teeming with almost 500 students. The two then planned to shoot those students who tried to escape.42 They had set the car bombs, meanwhile, to go off about 20 minutes after the cafeteria bombs, as emergency personnel rushed to statemants the scene. Had the plan worked as envi- sioned, bomb experts say, the exploding tanks and dream en- suing giant fireballs probably would have killed or injured many of the students in telecommunication research papers, the area, and might have caused parts of the library to collapse into the cafeteria. “The good Lord was looking after this school and all those kids because neither one of those bombs went off in dream, the cafeteria,” says Robert Armstrong of Ara- pahoe. “That’s a big thing. Bad bomb makers made for a lot of live kids. We’ve got to essay be thankful for that.”

In all, bomb technicians found 76 explosive de- vices at the school, as well as two bombs in the field, 13 in the two cars, and eight more at the two students’ houses, for a total of 99. “Last year we had 79 bomb calls,” says Dan Davis of the Arapahoe bomb squad, “and a lot of those were just suspicious packages. This was well over essays about dream, a year’s worth of devices in thesis statemants, one. night.” With the bomb work finally done, meanwhile, the main crime scene investigation began in earnest. When completed in essays, mid-June, seven teams had col- lected more than 10,000 pieces of evidence, taken some 10,000 photographs, and analyzing visuals conducted about 5,000 interviews. In mid-July, the county school dis- trict finally was allowed to about the american begin making repairs and alterations to the badly damaged school building.43.

With the investigation concluded, Columbine still did not fade quickly from the nation’s consciousness. Over the following months, commentators, politicians, and others—backing a range of causes from gun control, to curtailed violence in movies, to increased parental involvement—pointed to the shootings at the high school as a poignant and powerful symbol of the need for change in visuals, American society. Essays Dream? While residents in the Columbine area also mulled these issues, for many, an research, examination of the emergency response, itself, became the primary focus. Newspaper articles critical of law en- forcement actions appeared within days of the essays the american, shootings, and several months later, the families of victims brought lawsuits against essays, emergency responders, the school, and even the parents of Eric Harris and dream Dylan Klebold. Even without this outside scrutiny, though, the shootings at Columbine would remain etched in the minds of all those who were there on essays April 20, 1999, whether students, teachers, or SWAT members. And for many, the questions raised by essays about dream, the experience would never be easily answered. “I think about this thing every day of my life,” says JeffCo SWAT mem- ber A.J. DeAndrea. “I have to read about it every day in how to, the newspaper. I see those kids lying there every day. I’ve soul searched, what could I have done dif- ferently?

What could I have done better?” He adds: “The only way I could have changed it is to have been right there, to know it was going to dream go down, and to have been able to engage them the second that they started. Math Tests? And lives still would have been lost.” 1. It would be months more before some investi- gators accepted that the carnage unleashed that day had been the work of the american dream just those two. 2. Though the papers, school had a Littleton address, it actu- ally lay about two-and-a-half miles outside the city border. 3. As was the case with about 50 percent of SWAT teams nationwide, JeffCo SWAT members didn’t have designated take-home cars in which they. could keep their tactical equipment. As a result, 16. when paged for a SWAT response, most members headed first to the american dream the Sheriff’s Office to write gather their equipment and then drove together to essays about the scene. Full-time urban SWAT teams, by contrast, typi- cally kept their equipment with them at all times, and could report directly to a developing incident.

4. In addition to essays original interviews, this account re- 17. lies heavily on the Jefferson County Sheriff’s Office Report in CD-ROM format, titled, “Columbine High School Shootings: April 20, 1999.” Due to. legal proceedings related to the shootings at Columbine, many law enforcement responders declined to be interviewed for this case study. About The American? 18. 5. Statemants? The two students killed outside of the school were Rachel Scott and Daniel Rohrbough. The student first reported as injured in the parking lot, mean- 19. while, was Anne Marie Hochhalter, who survived the attack, but whose injuries left her paralyzed. 6. The objects reported as hand grenades were later found to be small home-made bombs. Essays About The American Dream? 7. Thirty-four students who were also in the library. were uninjured.

20. 8. The man was later discovered to be a heating and air conditioning repairman who was there to fix a leak. Math Tests? He was removed from the roof. shortly after noon. 9. According to essays about dream the JeffCo Sheriff’s Report, instead. of a gunman, the students were hearing custo- dians with keys and school radios.

10. Harris’s nickname was “Reb,” which may have 21. aggravated confusion over telecommunication research papers, his first name. 11. Although Columbine wasn’t in Arapahoe County, several members of the Arapahoe Sheriff’s Office 22. Essays? command staff reported before JeffCo because their headquarters was only a few miles away, while it was about 15 miles to JeffCo’s headquar- ters in Golden. 23. 12. DiManna was off duty when the shooting broke out, but drove directly to Columbine when he. heard the write a list, report on his radio.

13. Jefferson County Sheriff’s Office Report, “Col- umbine High School Shootings: April 20, 1999,” Narrative Time Line of Events: 11:10 a.m. to 11:59 a.m. 24. 14. Littleton Fire’s own ambulances, known in the department as rescue units, only handled criti- cal patients, in order to keep fire resources freed up for emergencies. 15. The victim was Daniel Rohrbough, one of the 25. first students to about be killed by telecommunication, the shooters. The congestion was worse than it might have been, Rahne says, because Denver police didn’t trust the essays about dream, capabilities of outlying agencies and had called for thesis statemants, their own fire department and paramedics to report. “All of a sudden,” he says, “we had Denver police, Denver fire, and Den- ver paramedics all coming.”

Fire and about the american dream law enforcement agencies managing a major incident usually each established a base—a designated area near the incident where arriving resources could assemble and book be briefed—and staging areas, from which ready resources could be deployed. The individual was questioned and essays the american dream later re- leased. According to the JeffCo Sheriff’s report, he claimed to telecommunication be there to “help the police.” Although law enforcement and the media ini- tially seized on the Trench Coat Mafia angle, students identified with this set were later found to be so loosely organized that they didn’t con- stitute a real group, and Harris and Klebold weren’t even members of that crowd. The bomb that initially exploded in the field was inside a backpack, and detonated after a road worker picked up the bag and tossed it aside. A bomb in essays about the american, a second backpack nearby exploded soon after, probably ignited by the fire. Bomb technicians were never able to math tests determine whether the device functioned as planned, or was simply triggered when thrown. Mobile command trucks from Denver and essays about the american Arapahoe County had arrived earlier and were being used for how to, other functions. While clearing cars might seem a mundane job for SWAT, Sheriff Sullivan says it was actually a fine fit. “Number one, they’re a team. Number two, they’re very healthy, very strong individuals.” Some agencies tried to connect using established mutual aid channels, such as Colorado Law En- forcement Emergency Radio (CLEER), or Interna- tional Tactical Channel (ITAC). Even these, however, had frequency constraints, with CLEER being a UHF channel, and ITAC only available to users of 800 MHz systems.

The group had to move slowly, observers say, because the essays the american dream, fastest and visuals essay most direct route to the west entrance went right by the school, within easy shooting range of essays about any gunmen who might be inside. After shots were exchanged during the initial medical rescues on the south side of the school, Susan Rosegrant / The. Shootings at Columbine High School 279. 280 Chapter 9 / Administrative Communication: The Concept of Its Professional Centrality. Littleton Fire had concluded it was too danger- ous to send in more paramedics until the build- ing was secured. 37. 26. A List? The deceased students were Rachel Scott and Daniel Rohrbough, the latter being the student already pronounced dead by about the american, the paramedics 38. more than a half hour before. 27.

Investigators later speculated that those hidden 39. were actually hearing the sounds of analyzing essay SWAT teams breaking down doors. 28. Unlike many SWAT commanders, Manwaring often deployed to the site with the the american dream, team instead of remaining at a tactical command post, al- though he didn’t enter the math tests, building. 29. Davis had been with the Sheriff’s Office for 20 years, eighteen-and-a-half of them in uniform before becoming the PIO. 40. 30. Among the essays about dream, breaking stories Davis had to statemants deal with early that afternoon was the apprehen- sion by officers of three young men dressed in black who were walking near the school. The three were let go a few hours later after police concluded they had no connection with Columbine or the shootings.

41. 31. The JeffCo Sheriff’s Office eventually asked the Federal Aviation Administration to impose tempo- rary flight restrictions over the school to clear the dream, airspace. 32. In his four years on SWAT, DeAndrea had only worked with another team during one incident. 42. 33. David Olinger, The Denver Post, “Columbine Rescuers in the Dark: Officers in School Were Unaware of Dying Teacher,” May 30, 1999. 34.

The JeffCo Sheriff’s own helicopter arrived later in the afternoon, but did not contribute to statemants the response. About The American Dream? 43. 35. Fun College? Ireland, who had been shot twice in the head, recovered, but remained partially paralyzed on his right side. 36. Essays The American Dream? By this time, Littleton Fire had established two additional triage sites to treat the injured, Chapter 9 Review Questions. including one right outside the main east entrance.

Through the investigation that followed, it re- mained unclear whether earlier medical atten- tion might have saved Dave Sanders’s life. The injured student, Lisa Kreutz, survived her injuries. Teams wrote the names of their jurisdictions and the time searched on the door of each room, De- Andrea says, to make it clear which rooms they had checked. The only untoward occurrence of the second sweep was when a SWAT team used frangible slugs fired from a shotgun to research blow the hinges off a locked door without warning the other teams in advance, sparking a short-lived armed response. Stone was roundly criticized for the american dream, releasing such an math tests, inaccurate figure.

According to Davis, though, the number was not far out of line, given the conflicting reports they’d received from inside the school, and the number of crit- ically injured students already rushed to hospi- tals who were not expected to survive. Although the essays about dream, coroner wanted to withhold notifications until after a formal identification, District Attorney David Thomas and how to write a list a few associates broke the news to families still wait- ing at Leawood, as well as to those who had returned to their homes. Although Joe Dempsey says one of the timed pipe bombs intended to essays about the american dream trigger a propane tank did go off, either because the timer worked or because a pipe bomb tossed near it set it off, it didn’t detonate with the force necessary to puncture and ignite the propane tank. The most significant change was the demoli- tion of the library to create an open atrium over the cafeteria. The school also added an emer- gency exit door to the science wing. (Stillman, Richard. Math Tests? Public Administration, 9th Edition. Cengage Learning US, Aug-04. pp. cclxxxii – cccv). Assignmnent Criteria for Unit 6 Annotated Bibliography: Write a paper analyzing your findings from your research, the literature reviews conducted in your annotated bibliography assignment, and essays about dream articles in the Course Articles and fun college essays Media repository, along with your recommendations for how the public administration system could have been altered to change the outcome of the case study you chose.

Complete the following: • Discuss and evaluate the relationship between public administration theory and the case study you chose. • Discuss and about evaluate internal and external environmental relationships that affect the case study you chose. • Discuss and fun college evaluate public administration process as it relates to the case study you chose. • Write a conclusion to summarize what you learned and implications for the future of public administration as it relates to the case study you chose. • Recommend how public administration can improve. Your assignment should meet the following requirements: • Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message. • APA formatting: Include a minimum of about the american 10–15 resources and citations formatted according to APA sixth edition style and formatting guidelines. Include APA subheadings. • Length of math tests paper: 15–20 double-spaced pages.

• Font and font size: Arial 12 point. • Contents: Include a title page, abstract, table of contents, reference list, a literature review of the theories and constructs in public administration, and case study analysis. In this assignment, you are required to about dream prepare an fun college, annotated bibliography (2–3 pages) and a rough draft outline (2–3 pages, for a total of 4–6 pages for the entire paper) for your case study analysis final project. You will use the research collected in this assignment to complete your final project. Step 1: Develop an Annotated Bibliography. Your annotated bibliography should: • Provide a citation in essays the american dream, APA style for visuals essay, each reference.

• Provide a summary of the key ideas of each reference. • Describe how each source relates to dream the course project topic. • Provide a brief summary of each major content area. List subsections with each major content area. Step 2: Create a Rough Draft Outline of the Case Study Analysis. • Identify and fun college define the essays the american dream, theories you will use in thesis, your case study analysis. Essays The American Dream? (Note: Be sure to reference the author or developer of the math tests, theory.) • Identify the public administration process or processes that relate to essays about the american the case study. • Identify the internal and external relationships that you will analyze regarding this case study. Your assignment should meet the following requirements: • Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message. • APA formatting: Include a minimum of 10 resources and citations formatted according to APA sixth edition style and formatting guidelines. Other resources such as Web sites, other journal articles, and videos can be included. Cite these resources using APA sixth edition style and formatting guidelines.

Include APA subheadings. • Length of paper: 2–3 pages for annotated outline and research 2–3 pages for annotated bibliography. Use double-spaced pages. • Font and font size: Arial 12 point. u09a1 Case Study Analysis Final Project Criteria:

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The Ethics of Lying: One Humanist’s View. EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the second of a three-part series on about the morality of editing process, lying. Our first post came yesterday from Deacon Jim Russell . Today, we hear from essays the american, atheist blogger James Croft . And tomorrow we'll hear from Patheos Catholic blogger Leah Libresco . The UK's Guardian newspaper once relayed a well-known Broadway legend regarding a theatrical version of Anne Frank's diary: When the play was revived in New York some years back its lead actress, Pia Zadora, was frankly not adequate in the title role. Math Tests? So poor was she that one exasperated theatregoer, when the Nazi troops finally invaded the the american, Frank family's hiding place, allegedly cried out: She's in fun college, the attic! This legenda favorite of my father, who joyfully retells it after almost every terrible theatrical performance we seeneatly highlights the difficulty of about the american, devising a simple rule to govern the ethics of lying. Essays? It seems intuitively clear that the audience memberhowever we might sympathize with their plightwere they in the position to actually reveal Anne Frank's location to the Nazi troops, would have done a clear moral wrong by condemning someone to essays death, even though they told the truth . In such a situationwhen telling the truth to those who mean another harm would lead to terrible harm being causedit seems obviously wicked to say that lying (in the commonly-used sense of purposefully not telling the math tests, truth) would be morally wrong. The ethics of lying are complex, and the view of St. Augustine as glossed by Deacon Jimthat all spoken falsehood with intention to deceive is about the american dream, immoralseems immediately inadequate. Deacon Jim, intriguingly using Star Trek , a Humanist 'scripture', as his starting point, raises similar complexities in math tests, his piece. He points out that, For two thousand years, the Catholic Church has left this question somewhat unsettled: whether or not all falsehoods spoken with the essays about, intention to math tests deceive are immoral acts of lying.

Humanists are quite happy with unsettled questions of this sort. The Humanist approach to about the american dream morals and ethics does not seek to offer a set of settled rules for conduct which will guide a person easily through every quandary. Recognizing the complexity of analyzing essay, our moral lives, and the infinite potential situations which might be faced by any given person, or by a society, Humanists prefer to construct robust moral and ethical principles to guide action, and are quite unsurprised when these principles collide in interesting and challenging ways. There are principled reasons to avoid ethical dictums which the idea of settling ethical questions brings to my mind: consider, for the american dream, instance, the extraordinary harm which has been caused by the Catholic insistence that artificial forms contraception not be used. As our technology, our conceptions of human sexuality, and our knowledge regarding how diseases can be spread through sex have all advanced, this teaching should certainly be revised, but its status as a settled ethical issue prevents progress and analyzing essay, causes significant suffering. Seeking to settle the essays about dream, question of lyingby determining some fixed rubric by which we would decide whether, for instance, (to use Deacon Jim's example) all falsehoods spoken with intention to write a list deceive are immoral acts of about, “lying,” or notwould, in a similar way, be to deny the inherent complexity of human relationships and to close down opportunities for future growth in our moral and ethical understanding.

The position of judgment Catholics are placed in by the unsettled nature of Catholic teaching regarding lying is a good positionit's the position we should be in essays, regarding all judgments which affect others (I will leave aside the highly dubious claim that The Church completely recognizes and respects the essays about, rights of conscience of its Catholic members). Having said this, what might be broad moral and ethical principles which should guide human conduct in fun college, this area? I think Deacon Jim gives us a way to about the american dream approach this question when he raises what he calls the 'societal' or 'common-good' aspect of truth-telling: The stability of human society really depends on the good will that ought to exist among individuals, and that common good can only be realized by thesis, truthfulness. While I certainly agree that many other societal goods depend on good will between members of a community, there is dream, good reason to telecommunication research doubt that common good can only be realized by essays dream, truthfulness. Indeed, the essays, apocryphal anecdote with which I began speaks against this view: the essays the american, audience member imagining themselves to be revealing Anne Frank's location, though speaking truthfully, is not promoting the essay, common good or improving good will between members of the society. Rather, their truth-telling breaks down the fabric of social trust required for communities to operate to the good of their members. How so? Because good will is a more expansive and complex concept than truthfulness. And sometimesperhaps oftenwe demonstrate our good will toward others by about dream, not telling the truth . This is perhaps why the Eighth Commandment charges people not to bear false witness, rather than simply never to lie: it is the harm caused to another by lying which is the object of primary condemnation, and often we will demonstrate more good will toward our neighbor by being equivocal (rather than ruthless) with the truth. Ultimately, to live happily in society among others, we do not want to research papers live with ruthless truth-tellers who always tell the full truth regardless of any contextual factors.

Rather, we want to live beside people who have our good in mind, and essays about the american dream, who act to maximize our goodeven though this may lead them to be equivocal with the truth at write a list, times. Humanists accept the many ethical complexities such a position places us in, and about the american, recognize that all ethical reasoningjust like the Catholic position on lyingis ultimately a work in progress. Felix Adler's ethical maxim should be the guiding principle, not some ossified rule regarding truth-telling: “Act so as to elicit the best in others, and thereby in thyself.” James Croft is a candidate for an Ed.D in fun college, Human Development and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education (HGSE). He works alongside Greg Epstein as Research and Education Fellow at the american dream, the Humanist Community at Harvard, trying to create a true Humanist fellowship in book process, Cambridge, Massachusetts. About? James is an experienced actor and singer, having performed in many locations around the world. A committed Humanist and a Humanist Celebrant, he's also an Assistant Editor at The New Humanism and a Contributing Scholar for State of Formation. Fun College? His blog at Patheos is titled Temple of the essays about, Future . Note: Our goal is to cultivate serious and telecommunication papers, respectful dialogue. While it's OK to the american disagreeeven encouraged!any snarky, offensive, or off-topic comments will be deleted.

Before commenting please read the Commenting Rules and Tips . If you're having trouble commenting, read the Commenting Instructions . Only thing I would criticize in this would be that I would say humanist principles do guide us through all complex situations, but they don't always provide clear paths. In other words, the principles are not abandoned in difficult circumstances. In contrast, one would expect followers of the just and true God to math tests be able to do better. That the infallible church would not need to essays dream take 2000 years to interpret the eighth commandment. That it does not is by no means proof the god is math tests, fake, but it is another missed opportunity for the God to prove himself. That the infallible church would not need to take 2000 years to interpret the eighth commandment. This is essays the american dream, a quibble, since I agree there is something remarkable about a basic question remaining open in the Catholic Church for 2000 years. It seems to telecommunication research papers me pointless and wrongheaded to try to cram all moral precepts into the Ten Commandments. Essays Dream? You shall not bear false witness against thesis, your neighbor did not prohibit all lying when it was promulgated, and it doesn't today. You're right.

But Christian belief usually places lying as so incredibly bad that God could never ever do it, he couldn't even want to. This is unlike killing in which God often does it and helps others in. There seems to be something about lying that they need it to be completely banned but recognize this is also immoral to not lie in essays about dream, all circumstances. In my opinion, in the story of fun college essays, Adam and essays, Eve, God does not tell Adam the essays, truth about eating from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. The serpent tells the truth, and after Adam and Eve eat the forbidden fruit, God confirms what the essays about, serpent said word for word. I agree and visuals, the equivocation from apologists on death is ridiculous. The American? There is a Reasonable Doubts episode where they try to show where God has lied or condones lying. The response from theists is statemants, illuminating. You're gonna have to essays the american explain this one. You're gonna have to explain this one. It is plain as day right there in Genesis 3.

But the serpent said to the woman: You certainly will not die! No, God knows well that the analyzing essay, moment you eat of essays about dream, it your eyes will be opened and you will be like gods who know what is good and what is bad. Adam and Eve don't die. Essay? And God echoes the serpent's very words, saying, See! The man has become like one of us, knowing what is good and what is bad! To assume that what God meant was that Adam and Eve would die someday if they ate from the tree is necessarily to assume that Adam and Eve were either created immortal or were going to essays the american dream be allowed to how to write eat from the Tree of Life.

But that is nowhere in the text. The Christian interpretation is that the sin of Adam and essays about, Eve brought death into the world, but that is telecommunication papers, certainly not in Genesis. Any person who reads Genesis 3 will have to dream interpret it. I have to reject any interpretation which attributes a lie to God and truth telling to the serpent. ..necessarily to assume that Adam and Eve were either created immortal. If they were in fact initially created immortal, but died someday and brought death into the world because they ate from the telecommunication research, tree, in your mind what are some of the challenges this would pose, i.e. how would it show God to have lied? I think it is essays about dream, interesting to contrast the issue of lying as an open question in statemants, Catholicism with the essays, issue of contraception, which many would consider to be settled and final (although I personally don't think Humanae Vitae comes close to being infallible by the criteria set by thesis statemants, the Church for infallible pronouncements).

The absolutist position on contraception seems to me to be very similar to the absolutist position on lying. The position on contraception is about, that sex is for reproduction and anything that gets in the way of its reproductive purpose renders it immoral. The absolutist position on lying is that speech is for communicating the truth, and visuals, anything that gets in the way of its purpose of communicating truth renders it immoral. These absolutist positions strike me as being illustrations of the principle, Man was made for the law, not the law for man. I just wanted to clarify that Catholic teaching does not say sex is for essays dream, reproduction purposes only, but its a unitive act as well. you cannot take one without distorting the other. This is why the church is against both in vitro fertilization and contraception. One tries to achieve reproduction without uniting the husband and statemants, wife in the sexual act, and the other tries to remove the gift of essays dream, giving oneself to the other fully and be open to participating in God's creation in order to pleasure oneself. There is a difference in that matter, and that is the church gives us solutions to write the problem of essays about the american dream, contraception. Abstinence is essay, seen as impossible in essays about the american, today's culture, which is not true. I just wanted to clarify that Catholic teaching does not say sex is for reproduction purposes only, but its a unitive act as well.

I agree that is what the write a list, Church teaches, which is why I said sex is for essays about, reproduction, not sex is only for reproduction. For a very long time in the Church, the math tests, unitive purpose of sex was not recognized, and essays about the american dream, someone as influential as St. Augustine said. It is one thing to lie together with the sole will of math tests, generating: this has no fault. It is another to about the american seek the telecommunication research papers, pleasure of flesh in lying, although within the limits of marriage, this has venial fault. To attempt to derive pleasure from sex, even for married people, was a sin.

This is not, of essays the american dream, course, the position of the how to, Church today. Nevertheless, it seems to me that all the rules about sex in essays the american dream, Catholicism are about sex within marriage being procreative. I am not aware of any encyclical or major Church document that is to the unitive nature of telecommunication papers, sex what Humanae Vitae is to the procreative nature. For a very long time in the Church, the unitive purpose of essays the american dream, sex was not recognized. Research Papers? To attempt to derive pleasure from sex, even for married people, was a sin. David, your interpretation of St. Augustine doesn't quite prove what you claim about the about dream, Church not recognizing unitive purposes way back when. His statement on the manner can be interpreted to be in research, accord with present Church teaching since intercourse cannot be unitive if one spouse were to merely seek the pleasure of the american, flesh using the other. In other words, yes, it is still a sin to objectify anyone - even a spouse.

St. Augustine seems to be making distinctions of culpability. His statement on telecommunication the manner can be interpreted to dream be in accord with present Church teaching since intercourse cannot be unitive if one spouse were to merely seek the pleasure of flesh using the other. Catholic married couples today are free to engage in thesis, sexual intercourse for pleasure as long as they leave the sex act open to procreation. As I understand Augustine's thought, such couples would be committing a venial sin. There is the american dream, nothing in the quote I reproduced to indicate that Augustine was talking of one partner seeking pleasure by math tests, using the other. You are forcing an interpretation on the quote to try to make it consistent with contemporary thought. I am not sure why you find that necessary.

Augustine is a towering figure in Catholic thought, but not everything he said, and not everything other towering figures (like Aquinas) said is in harmony with 21st-century Catholic teaching. Dream? In defending the thesis statemants, position that the Church has never taught error, it is completely unnecessary to harmonize everything Augustine or Aquinas ever said with Church teaching of today. Catholic married couples today are free to engage in essays about dream, sexual intercourse for pleasure as long as they leave the sex act open to procreation. Statemants? As I understand Augustine's thought, such couples would be committing a venial sin. . in Augustine's opinion. But this has never been the official teaching of the Catholic Church. In an effort to accurately represent those you disagree with, please remember that the dream, Catholic Church doesn't embrace every teaching of every major theologian, even her more gifted. In an math tests effort to accurately represent those you disagree with, please remember that the Catholic Church doesn't embrace every teaching of every major theologian, even her more gifted ones. You seem to be objecting to what I said, but what you are saying is precisely the point I made! I said:

Augustine is a towering figure in Catholic thought, but not everything he said, and not everything other towering figures (like Aquinas) said is in essays the american, harmony with 21st-century Catholic teaching. How To A List? In defending the position that the Church has never taught error, it is completely. unnecessary to harmonize everything Augustine or Aquinas ever said with Church teaching of today. Catholic married couples today are free to essays dream engage in sexual intercourse for how to, pleasure as long as they leave the sex act open to procreation. As I understand Augustine's thought, such couples would be committing a venial sin.

As I understand it, Catholic married couples today are mostly free to sexually reproduce (a biological process which is about the american dream, prefaced by sexual intercourse). We know that sexual intercourse is sometimes (maybe rarely) pleasurable, and we also know that sometimes (maybe rarely) reproduction is achieved. The point is that the natural purpose of sexual intercourse is sexual reproduction - a purpose which is not to fun college be severed from the act that achieves it. You are forcing an interpretation on the quote to try to essays dream make it consistent with contemporary thought. I am not sure why you find that necessary. Augustine is a towering figure in Catholic thought, but not everything he said, and not everything other towering figures (like Aquinas) said is in harmony with 21st-century Catholic teaching. No more than you are forcing an interpretation on book editing the quote to make it inconsistent with contemporary thought.

I found it necessary in order to show that your quote doesn't necessarily prove what you claim. I do agree about the harmony thing. Dream? So yes, it is completely unnecessary to telecommunication research harmonize everything some towering figure said. If you recall, you tried to use Augustine's quote to show that the Church in essays about the american dream, Augustine's time did not recognize unitive purposes of sexual intercourse. If we agree that not everything needs to research papers be harmonized (and then you suggest that this statement by dream, Augustine fits that condition), one cannot claim that the Church did not recognize unitive purposes in Augustine's time, only that Augustine did not: for Augustine is not the Church! In defending the position that the Church has never taught error, it is completely unnecessary to harmonize everything Augustine or Aquinas ever said with Church teaching of how to, today. So without any further information, are we agreeing that St. Augustine may have been at dream, odds with the Church's past recognition on this matter? We know that sexual intercourse is sometimes (maybe rarely) pleasurable, and we also know that sometimes (maybe rarely) reproduction is achieved.

Sexual intercourse is only sometimes —and maybe only rarely —pleasurable? Really? So without any further information, are we agreeing that St. Augustine may have been at odds with the Church's past recognition on the pleasure vs generation issue? St.

Augustine died in 430 A.D. I think it probably wouldn't even make sense to claim that the Church in book process, the 5th century had an official position on the relationship between the unitive and procreative purposes of sex. I think it is fair to say (and universally acknowledged) that St. Augustine's views on sex were very influential, and essays, that Augustine believed that sex for fun college, pleasure, even for married couples, was sinful (but not seriously so—that is, not a mortal sin). It is only in the 20th century that the Church began making official pronouncements on such teachings.

Pius XII in Casti Connubii officially recognized a unitive purpose for marital sex, and he regarded it as secondary to about the american procreation. Catholic thought developed further between then and now, to the point where the procreative and unitive purposes are both essential. So, in brief, I would say no, St. Analyzing? Augustine wasn't at essays the american, odds with the early Church on the matter of sexuality. He was in on the ground floor in shaping the Church's view on sexuality. But his idea that in marriage, sex for pleasure (but open to procreation) is process, sinful is against Catholic teaching.

Sexual intercourse is about the american dream, only sometimes—and maybe onlyrarely—pleasurable? Really? I do not recall using the term, only, but even if we substitute sometimes with often the statemants, implication is still achieved: that sexual intercourse need not be pleasurable to dream achieve sexual reproduction. I'm sorry if I wasn't clear. How To? Perhaps it would be more clear if instead of pleasure I would say sexual gratification? I suppose some pleasure (happy to be pregnant) could be derived in the consequences of the american, sexual intercourse that was not sexually gratifying. Statemants? I'm trying not to equivocate so bear with me. It is only in the 20th century that the Church began making official pronouncements on such teachings. I appreciate you sharing your historical knowledge. I now understand that by dream, sharing what St.

Augustine thought on unitive purposes you support your claim that the Church didn't always officially teach what She teaches now. (Presumably we agree that by no means in this case would this be contradictory given organic development of doctrine.) But his idea that in marriage, sex for pleasure (but open to procreation) is process, sinful is against Catholic teaching. This speaks to my original point that his quote doesn't necessarily prove your claim: your parenthetical, but open to procreation is not in the original quote by St. Essays About? Augustine. How To? I maintain there is exegetical cushion to harmonize his ideas with. 20th century teachings, even if the harmonization isn't completely necessary. This isn't to deny your interpretation that it could be opposed to.

20th century teaching, only essays that it could go both ways without affecting the development of the process, current teaching as you stated it. I maintain there is exegetical cushion to harmonize his ideas with. 20th century teachings, even if the harmonization isn't completely necessary. I think what you are saying is that if someone is clever enough and works at it long enough, they can make an argument that, despite what Augustine appeared to say about the sinfulness of deliberately deriving pleasure from essays about the american, sex in marriage, he really didn't mean it the way he sounds, and that his views are fully consistent with the view that developed in the 20th century that the procreative and unitive purposes of sex are co-equal. I don't doubt that people have already made such attempts at harmonization, although it bewilders me that anybody thinks it is necessary to try to demonstrate someone from the research, fifth century, because he is a great saint, had a 21st-century view of sex and marriage. Essays The American Dream? The Church has never claimed the infallibility of the saints, and I think such exercises in trying to make long-dead saints in the Catholic Church appear correct in all their views undermines rather than helps Catholicism. It is fun college, one thing to claim that Catholic dogma never changes. About? It is quite another thing to claim no important Catholic of the past every held a view that is now no longer accepted. I think what you are saying is book editing process, that if someone is clever enough and works at it long enough, they can make an argument that, despite what Augustine appeared to say about the sinfulness of essays about dream, deliberately deriving pleasure from sex in marriage, he really didn't mean it the way he sounds. David, the issue between us is how to a list, that you are convinced you are interpreting him correctly and then accuse me of interpreting him as though it's some huge stretch to about the american interpret him in harmony with current Church teaching.

The fact that St. Augustine said sole will regarding generation makes me believe he wanted to carry that context when he contrasted sexual intercourse for pleasure. Thesis Statemants? The way it sounds to me is obviously not the way it sounds to you; the difference is that you think you interpret him correctly, and I think either of our interpretations are reasonable. I don't doubt that people have already made such attempts at harmonization. I didn't know we were talking about the attempts of others. . although it bewilders me that anybody thinks it is essays the american dream, necessary to try to demonstrate someone from the fifth century, because he is a great saint, had a 21st-century view of sex and marriage.

Although it bewilders me that anybody thinks it is necessary to demonstrate that someone from the fifth century had a 5th century view of book editing, sex and essays dream, marriage. Would you like to keep playing that game or do you want to actually add to essays the discussion? Please refrain from assuming that you know what my intentions are. The Church has never claimed the the american, infallibility of the saints. and I think such exercises in trying to make long-dead saints in the Catholic Church appear correct in all their views undermines rather than helps Catholicism. Ok, but weren't we simply talking about telecommunication research papers one view of one saint? Besides, I already agreed that it wasn't necessary to harmonize a particular view, just showing that your interpretation isn't the only possible explanation. It is one thing to claim that Catholic dogma never changes.

It is quite another thing to claim no important Catholic of the past every held a view that is now no longer accepted. Are you attributing these claims to me? I deny that I have made or hold to such claims. Are you attributing these claims to me? No, I am not attributing any particular claims to you. But there is among some Catholics a tendency to want to homogenize the complete history of the the american, Church and argue that there have never been changes of any significance from the time of the apostles to the present.

For example, although sacramental theology took well over a thousand years to develop into the form we recognize today, I have been in discussions in which people have insisted that Augustine thought of marriage as a sacrament the way we think of it today. That is simply not true. The concept of analyzing visuals essay, sacrament was very different Augustine's time (5th century) than it was in Aquinas's (13th century). It is just mistaken to about dream read the thesis, sacramental theology of the 21st or the 13th century back into Augustine's writings of the 5th century. I don't think it makes much sense to about continue this without going much more deeply into Augustine's thoughts on essays sex and marriage than plucking a few quotes here and there. Essays The American Dream? I do not pretend to be an telecommunication research expert on the life and thought of Aquinas, but it is my opinion that if we could send, say, Benedict XVI back to the 5th century in a time machine to discuss marriage and the american, sexuality, there would be some rather fundamental disagreements between them. As you say, it should be no surprise that even one of the fun college, greatest minds in the Church who lived in the 5th century would have a 5th century understanding of marriage and sex. Befitting of a positive note on about the american dream which we end this discussion: St. Thesis? Augustine, pray for us.

I cannot help but bring up Jacob and Esau. The American Dream? Jacob clearly lies to Isaac in how to a list, order for personal gain. This deception is about dream, rewarded and Jacob goes on to be immensely rewarded. What possible good moral point could there be in this story? I am still only how to write up to Exodus, but this story was one that was incredibly confounding. Was lying for personal gain okay then?

Both you and St. Augustine have had to struggle with the Jacob/Esau story. Indeed, in Augustine's case I don't think he ever adequately addressed it--rather, he had already made up his mind about never being able to lie and then could only conclude that some greater and prophetic truth was served by the deception of Jacob, basically. I don't think Augustine ever fully resolved this example. Jacob as supplanter and a deceiver and one full of essays about the american, guile and cunning certainly remained a running theme in the nation of Israel--but the circumstances were such that his deception was seen as justifiable since the birthright was technically owed to analyzing essay him. Even in John's Gospel, in the first chapter, Jesus says, with ironic humor, of Nathanael, Behold an Israelite in about, whom there is no guile . I just think we need to try and look at this objectively. Lot's wife gets turned into salt for looking at God's work. This is immediate punishment for violating what seems to me to thesis statemants be an arbitrary command and brutal punishment. On the essays the american dream, other had Jacob intentionally lies and deceives his father violating at least 2 commandments and thesis, acting utterly contrary to god's morality. There is no punishment for this, no chastising, no earthly justice at least.

Instead, Jacob goes along and essays the american, lives a long prosperous life leading God's chosen people. What is the math tests, difference? Jacob while immoral, did not disobey any direct command of god. Lot's wife, did disobey a command. Essays Dream? It would seem here that God is much more concerned that his commands be obeyed than his followers act morally. This heightened value of obedience of authority is exactly what people believed in the Iron Age, and this is reflected all over the OT. Fun College? I think it is all fables, myths and about the american dream, tales. The God you believe in would have done better. One possibility is that Jacob had a legitimate claim to the birthright, which had been bartered away by his brother Esau. So, one may suggest that the deception wasn't a sinful lie because the fun college, deception was justified, *or* that the deception was still a sinful lie even though the claim to the birthright was legit.

Either way, the episode's inclusion in essays about dream, Scripture is book editing, not there to resolve the morality of essays about the american dream, lying and deception. How To Write? Its purpose as Scripture is more big picture. Further, the Church is also very aware that the about the american dream, *human* authors of the texts themselves express the truths that the Holy Spirit wants asserted in obviously human fashion. So we can never really simply say that biblical characters are either uber-holy or uber-unholy. Developing a moral framework from how to write, Scripture alone would be very very difficult. This deception is rewarded and Jacob goes on to be immensely rewarded. What possible good moral point could there be in this story? That question only becomes problematic if we see the Bible as something akin to Grimms' fairy tales, fictional stories designed to illustrate a moral principle. But the Scriptures aren't like that. They record history as it was.

Jacob made a free decision to lie, and God worked with it even while not supporting it. In a sense, this is the overarching theme of the about the american dream, entire Old Testament: God working with the analyzing, free choices of essays about dream, his sinful people to bring about his purposes. But the Scriptures aren't like that. They record history as it was. Does this mean you believe the flood story is true? There was an archaeological study done not long ago that showed a big (local) flood did in book editing, fact happen in the region. Essays About The American? This is analyzing visuals essay, also apparent from the the american dream, writings of other ancient people (such as the Babylonians). See the following link.

The study is not conclusive. There was flooding activity but the size and research papers, timing are unknown. Regardless, the story is not about the american dream a big local flood. It is about a global flood that covered the earth and killed virtually every living thing. Telecommunication? And, it's about the american dream a family which managed to collect an astonishing variety of animals and survive this incredible catastrophe. So, my question remains, if you think that the Bible records history as it was do you believe that this story is statemants, true? For people of that time, a huge local catastrophe would look like a global event. About Dream? We as Catholics are not obliged to take everything in a literal sense. We try to understand the authors and research, where they are coming from.

So it answer you question, I believe the history being it a big local event. Seems odd that a god couldn't be more clear in his book. I guess it's just more evidence that your god is an incompetent buffoon. . Or that He was competent enough to send Ziad to help clear things up for you in 2013. He hasn't cleared anything up. Just offered the essays the american, same old excuses. How else do you expect someone to respond to the same old objections ? Some religions, like Islam, believe their inspired book came strictly from telecommunication research, God and no human hand in it.

Christianity is very different. Although we confess that the Bible is the Word of God and He is its author, it is inspired through the holy spirit who worked through human authors. So we confess also that there are human elements in it and dream, that the Holy Spirit did not invade the mind of the authors, but rather worked through them. This is evident because the authors speak through their knowledge and how to a list, their experiences (such as the flood story). It is when you read the Bible as a whole and understand it through the the american, teaching of the Catholic Church, you would understand what God is telling us in editing process, each passage. John Bell, I think you need to essays the american dream clean up your insulting, inflammatory comment. I disagree. If anything, I should pick up the thesis statemants, pace. Religion and this god have been given way too much undue respect and it's time for that to change.

This is supposed to be a place of dialogue, not disrespect. Those aren't mutually exclusive. They are if you expect anyone to essays dream dialogue with you. I disagree. If anything, I should pick up the pace. Religion and this god have been given way too much undue respect and it's time for essays, that to change. Then this isn't the about dream, place for editing, you, John. Thanks for stopping by. Then why tell Noah to get all these animals on the boat?

It doesn't make sense unless God is killing all other humans and animals. It is a myth, which you already seem to accept by not interpreting it literally. About Dream? Not to mention what exactly are the authors on about in the Noah story? God knew all along that he was going to math tests send his son to redeem humanity. Why bother killing all but one family generations earlier? Did God not know that humanity was going to keep on sinning anyway? Did God not know that he was going to invent the about the american dream, rainbow to say he would never do it again? Why do it in the first place. It doesn't even make sense as fiction.

Its a myth, like Gilgamesh and book process, Beowulf. It reflects a human impression of gods as rash, and toying with humanity. As I understand it (I am no theologian or apologist of essays about dream, any sort) the Noah story is showing the fun college essays, first glimpse of essays about the american, God's promise to protect humanity and math tests, provide salvation. Bringing all the animals and about the american, saving them is how to, a sign of new creation, new beginning where man is not left alone to meet his doom. That question only becomes problematic if we see the Bible as something akin to Grimms' fairy tales, fictional stories designed to illustrate a moral principle.

But it is essays the american, not uncommon to hear the editing, argument that the Bible teaches us that polygamy is wrong because very often there is essays about, some kind of how to write a list, strife depicted in Old Testament stories in which polygamy plays a part. I think that argument is an example of the same kind of approach to the Bible as you are criticizing here. If we try to the american dream find a moral in every occurrence in the Old Testament, we can arrive at some very odd conclusions that were never intended. You are right. Bible interpreters call this the math tests, prescriptive/descriptive problem. When is the bible telling us a story to prescribe behavior and when is it just describing events. As Catholics we have sacred tradition and the church to clarify things. Protestants profess Scripture Alone which leaves the problem quite unsolvable. So how did God work with Jacob? What was the consequence of Jacob's stealing his brother's birthright through deception?

And actually, one of the aspects of the Jacob story is that it's a great illustration regarding *whether* it counts as a lie or not. Augustine, for example, would not count it as an example of a sinful lie but rather as something else that was somehow prophetically true. The odd thing is that, even though I defend the about dream, right to form conscience apart from the common teaching on lying, I'm more inclined to agree with Brandon (and against Augustine's excusing of Jacob) that Jacob's falsehood was a lie (and sinful) because of its selfishness. Though there *may* be room to consider whether Jacob's rightful claim to the birthright constituted sufficient justice to editing conceal his identity. Dream? I'm not yet 100 percent satisfied with either choice, but the Jacob portrayed in thesis, Scripture seems quite capable of essays dream, sinning in this deception. I think we need a post on telecommunication why Catholics should not have to the american dream get hung up on defending the math tests, difficult passages of the OT!

But the Scriptures aren't like that. They record history as it was. There's an important point to be made about Catholic teaching, and that is even those who claim one must never lie do not claim one must always tell the truth. For example, the audience member in the very funny story about the essays the american, Anne Frank play volunteers the truth, which is quite different from lying when asked a direct question. Even anti-lying absolutists would not say it is never wrong to tell the truth.

Gossip, for example, can be true. Libelous statements can be true. The anti-lying absolutists would say that when asked by a would-be murderer where his next intended victim is, you do not have to answer! And if you answer, you do not have to editing respond with the truth. You can say, for example, How in the world would I know where she is? Even when testifying under oath in court, to commit perjury you must clearly say something false.

If a witness is clever enough to throw the questioning off track and leave the impression he has been responsive, he is not committing perjury. I remember one of my teachers (a Christian Brother) half admiringly telling a story about a kid in another class who appeared to be eating something (which was not permitted during class). He saw the kid chewing and said, Are you eating candy? The kid replied, No! It turned out he was eating peanuts, and about the american dream, the teacher had to admit that no was a truthful answer to the question he had asked. Technically, the kid was not required to say, No, I am not eating candy. Fun College? I am eating peanuts. Yes, and the american dream, the theological tradition of mental reservation is also associated with this--we don't have to math tests speak the truth, we can remain silent.

But if silence is inadequate to essays about dream the task, how much can we say--combined with what we do *not* say--to safeguard truth or do good? Mental reservation is that middle-road attempt to address the many special cases in which silence cannot adequately safeguard truth or the good. Since Croft has devoted a whole paragraph of a brief OP to a side issue, contraception, with the claim that the essay, teachings of Humanae Vitae have caused extraordinary harm, I'd like to see him back up that claim with evidence. I would also like him to address whether extraordinary harm has been inflicted due to contraception. He is actually making an argument for about, the other side without knowing it. Making exceptions in thesis, the case of contraception led to a sexual revolution. If those contemplating it in the mid 20th century had any idea it would lead to rampant divorce, promiscuity, abortion, etc. then very few would have supported it.

If he is suggesting a parallel with the question at hand it very much works against the point the is trying to make. If those contemplating it in the mid 20th century had any idea it would lead to rampant divorce, promiscuity, abortion, etc. then very few would have supported it. It would actually be very difficult to demonstrate that the pill, or contraception in general, lead to the sexual revolution. Essays Dream? I certainly don't think it did. Nor do I think Humanae Vitae was prophetic. That is confusing to me. Certainly there were other factors like the spread of pornography enabled by technology. Still denying the importance of the pill just seems weird.

If sex does not lead to essays children then why wait for about, marriage? The kind of relationship required for sex then got to be less and less serious until it was accepted with no relationship at all. Is any of this controversial? I don't think this is the right place to debate what caused the sexual revolution (I am not even sure the name is apt), but if you google DID THE PILL CAUSE THE SEXUAL REVOLUTION you will find plenty of good arguments that it did not. I don't think this is the right place to debate what caused the sexual revolution

I agree and this is why I cautioned James to use the condom example in his original post. As you can see, it has already de-railed this entire comment thread. I offered to change the example, but you went ahead and published anyway - a whole day earlier than you promised, no less! What is an author to do? ;) I offered to change the example, but you went ahead and published anyway - a whole day earlier than you promised, no less!

What is an author to do? ;) This is simply not true, James. As I explain above, on Monday, August 19, I sent you an analyzing visuals email saying I'm planning to launch the three-part series [on lying] tomorrow (8/20). Deacon Jim's article will go first, yours on Wednesday (8/21), and about the american dream, Leah's on process Thursday (8/22). I posted it on Wednesday, just as promised. There are people who think the pill is a good thing and the sexual revolution is a bad thing. I saw some things by people in that category trying to about the american make that case. I would not call them good arguments. It seems most who say both of book, them are good or both of them are bad take for granted a significant cause and effect. But when you say artificial contraception you don't just mean the about dream, pill.

Casti Connubii was published in how to write a list, 1930. About The American Dream? That was in response to a mini sexual revolution in telecommunication, the early 1900's. I think Brandon demonstrated the prophetic nature of HV in his long quote from essays the american, it above. Would love to hear how contraception leads to abortion and divorce. Contraception has a failure rate. What happens next? Contraception facilitates fornication and adultery.

What happens next? The failure rate for contraception is rather lower than the failure rate for fun college, unprotected sex. This is about the american, like arguing that seat belts have a failure rate so we shouldn't promote their usage. Do you really think people didn't have affairs before the advent of effective prophylactics? I'll tell you, a bastard breaks up a marriage faster than most things. Of course, so do the stresses of math tests, unwanted children within marriage, or the transmission of diseases. Hi, Josh--your question was how does contraception lead to abortion and divorce. I think I just answered it. Contraception use generally implies you don't want a kid nine months after you have sex.

When contraception *fails* and you don't want a kid nine months later, you get an essays abortion. This is all particularly true in cases of fornication and math tests, adultery. Jim, what you showed was that sex can lead to abortion and in about, certain circumstances divorce. Contraception reduces the essays, chance of those possible outcomes of sex. C.f. the seatbelts example I gave you above.

Nope. When you give teenagers contraceptives, you are giving them permission to have sex. Essays The American Dream? Teenagers (and adults with the mentality of teens) are irresponsible by nature, so both their sex and contraception use are irresponsible. Analyzing? This means contraception failure. This means pregnancy.

Then comes abortion or children without fathers. If teenagers are irresponsible by nature, then they will have sex regardless of essays dream, contraceptives. Contraceptives would then only reduce pregnancies. Let's have some evidence for your claims. In the 1950s, teenage sex was the exception. Papers? Now, it is essays dream, much more the norm. Why the change?

You've been thoroughly indoctrinated by how to write a list, Planned Parenthood. The failure rate for contraception is essays about, rather lower than the math tests, failure rate for unprotected sex. This is like arguing that seat belts have a failure rate so we shouldn't promote their usage. But you're presenting a false dichotomy. By suggesting the only two options are condoms or unprotected sex, you're implying people *have* to engage in risky sex and can't help it, and that those are the only two options. A third option--and a better solution--would be to promote sex within monogamous, faithful marriages, sex that doesn't need to essays about dream be protected from anything. No dichotomy, I was just pointing out statemants, that Jim's analysis was wrong. People can have sex or not have sex.

The former leads to babies. (Excepting anal, oral, etc. which clearly don't lead to abortions and divorces.) Among people who have sex, there are various habits that can reduce the chance of unwanted children. Contraceptives are essentially the best. They are a form of non-risky sex. Lot's of monogamous, faithfully married couples use protection. People who want to be monogamous partners inside marriage are fine. But you present a dichotomy by pretending that is the only valid or safe option. It's simply not. Lot's of monogamous, faithfully married couples use protection. What are they protecting themselves from? Mostly from essays the american dream, unwanted pregnancies.

I.e. both from unwanted children and from abortions. There are also cases where one partner has a disease they don't want to pass to the other. Facilitating fornication is thesis, a good thing. Facilitating fornication is a good thing. Out of curiosity, do you have a young daughter? fornication. I have to laugh. It's like we're in essays the american dream, the middle ages! Would love to hear how contraception leads to abortion and divorce. Assuming your question is essays, genuine and not facetious, you'll find the first part of your answer here: A Deeper Look at Contraception and Abortion . Your link is essays the american dream, broken Brandon. When James first submitted his article I warned him that Catholics would be quick to refute this claim, which isn't necessary to his argument and draws attention away from it.

For one thing, the experts on math tests this topic seem to completely disagree with James. The non-Catholic, pro-condom, senior Harvard researched Edward C. Essays About Dream? Green, director of the AIDS Prevention Research Project at the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, says: The pope is correct [about condoms']. or to put it a better way, the best evidence we have supports the pope’s comments. Statemants? He stresses that “condoms have been proven to not be effective at about the american, the level of population. There is telecommunication, a consistent association shown by our best studies, including the U.S.-funded ‘Demographic Health Surveys, between greater availability and use of condoms and higher (not lower) HIV-infection rates. This may be due in part to a phenomenon known as risk compensation, meaning that when one uses a risk-reduction ‘technology’ such as condoms, one often loses the benefit (reduction in risk) by ‘compensating’ or taking greater chances than one would take without the risk-reduction technology.” Green expressed this fact even more simply, stating: We have found no consistent associations between condom use and lower HIV-infection rates. Those wanting more should read his op-ed piece in the Washington Post titled The Pope May Be Right.

The Pope May Be Right. Essays The American Dream? something about that Washington Post title made me chuckle. Brandon, this is disingenuous to the point of dishonesty. From the article you linked: In a 2008 article in math tests, Science called Reassessing HIV Prevention 10 AIDS experts concluded that consistent condom use has not reached a. sufficiently high level, even after many years of essays dream, widespread and often. aggressive promotion, to visuals produce a measurable slowing of new infections.

in the essays the american dream, generalized epidemics of Sub-Saharan Africa. i.e., the problem is fun college essays, not enough people using condoms despite efforts to change that behavior. Essays The American Dream? Could the Pope have anything to do with that? Also note: . that condom promotion has worked in countries such as Thailand and Cambodia. disingenuous to the point of visuals, dishonesty The unofficial motto of Strange Notions! i.e., the problem is not enough people using condoms despite efforts to change that behavior. The article says, consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often aggressive promotion. Essays? Which means that the real problem is how to write, not that there aren't enough people using them, but that they are being used inconsistently . Could the Pope have anything to do with that? Sure! Perhaps he can persuade the essays about, inconsistent condom user to abstain from the behavior which requires the use of math tests, a condom.

The Pope should stay out of essays dream, public health advice. Why should one assume that the pope couldn't do it in private? The pope has the right to speak on matters of faith and morals. Public health often has a moral dimension, so he has a prefect right, in fact an obligation, to speak. He is also informed. I have a right to speak on matters of faith and analyzing visuals, morals.

I don't know why someone should pay more attention to the pope than to essays about the american me. Fun College? I think we both deserve the same amount of essays dream, attention: whatever attention our arguments warrant. Not quite. You have no right to speak to Catholics nor have you any standing to math tests speak as one world leader to other world leaders. On the dream, other hand, neither you nor I have thirteen years of formation in faith and process, morals, a doctorate in about the american dream, theology, thousands of thesis statemants, hours of experience dealing with people on these matters, many learned advisers, and two thousand years of experience to draw from.

I may not have standing but I definitely have a right to speak to Catholics and everyone else in the public square about anything I like, at least in this country (the UK). Hopefully in your country, too. They likewise have a right to pay attention to me or to ignore me. Frankly, I don't care much about the credentials of the thirteen years of formation plus doctorates, etc., if the arguments are bad. Essays The American? Just listing credentials isn't an argument at all. Humility is truth. Well, the current pope used to ride the how to write a list, bus to work.

I have a lot of respect for that. Here's the question. To what extent should public health policy be determined by Catholic teaching? Dr. Edward Green agreed with the pope (to a certain extent, at least) that condoms had not been helpful in fighting AIDS in Africa. However, Green said that the use of condoms in the brothels of Thailand was effective. Essays Dream? Is it morally wrong to urge prostitutes in the brothels of essays, Thailand to insist their customers use condoms? If there is essays the american, really no hope of eliminating the brothels of math tests, Thailand, is it morally wrong to urge those who run and work in the brothels to do something that will save the lives of the prostitutes, their customers, and their customers' wives?

Remember that Aquinas famously thought prostitution should be tolerated (although not supported). He thought the elimination of about, prostitution would lead to greater evils. How To A List? Isn't it consistent with Catholic thought today that some evils may be tolerated? And would an the american attempt to thesis statemants mitigate some of the negative side effects of essays, a tolerated evil be cooperation with evil? The problem with backing the pope in his comments about condoms not being effective in certain situations is that the book, pope would (it seems) object to the use of condoms even if they would stop the AIDS epidemic dead in its tracks.

To what extent should public health policy be determined by Catholic teaching? In my opinion, if properly understood, completely. However, this complete understanding of Catholic teaching would include when Catholic teaching has nothing to say about the matter. The argument is essays the american dream, not dishonest at all. In Africa, HIV is spread through high-risk promiscuous relations in which the partners refuse to use condoms on principle. The solution the article advocates is not to persuade people even more aggressively to use condoms but to stop these promiscuous sexual relations. Thailand and Cambodia are irrelevant since the condom use in regulated brothels, not among the papers, general population. No, the about dream, solution advocated is a combined approach of reducing risky behavior. That includes using condoms consistently when having sex.

Now, an honest presentation of the argument would be that condom advocacy has had limited effectiveness in fun college essays, Africa. But since the real problem is people having sex with multiple inconsistently protected partners, it's obvious that the the american, Pope's abstinence and process, monogamy advocacy has failed much harder. Thailand and Cambodia are not irrelevant; the Pope's stance is about the american, not that condoms are okay in east-Asia but not Africa. Now, an honest presentation of the argument would be that condom advocacy has had limited effectiveness in Africa. This is not true. As Green notes, consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often aggressive promotion , to thesis statemants produce a measurable slowing of about the american dream, new infections in the generalized epidemics of Sub-Saharan Africa. Also, you say condom advocacy has had limited effectiveness in Africa.

But according to Green's research, it would be more accurate to say condom advocacy has been ineffective . Brandon, read what I wrote again and analyzing, then modify your comment above to reflect that what I said is exactly true according to the quote you pulled. Also, to judge if advocacy was ineffective we would want to essays about the american know what happens in fun college, the absence of about the american, advocacy. Brandon, read what I wrote again and then modify your comment above to reflect that what I said is exactly true according to the quote you pulled. You're right. Mea culpa. A List? I misunderstood your point. It seems we agree that spreading and advocating condoms in Africa has not reduced the spread of disease.

This has been my main contention since the essays about the american dream, beginning of this thread. Also, to judge if advocacy was ineffective we would want to know what happens in write, the absence of essays about the american, advocacy. Ah, now this is interesting, since it implicitly suggests we should stop advocating condoms, if only for scientific reasons, in order to analyzing gauge whether other methods might be more effective. Fine by me. Condoms don't seem to be working, so we should try something else.

Again, this is precisely what the Pope said about the Africa situation. I appreciate the essays about, correction. Well, I agree that if we were running a science experiment with no ethical concerns we would want to run each 'treatment' separately and then in combinations. Obviously that's not something I suggest we do though. We actually do have evidence that condom's work well when used properly. So of course does abstinence, although I think the evidence that we can get people to be consistently abstinent is rather worse than that we can get them to use condoms. So, again, the evidence isn't that condoms don't seem to fun college be working, it's that in one region of the world people aren't using them consistently enough to offset the risky behavior that abounds. The expert consensus, from what I can tell, is essays dream, that we should advocate a multi-pronged approach. People need comprehensive education, they should be encouraged to limit partners if they aren't going to use condoms, they should have condoms widely available and their usage should be properly understood and promoted when people do have sex.

Also, let's bear in mind that condoms have other benefits besides limiting HIV infections. Also, let's bear in mind that condoms have other benefits besides limiting HIV infections. They have other dangers besides limiting the spread of HIV. These were outlined clearly way back in 1968 by Pope Paul VI: Let [us] first consider how easily [contraception] could open wide the how to write, way for marital infidelity and a general lowering of moral standards. Not much experience is needed to essays the american be fully aware of human weakness and to telecommunication understand that human beings—and especially the young, who are so exposed to temptation—need incentives to essays the american keep the math tests, moral law, and it is an evil thing to dream make it easy for a list, them to break that law. Essays About Dream? Another effect that gives cause for alarm is that a man who grows accustomed to book editing the use of contraceptive methods may forget the reverence due to a woman, and, disregarding her physical and dream, emotional equilibrium, reduce her to being a mere instrument for math tests, the satisfaction of essays about the american, his own desires, no longer considering her as his partner whom he should surround with care and affection. Finally, careful consideration should be given to the danger of this power passing into the hands of essays, those public authorities who care little for the precepts of the moral law. Essays The American? Who will blame a government which in its attempt to write resolve the problems affecting an entire country resorts to the same measures as are regarded as lawful by married people in the solution of the american, a particular family difficulty? Who will prevent public authorities from math tests, favoring those contraceptive methods which they consider more effective? Should they regard this as necessary, they may even impose their use on everyone.

It could well happen, therefore, that when people, either individually or in family or social life, experience the inherent difficulties of the divine law and the american dream, are determined to avoid them, they may give into the hands of public authorities the how to a list, power to intervene in the most personal and intimate responsibility of husband and wife. All of this has proved true over the last fifty years. This is disingenuous to essays about the american dream the point of thesis statemants, dishonesty Really? You know with certainty I'm giving a false impression, on purpose, to the point of essays about the american, deception? I simply cited the leading American expert on this issue with basically no commentary. Next time, please focus on the quote instead of my motives.

In regards to your own quote, it seems *you* have left out pertinent information. Green notes that in Thailand and Cambodia, the condom promotion has worked primarily because most HIV is transmitted through commercial sex and where it has been possible to enforce a 100 percent condom use policy in brothels. The problem is that this is a rare and isolated situation. Most STDs spread in Africa the the West are not shared through brothels. Also, even while aware of analyzing, those two exceptions, Green still maintains that condoms are not the best solution. He notes that condoms *haven't* curbed HIV in Africa while faithful mutual monogamy or at least reduction in numbers of partners, especially concurrent ones has.

Finally, Green's point in the american, saying consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often aggressive promotion was to prove his thesis. His point was not that *we need more condoms* since people aren't using them. It's that even after dumping boatlods of condoms into how to write Africa, and doing everything possible to encourage their use, they still do not curb HIV because of risk compensation, relational dynamics, and other factors. In other words, the world has done everything it can to promote condoms as a solution in Africa. But it's inadequate. It doesn't work. Essays About The American? While attractive on paper, it fails in practice.

This is book, exactly what Pope Benedict suggested and Edward Green agrees. Your motive is to support the Church's position. You are disingenuous for leaving out important context. Also, even while aware of essays dream, those two exceptions, Green still maintains that condoms are not the best solution. Don't misunderstand me; I am not anti-condom.-Green. Again, you are being disingenuous. Green supports condom usage. Telecommunication Research? His view is that it is part of a combined effort to the american reduce risky behavior.

Obviously that includes reducing the number of sexual partners if one isn't going to use condoms consistently. (Even if you are, reducing partners helps the odds of course.) Note that Green's examples of successful programs include 'faithful polygamy' and essay, monogamous relationships but nothing about essays the american marriage per se. Cambodia and math tests, Thailand are indeed sociologically different from Africa but they aren't exceptions, they are examples of condom usage working despite otherwise risky behavior. So if the essays the american dream, Pope's position is statemants, that we should promote condom-usage along with other risk-reducing behaviors, then he agrees with the about, consensus of experts. Here's a thought. What if it were shown that actually, recommending condom use does reduce the rate of HIV infection and that telling people to how to write a list avoid condoms results in higher rates. But also that the use of contraception is a sin. What would you say then about the morality of the Pope's actions? I admit that I am not familiar with the research, but I say this because it does seem to me like Catholics cannot accept this good public health advice because of an the american arbitrary command of their God. The Centre for Disease Control says 'Latex condoms, when used consistently and research, correctly, are highly effective in preventing the sexual transmission of HIV, the about the american dream, virus that causes AIDS.

If anyone feels the need to talk about the issue of visuals, HIV and condoms, the only moral thing to say is that, if used properly, they can be very effective in the american dream, preventing the spread. That is my moral position. The problem with touting Edward C. Green as an research papers authority who backs the pope is that Green fully supports the use of about the american, condoms where they have been shown to essay be effective, for essays the american dream, example, in the brothels of Thailand. Thesis? Green is about the american, making an argument based on what works, and he supports the use of condoms where they work. He fully supports the ABC approach (abstain, be faithful, use condoms). Telecommunication? The pope and the Catholic Church do not support condom use even when and where it is effective and essays about the american dream, can save lives. This is because the visuals essay, Church can never say, don't fornicate, but if you do, use condoms. I don't see why not. Can't the Church say, Don't sin, but if you do, go to confession? That is not an endorsement of sinning.

Can't a Catholic teacher of Driver's Ed say, Of course, you should never drink to excess, but if you do drink too much, don't drive! Is that a mixed message? Is the concept of having a designated driver evil, because it allows everyone but one person to drink to excess? The Church is always using the excuse about not wanting to send mixed messages. The Church should be able to communicate well enough with adults that its messages are clear. Why can't it say, Sex outside of marriage is a sin, but having sex outside of marriage that risks transmitting a deadly virus is two sins.

Why can't it say, Sex outside of marriage is a sin, but having sex outside of marriage that risks transmitting a deadly virus is two sins. Ironically, this is almost exactly what Pope Benedict said a couple years back in his book-length interview, Light of the about the american dream, World. When asked about whether two gay men engaged in intercourse, one of them HIV-positive, could licitly use a condom to prevent the spread of disease, the a list, pope, while not necessarily endorsing it as moral behavior, said it would be a step in a more moral direction. His point was that in that specific situation, the condom is about, not a contraceptive device. Therefore it doesn't commit the sin of distorting the sexual act. It's clear the *only* reason two people would use a condom in that situation is to prevent the spread of disease, a completely noble desire. I think your analogy breaks down at the very beginning. The parallel to Don't fornicate, but if you do, use a condom is not Don't sin, but if you do, go to confession because going to confession is not a further sin but condom use is. Also, consider, Sex outside of marriage is a sin, but having sex outside of marriage with a condom is two sins.

. . . . because going to write confession is not a further sin but condom use is. Are you honestly saying that those having sex outside of marriage who use contraceptives are more sinful than those having sex outside of marriage who don't use contraceptives. First, I don't know the calculus of multiple mortal sins and don't really want to go there. I also don't know that it is a sin to essays conceive a child outside of wedlock. The act that causes the conception certainly is a sin, but I don't know that actually getting pregnant is another sin. Thesis Statemants? If it isn't, then yes, fornication with contraception is worse than fornication without. Brandon. you're ignoring important points of that Washington Post Article. (Green's) comments are only about the essays, question of condoms working to stem the spread of AIDS in Africa's generalized epidemics -- nowhere else. ie. not necessarily true anywhere else, nor do they address one way or the other how condoms might have had an effect on other issues such as unwanted pregnancies. In a 2008 article in Science called Reassessing HIV Prevention 10 AIDS experts concluded that consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often aggressive promotion, to produce a measurable slowing of new infections in the generalized epidemics of Sub-Saharan Africa.

Which seems to imply that access to the physical condom alone without the research papers, proper efforts to educate people about essays about dream using them consistently might be the problem. It's like giving a computer to an accountant to process better keep their books without training them how to use it. Efforts to provide proper and thorough sex education to 3rd world countries have been stifled by the moral teachings of the church. True that in this very specific instance the about the american, lack of education combined with risk compensation social stigmata that a condom represents a lack of trust have shown that the essays, availability of condoms alone appears to not have had the positive effects seen elsewhere, so in a sense the church can claim a truth victory or sorts in a very narrow sense. But one sample, one that has a variety of additional contributing factors and is specific to essays dream simply HIV infection rates, is not indicative of a trend, especially in light of the many examples where contraception proper education have helped lower rates. To ignore the effects elsewhere or leave out points that provide a more thorough picture via proper context is deceptive, dishonest and ironic in a conversation about the ethics of lying. I want to take a brief moment to address this question, because I am disappointed as to how this has been dealt with here on this site. Brandon, as he notes below, advised me to revise this passage because he felt it would derail the comments. Telecommunication Papers? I trusted the intelligence and good will of the audience, and the skill of the moderators of about the american, this site, to redirect people to the purpose of the piece, but also agreed to research revise the passage if Brandon thought it would derail the conversation on lying.

I was surprised then, that immediately after my offering to revise this passage, and before the stated publication date, my piece was published, without my having made the modification suggested. I am further surprised to see Brandon not encourage commenters to stay on topic, and rather to see him perpetuate the discussion here by essays the american dream, selectively quoting some articles relevant to a small subset of the contraception issue. This has led, as he predicted, to a fruitless side discussion in which quotes from scientists are mined by Catholic apologists to support their pre-conceived conclusion (for instance, I can find no non-Catholic source whatsoever for the quote, attributed to Edward C Green, that We have found no consistent associations between condom use and lower HIV-infection rates.). Therefore, I'm not going to engage in the discussion of contraception here. I will, however, make a statement relevant to my argument regarding lying: Note that my analogy was intended to telecommunication demonstrate the weaknesses of a rules-based morality when compared with one which recognizes moral complexity and is open to the american renegotiation in the light of new evidence.

That Kevin, above, asks for book, evidence to support my claim - seemingly in about dream, the hope that I will not be able to provide any - is an ironic demonstration of my point. If he accepts that we should make our judgment regarding the ethics of contraception based on papers evidence as to essays about the american whether a given approach is analyzing visuals, harming people or not, he has already accepted my main point: that ethics should be based on the welfare of persons, and not on preconceived ethical rules. He has, in effect, taken a Humanist position to ethics by making this very inquiry. The Catholic approach to essays about the issue - even if it is the correct approach - frequently proceeds from a different set of assumptions about morality. Namely, such approaches often appeal to god-given rules, or to a teleological conception regarding the god-given purpose of various human behaviors.

Note, for instance, that some of the comments below from Catholic apologists turn on how to write a list some conception of what sex is for, rather than whether it is beneficial to people. This is not a question which has any relevance to the Humanist: behaviors do not have a purpose in that sense, and the only questions which are relevant relate, ethically speaking, are whether the about the american, behaviors promote welfare or not. To ask whether a more permissive attitude toward contraception has increased or decreased human welfare is to ask a Humanist question - one very much in analyzing visuals, line with the essays about, ethical approach I outline in my piece above. I guess you assume the two will give different answers. That is if we follow God perfectly or do what is best perfectly we won't end up doing the analyzing, same thing. My feeling is that what God wants and what is best are the same thing. Now a humanist has a huge problem is defining human welfare. It is a word with embedded morality. To use it to define what is moral becomes a bit of a question begging exercise. But if you defined welfare or goodness the same way God does you would find that God's commands don't violate that.

The question then becomes which system is likely to do better. That is are we likely to get closer to the ideal by the american dream, discerning what is good for human welfare or are we likely to get closer to that same ideal by asking what would be pleasing to God? It seems to me that God's commands are given precisely because we are likely to get the answer wrong without them. We are told not to lie because we tend to math tests lie. We rationalize that behavior based on humanist principles and end up in immorality. Rationalization seem like it kills humanism. That is because we all know we can twist logic to convince ourselves what is bad is actually good. Essays? You suggest yourself Catholics have done that on the contraception question.

The point is that humanism fails unless you are above that sort of thing. I don't think any human is. I think you might be misunderstanding Catholic moral theology. Natural law moral principles are based on human nature. Acting against human nature will harm human beings. That is the legitimate link between moral principles and their effects on human welfare. You should not be surprised if some Catholic moral reasoning sounds humanistic. We have been humanists since the Incarnation. Pope Paul VII pointed out the harm that would come to society if the natural law truth about human sexuality was violated. Principles and their effects go hand in hand.

No, I think I understand it quite well. I am arguing that the concept of human nature is a problematic and unnecessary one. Welfare should be the thesis statemants, guide. We need not appeal to a teleological conception of human nature - which is almost always highly selective in its description of humanity - to make ethical judgments. Natural law is another example of an a priori ethical concept which has no relevance and warps ethical reasoning. We must take human beings as we find them, and ask what promotes our welfare, regardless of any preconceived notions of our nature. So you are another one of these throw everything out and start over with an essays the american dream untested theory which will lead to who knows what horrors? How will you know what is math tests, welfare and what is a crime against humanity unless you have an essays adequate idea of what a human being is?

I'm not sure where you got that from my response. My argument is to use our best evidence drawn from millennia of ethical experience. Far from throwing everything out we must use everything we have learnt throughout a history of how to write, oppression and the struggle for greater freedom. As for determining what promotes human welfare, one of the essays, great things about people is research, that they are able to essays the american dream articulate what they desire, and we are able to math tests think through many of the factors which may be shaping their desires. I do not think many ethical questions to be as mysterious as some philosophers like to make them. Human beings are animals with basic physical and psychological desires, and satisfying those should be our first ethical priority.

After that, we must seek to create societies which maximize each individual's opportunity to flourish while minimizing the potential for the actions of one to about the american dream harm another. I don't find this a particularly complex philosophical proposition - it is the praxis which is papers, hard. So what's your problem with natural law? Here's a practical problem. Is it moral for a woman to terminate the life of her unborn child who has Down Syndrome? As to the first question, a lot hinges on who's interpretation of natural law you take. Some versions might be compatible with my ethical outlook, while others are certainly not. As for about the american, your second question, I think that depends on a lot of contextual factors: most significantly the age of the developing human.

No fixed rule is going to be able to give an book editing answer which is generalizable to all situations. How will you know what is essays the american, welfare and what is a crime against humanity unless you have an adequate idea of thesis, what a human being is? I'm not sure of the force of the question. Presumably determining which objects merit our moral regard, and to what degree, is a question which must be answered by every meta ethical approach. My response is that evidence and dream, reason is the only way to come to a defensible answer to those questions. I read your answer as It depends. To defend the human being against thesis, raw power (in this case a defenseless unborn defective child), we need a foundation for essays the american dream, human dignity.

Can your meta ethic come up with one? I was surprised then, that immediately after my offering to revise this passage, and before the stated publication date, my piece was published, without my having made the modification suggested. To be clear, James, this is research papers, somewhat misleading. About Dream? You sent me the article on July 11. I emailed you three days later about the contraception line, noting that many Catholics would disagree and that I'm worried it will divert attention from the rest of your great article. Finally, more than a month later, on essays August 17, you replied saying, Where are we on this article? Is it published already? I might be able to find another example, but this one seems to me absolutely indisputable if you look at the facts. On Monday, August 19, I replied saying I'm planning to launch the three-part series tomorrow (8/20). About The American Dream? Deacon Jim's article will go first, yours on book Wednesday (8/21), and about the american, Leah's on Thursday (8/22). I also noted, If I don't hear from you before Thursday, I'll run your piece as-is.

But if you'd like to edit that part, just send me an updated version and I'd be happy to make the change. You responded a few hours later saying, Ill come up with a different example while I examine these studies in more detail. But I didn't hear from you over the next three days and assumed you had simply chosen not to alter your original article. I published it as-is on Wednesday, August 21, just as I said I would. Therefore, it's misleading to suggest I posted your article immediately after you offered to revise this passage, as if somehow I didn't give you ample freedom (and encouragement) to thesis statemants remove it. And it's simply wrong to suggest I posted your piece before the essays about dream, stated publication date. I told you I would post it on Wednesday (8/21) and that's precisely when I posted it. So far no one seems to have any comments disagreeing with this Humanistic morality with respect to lying. I take it to mean that after two days of this series, the Catholic church isn't sure how do deal with lying all the time and research papers, neither are humanists.

But both seem to think it is immoral to essays lie when there are negative human consequences rather than avoiding negative human consequences. Where is the theist aspect of theistic morality? What do you mean by theistic aspect of research papers, theistic morality? How do theists apply morality different than humanists when it comes to about dream lying. We are constantly told that theistic morality is superior because it somehow is based on objective morality? Well where is fun college, this objective morality? How do theists access it in order to know when to lie? We agree, it is wrong to essays dream kill, unless it is not. Editing? It is wrong to lie, unless it is justified.

The justifications are always human. What is wrong with the moral approach to lying set out above? What is missing from it, and why is the about, missing piece important? Let's go back to math tests basics. About? The Catholic Church believes in the natural law, which every human being can know by properly looking at the reality of human nature.

So there is no reason why a humanist could not discover it. Essays? In fact, we could say that the first humanists to discover the natural law were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. This is the objective reality that Catholics and right-minded humanists refer to. Verry good questions--as I mentioned in essays about the american, my post, I really don't think we Catholics and humanists/atheists are too far apart on this one. Instead, we're all needing to apply basic moral principles to specific concrete cases.

I'm looking forward to part three of the series tomorrow for additional insights. And, as the above discussion of contraception shows, a Humanistic approach reigns there too: consider the evidence, and do what works to reduce human suffering. What is so interesting about these debates is how deeply Humanistic ethical assumptions have pervaded even the mightiest bastions of faith! And, as the above discussion of contraception shows, a Humanistic approach reigns there too: consider the evidence, and do what works to reduce human suffering. Research? What is so interesting about these debates is essays about the american, how deeply Humanistic ethical assumptions have pervaded even the mightiest bastions of faith! Or perhaps the math tests, other way around :) Catholics had been reducing suffering for centuries before Humanism showed up on the scene. That may be true (and I'm perfectly willing to accept it) - but my point was meta-ethical, not practical. My point is essays about the american, that the method of ethical reasoning on display here is Humanistic, and that this is in fun college, very stark contrast to the american dream the types of analyzing visuals, ethical reasoning traditionally related to religious perspectives. If you read the sort of ethical reasoning on display from about the american dream, many leaders in traditional faith communities today - even progressive ones - you will often hear methods of ethical reasoning which do not put human welfare at the center. And that, to me, is thesis, a distinct problem.

Two points: Croft's attempt to define a lie is unnecessarily awkward. And although good will is an excellent way to explain the principle, there remains unreasonable bias against the lie. I would also say that this is a topic that should only be discussed by accomplished liars. A lie is an intentional deceit. Essays Dream? Attempting to relate it to what, if anything, is spoken muddies the definition. I have, on occasion, deliberately brought my credibility and/or impartiality into book editing process question and then flatly stated the completely accurate and essays, relevant truth. It's an especially effective method, leaving your adversaries without the slightest doubt that they have the full truth in mind despite your best effort to math tests mislead them. On the second point. Essays Dream? You inform your allies and you mislead your adversaries. If your design is moral, then so are your statements when earnestly made to reach those moral objectives. With this said, it may at essay, first seem that you should lie half the time and be accurate the other half, but in the american dream, fact, the thesis statemants, bias goes to accuracy for three reasons: First, you talk to your allies more often than your adversaries.

Second, when talking to you adversaries, many of your statements should be accurate so that your lies will be believed. Third, if the situation is ambiguous, leading with useful, accurate, but safe information is more likely to lead to a friendlier (more ally-filled) world. One more item. If I have convinced you that there is no moral issue with lying, you may still prefer to firmly hold to the position that lying is very bad and should only essays the american be used in the most extreme situations. Not only will this enhance your credibility in some circles, it may influence others to tell the truth more often themselves. I would also say that this is a topic that should only analyzing visuals be discussed by accomplished liars.

But then why would we believe their answers? I don't think I attempted to define a lie. Indeed this was one of my primary points! It seems that the big difference between the Catholic and non-religious position on this issue is about dream, one of authority. Research? The end-point is the same for now, but may not be in the future. James Croft says that lying is essays about, acceptable in cases when good will runs up against analyzing visuals essay, truthfulness.

Jim Russell says that lying is the american dream, acceptable in some cases justified by the common good (or natural law), as long as no official Church declaration is book, made to the contrary. Any Catholic who agrees with Jim Russell but disagrees with my assessment, answer this question: If Vatican III (or whatever new ecumenical council) dogmatically declares that lying is always wrong, will you change your mind on lying? Any Catholic who agrees with Jim Russell but disagrees with my assessment, answer this question: If Vatican III (or whatever new ecumenical council) dogmatically declares that lying is always wrong, will you change your mind on lying? That's a very interesting question, Paul. I'm partial to Augustine/Aquinas/most of essays about the american, Catholic tradition on papers this--in believing that lying is intrinsically and always wrong--so such a pronouncement wouldn't affect me. But I'd be interested to hear from other Catholics. I'm reminded in this discussion of sitting in a session with a Buddhist scholar, who, when peppered with a mess of ethical conundrums introduced me to the phrase, killing the fish to feed the dog. His point was that the complexities of life present us with moral tragedies where we're coerced between choosing wrong and wrong. The challenge (from his perspective) is to avoid either the complacency of patting ourselves on the back for essays, our cleverness in analyzing essay, using moral calculus for minimum suffering, or the despondency of obsessing over individual tragedies. These things happen, and they have consequences that need to be dealt with.

I have to agree with the point of view represented here. Judging the ethicality of a lie should be in essays about dream, a case by case scenario. You cannot simply settle for one rule on lying such as Deacon Jim’s; there are instances where this rule conflicts with morals for it to thesis be true all the time. In the essays, textbook, “Ethics in Human Communication” by how to write, Richard Johannesen, Kathleen Valde, and Karen Whedbee, they discuss the excuses usually used to make a lie permissible. About The American? “Among the essays, higher goods frequently used to justify a lie are: avoiding harm to ourselves or others; producing benefits for others; promoting fairness and essays the american dream, justice; and thesis, protecting the truth by essays about, counteracting another lie, by furthering some more important truth, or by preserving the visuals, confidence of others in our own truthfulness” (Johannesen et al., 104). Bringing these cases into the light, they can be seen as ethical or unethical in a case by essays, case situation. Ethical or not, we as humans use these excuses; That is fun college, just how we have grown to about the american act. Johannesen, R. L., Valde, K. S., Whedbee, K. Editing Process? E. Essays About? (2008). Ethics in book process, Human Communication. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. Who gets to about decide on when an telecommunication papers excuse is the american, sufficient to make a lie permissible? Who gets to decide on when an excuse is sufficient to make a lie permissible?

If you don't make the decision for yourself, who makes it for statemants, you? The decision maker actualizes the decision in both instances. The religionist however has a framework of the american, presumed objective moral imperatives, a narrative of how to a list, ultimate accountability, of being created in the image of the american dream, God, of the inherent value and meaning of creation, of ultimate accountability. The non-believer generally operates without that framework. The decision maker actualizes the decision in both instances. I'm not sure what that's supposed to mean, but it sounds Aristotelian, and I don't accept Aristotelianism. The non-believer generally operates without that framework. Not entirely. Editing Process? Most of us non-believers are quite committed to the notion of an individual's ultimate accountability for their behavior. Ultimately accountable in what way?

Accountable to what or to whom? We all live in one society or another. The American? Those societies hold us to math tests account. I don't think that is what is usually meant by ultimate accountability. Aren't human societies fairly ephemeral, in the grand scheme of the universe?

I see no reason to think the universe has any grand scheme. In this context, I take ultimate to mean final. I believe society is the final arbiter of my life. Essays About The American? To fulfill that role, ephemeral though my society could be, it needs to survive only as long as I do. I believe society is the final arbiter of my life Even if society judges you unfairly?

(Or is math tests, society's judgement fair by essays about dream, definition in your view?) For most of my life, society has been judging me in ways that I haven't liked at all. It would be really nice if I could look forward to another life in which I would be compensated for that, but I can't believe it's going to happen just because of thesis, how much it please me if it did. Whether you will be in any sense compensated is really a separate question, I think. My question is whether you think that society's judgement of your life is / will be (at least partly) incorrect. If society's judgement of essays about dream, you is at least partly incorrect, that logically entails some higher standard, according to which society's judgements may themselves be judged. If society's judgement of you is at least partly incorrect, that logically entails some higher standard, according to which society's judgements may themselves be judged. It might or might not be useful to call it a higher standard.

I don't believe it is a transcendental standard. Call it what you want. Math Tests? If society can be wrong in essays about the american dream, its judgements of people, then there must be some vantage point, or perspective, or whatever, from which it is statemants, possible to judge society's judgements. So again, call it what you want, it still logically implies that society is not the about the american dream, final arbiter of the rightness or wrongness of the decisions that you make with your life. I meant that society was final arbiter in the sense of having the last word during my lifetime, since I don't have the means to oppose any decision it makes. A subsequent generation, if it should be aware of how society treated me, might agree with my judgment that I was not fairly treated, but that won't do me any good now. Telecommunication Papers? I don't see how the essays about the american dream, judgment of essays, any transcendent authority, even if there is essays about, one, could make a difference unless that authority has the power to give me a new life after this one and to statemants compensate me for how I was treated in this one. But again, I'm not talking about whether it does you any good. I'm just trying to flesh out the logical consequences of what you already believe, whether those consequences are good or bad. Yes, OK, a future generation can potentially cast judgement on the judgements of the present generation.

That's just kicking the can down the essays about dream, road. Is it possible that future generations will be wrong about you as well? If so, then your thinking logically implies some notion of wrongness that is not tethered to what societies (past, present, and future) think. But again, I'm not talking about whether it does you any good. I'm just trying to flesh out the logical consequences of what you already believe, whether those consequences are good or bad. In my worldview, when it comes to my ethical principles, the only logical consequences that matter are whether they are consistent with everything else I believe. I'm not looking for any other validation because I see no reason to write believe that another source of validation exists.

the only logical consequences that matter are whether they are consistent with everything else I believe. That's all that I'm trying to investigate. Do you not see any logical inconsistency between. Society is the final arbiter of the rightness or wrongness of the way that I have lived my life. Society could be wrong in its assessment of the rightness or wrongness of the way that I have lived my life. Do you not see any logical inconsistency between. Society is the about, final arbiter of the telecommunication, rightness or wrongness of the essays about the american dream, way that I have lived my life. Society could be wrong in its assessment of the rightness or wrongness of the way that I have lived my life. I see the apparent inconsistency.

I tried to resolve it. Perhaps my explanation lacked sufficient clarity. I’ll try again. It goes to the sense of “final arbiter” where the sense has to do with the ontological status of ethical principles. If those principles exist independently of any human mind, then no human person or group of people can be the final arbiter of any ethical issue. But if those principles are, as I believe them to be, human judgments and nothing more, then the final arbiter is whichever person or group has the power, in analyzing essay, case of any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over the american anyone else’s judgment. Their judgment is final in that sense only. It did not mean final in the sense of “no longer subject to dispute.” In the United States, the U.S.

Supreme Court is the final arbiter of constitutional disputes. At any given time, the Constitution means whatever a majority of the justices say it means. In 1896, the court’s majority declared in Plessy v. Ferguson that the Constitution neither contained nor implied any prohibition as such against Southern laws segregating the races. The court’s ruling was, in effect, the final word on the matter until 1954. In that year, the same court, although comprising different people, had a contrary final word.

Prevailing public opinion nowadays is that the justices in telecommunication research, 1896 were simply mistaken. A minority view is that Plessy was the essays about the american, right decision at the time, considering the nation’s historical racial situation, and only became wrong when the nation’s racial attitudes became sufficiently enlightened. In either case, at the present moment in history, the final word declares racial segregation to be constitutionally impermissible. Is there, or was there ever, an objective fact of the matter, such that that fact would be the actual final arbiter? I think not. The only objective fact is that the Constitution contains a certain statement in certain words including “equal protection of the how to write, laws” regarding limits to the authority of state governments. The meaning of that statement is for us, the users of the language in essays the american, which it was written, to decide.

I can decide what it means to me, anyone else can decide what it means for them. Papers? The language belongs to none of us individually. About Dream? But we have agreed as a society that in certain situations, the only decision that matters is math tests, that of a majority of the justices currently serving on essays about the american dream the Supreme Court. Any of us is free to disagree with the court at any time. Many Americans disagree fervently with court’s decision in Roe v. Wade , but the court had the final word in process, 1973 and, for the time being, it remains the final word so far as the law is concerned. About Dream? Legality does not have to imply moral acceptability.

The interpretation of any legal document is a matter of judgment, and at analyzing, any given time, somebody’s judgment has to essays about be final, but we need not treat any final judgment as the analyzing essay, only possible correct judgment, and essays about, we need not suppose that there is visuals essay, some objective fact as to essays about the american dream what that correct judgment is. Judgments are more or less defensible, depending on the persuasiveness of the arguments offered in their support. Sometimes we need to math tests let somebody—a final arbiter—have the last word, but we remain free as individuals to disagree with the final arbiter; and, as time passes and about the american, new people have to live with the consequences of the final arbiter’s decision, they can ask a new final arbiter to reconsider the previous decision. the final arbiter is whichever person or group has the power, in case of any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over anyone else’s judgment. That is a pretty clear articulation of might makes right, is math tests, it not? For the sake of argument, I'm open to the possibility that might does indeed make right, but let me first see if you want to about the american dream create any white space between your position and the might makes right position. U.S. Supreme Court is the fun college, final arbiter of constitutional disputes. Right. They can reject laws by appealing to essays a document with greater authority, the Constitution. Legality does not have to imply moral acceptability.

Right, that's why your comments about constitutionality seem irrelevant, unless there is statemants, some sort of dream, analogy that you can create here. We can rationally argue against laws by appealing to the Constitution :: We can rationally argue that a state of affairs is immoral by appealing to . what? Or is there no rational way to argue that a state of telecommunication papers, affairs is immoral, and the american dream, we just call things immoral when they don't correspond to the opinions of whichever person or group has the power, in case of any disagreement, to essay make their judgment prevail over essays about anyone else’s judgment ? That is a pretty clear articulation of might makes right, is essays, it not? I can understand why it might seem so, but no, I don’t believe it is. It would be “might makes right” if I were claiming that whatever decision was reached by the prevailing party was always the essays, right decision, but I’m not claiming that. Legality does not have to imply moral acceptability. Right, that's why your comments about constitutionality seem irrelevant, unless there is essays, some sort of analogy that you can create here. The analogy arises from the fact that legal decisions and moral decisions are both matters of judgment, not of fact.

We can rationally argue against laws by appealing to dream the Constitution. But the argument is over how the Constitution should be interpreted, and a matter of visuals, interpretation is a matter of judgment. We can rationally argue that a state of affairs is immoral by essays about, appealing to statemants . what? To our moral values. If we believe human life has moral value, then we will judge certain states of affairs to be morally unacceptable and others to be morally unacceptable. Likewise, if we believe that any diminution of human suffering has moral value, then we will judge certain states of affairs to be morally unacceptable, but if we believe that certain kinds of human suffering have moral value, then we will judge some of those same states of affairs to be morally acceptable.

Or is essays about the american dream, there no rational way to thesis statemants argue that a state of affairs is immoral, and we just call things immoral when they don't correspond to the opinions of whichever person or group has the power, in case of essays about the american dream, any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over anyone else’s judgment I have my own criteria for judging the moral acceptability of any state of affairs, and in general those criteria make no reference to the opinions of people in power. [We appeal to] our moral values. Aren't our moral values themselves based on judgements? Can't those judgements themselves be wrong? And if so, from what frame of reference can those judgements themselves be judged to be wrong? Aren't our moral values themselves based on judgements? In my worldview, our moral values are themselves just judgments. Can't those judgements themselves be wrong? We do or don't value certain things and we live our lives accordingly. The result will be a certain quality of life.

If we find the quality of our lives unsatisfactory we should consider the possibility that we need to telecommunication research change our values. I think it's illogical to value things that make us unhappy. OK, so we can judge the way that you live your life by appealing to moral values, and we can judge those moral values by appealing to the happiness that results when those values are pursued. In that case it sounds to me like the about dream, ultimate arbiter of the way that you live your life is you, since you are best able to assess your own happiness. Or do we need to essays appeal to some sort of collective societal happiness? The interests of society are inseparable from my own interests. Yeah, I agree with that, as long as interests is essays the american, sufficiently caveated. At a superficial level, I have an interest in eating a nice juicy steak a couple times a week. That carnivorous interest is how to write a list, pretty surely at odds with society's interest of reducing world hunger and preventing ecological catastrophe. Of course, at a deeper level, I share those societal interests, and about the american dream, I think it makes sense to judge my superficial interests by appealing to my deeper interests. Would you agree with that?

If so, I think the chain of command is shaping up along the lines of: 1. We can rationally judge the way you live your life by essays, appealing to moral values. 2. We can rationally judge moral values by appealing to the consequences of pursuing those moral values, and whether those consequences are in our interest. 3. We can rationally judge our superficial interests by about, appealing to how to write a list some sort of deeper, more communally defined interest. (That's a bit vague, but I'm fine with some ambiguity; if you want to dream make that more precise, please do.) So if we are nearing then end of the line, then what is the write, nature of this deeper, more communally defined interest? Does this deeper societal interest correspond in any way to essays the neo-Platonic transcendentals of analyzing, truth, love, justice, beauty, being? 3. We can rationally judge our superficial interests by appealing to some sort of deeper, more communally defined interest. (That's a bit vague, but I'm fine with some ambiguity; if you want to dream make that more precise, please do.) I'm OK with some vagueness. Thesis Statemants? I think humanity's ethical instincts are still evolving, and so nobody should claim to have worked out an ethical moral code in complete detail. I hesitate to subordinate either personal or social interests to the other.

I probably need society more than society needs me, but a society that devalues the interests of any of its members won't be a maximally healthy society. There will be conflicts, but they need to judged case by case. unless that authority has the power to give me a new life after this one and to compensate me for how I was treated in this one. What if that authority does exist with those powers, would you be receptive to that judgement? What if that authority does exist with those powers, would you be receptive to that judgement? I think it unlikely that I would have a choice.

Good point. Essays Dream? Although the research, way I understand it, denying that you should expect that judgement is the only way to receive the harshest sentence. That's what I've often heard. Fortunately for my peace of mind, I've never also heard a good reason to believe it. And even if it is true, there is about dream, nothing rational I can do about thesis it. Essays About Dream? If, in the judgment of the ruler of the universe, my skepticism deserves eternal punishment, then people like me are simply without hope. Our doubt is, in effect, the unforgivable sin.

I am sorry to hear about that experience, Doug. I suppose that society in general and fun college essays, us Christians in particular can be very judgmental. That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of about the american dream, us have that? Where does it come from? Does it have any evolutionary benefit? Or is book editing, it a call from essays about, somewhere, a call to come home? Just like our wishes do not create reality, so should we also be careful in not being numb to those wishes. They may be trying to tell us something. That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? Why do you think these notions are not to be found in the Old Testament?

Firstly, I do think that there are traces of how to a list, a need for justice and dream, accountability in sections of the OT. The Israelites in telecommunication research, captivity started sensing this need, a lot of the prophets hint at some retribution, some accountability in the future. This may not be in the traditional (to us) Heaven matrix, but the hints are there. Secondly, I believe that God is working with humanity in a slow, patient way. We are not made perfect, we are allowed to about grow in that direction. How To Write? Things are revealed to us gradually, through science, through our consciousness and our consciences. Maybe those ideas had to essays be discovered, developed over time. Maybe those ideas had to be discovered, developed over time. In particular, maybe something unique in history happened between the OT and the NT that would have triggered an aha moment :-)

I'm not sure what you mean here, but New Testament times in math tests, my understanding stretch back to include the about, events recounted in the New Testament, not just the times in telecommunication research, which the books of the New Testament were composed. Christian ideas about about the american dream life after death do not come from the Old Testament, but from strains of Jewish thought after the book process, close of essays the american dream, Old Testament times, some of which did not make it into telecommunication research mainstream Judaism. For example, it is clear from the New Testament that some Jewish factions believed in the resurrection of the dead and some did not. Christian ideas about life after death do not come from the Old Testament. I think that is essays, a very substantial oversimplification. It seems more fair to say that there are both continuities and discontinuities between Jewish (Second Temple Jewish, let's say) and write a list, Christian ideas about the afterlife. In other words, some elements of Christian thought about life after death do not derive from the Old Testament. About The American Dream? Of course, if you accept N.T. Wright's arguments (as I generally do), then many Christian ideas about life after death do not derive from the visuals, New Testament either!

Christian ideas about life after death do not come from the Old Testament, but from the american dream, strains of Jewish thought after the close of Old Testament times, some of which did not make it into how to a list mainstream Judaism. This again seems like an oversimplification. From what we can tell, there are both continuities and discontinuities in the ways that resurrection was envisioned / understood by those pre-Christian Jewish sects and the way it was understood by essays about the american, the early Christian Church. I meant to suggest that the discontinuities could potentially be explained by some sort of outward historical event that triggered a very specific change in thinking about what the resurrection would be like (as opposed to explaining the discontinuities in terms of the subjective whimsy of telecommunication research, early Christian authors). I wrote my comments about the differences between the Old Testament and the New Testament regarding the afterlife in response to this comment from Lazarus: That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? My point is that in Old Testament times, this sense of final (and eternal) reward and the american, punishment was absent.

It would take a book (which I am not competent to write) to do the subject justice, but for analyzing, my purposes here, I think it is sufficient to point out that those of us having this discussion here have an idea of final justice and eternal reward and punishment not because such ideas are natural and inborn, but because we have been raised Christian. In a book-length treatment of the subject, it would surely possible to find (particularly in essays about the american, later Old Testament works) hints of what was to develop in later Judaism. However, the idea of dying and going to heaven (or hell) is simply not to be found in the Old Testament. Whatever reward for telecommunication research, devotion to God was expected by Old Testament figures, it was expected either in this life or for about the american dream, their descendants (or Israel). I am working somewhat without a net here, but when Job is analyzing essay, urged to curse God and die, I think the idea is about dream, clear that Job could end his suffering by goading God into killing him. Papers? There is the american dream, no hint of an afterlife in such an idea. How To Write? I would be very interested if you or anyone could point out the case of an Old Testament figure who expects there to the american be an math tests afterlife either for dream, him/herself or anyone else. Whatever reward for devotion to God was expected by Old Testament figures, it was expected either in this life or for papers, their descendants (or Israel).

That seems like a reasonable way to put it, but that's a good bit different from saying that there was no sense of a final justice and harmony that God would bring about. Just to take one of the essays about the american, more famous examples, I understand that Isaiah 11:6-9 is describing a vision of a mostly-this-worldly perhaps-not-eternal kingship. Math Tests? Nonetheless: it is essays the american, holding out for thesis, a glorious day when God will set things right, and superabundantly so. To suggest that that semi-eschatological vision doesn't enjoy substantial continuity with later Christian eschatology would be, I think, wrong. (Perhaps you didn't intend to about suggest any such thing.) those of us having this discussion here have an idea of final justice and telecommunication research papers, eternal reward and punishment not because such ideas are natural and inborn, but because we have been raised Christian. To put it mildly, that is not obvious to me. Secondly, I believe that God is working with humanity in a slow, patient way. I don't see how God can work patiently, since as I understand the Christian conception of God, he exists in some kind of eternal now and does not experience before and after. Also, it seems to me that Revelation in Judaism and essays the american, Christianity does not come incrementally, but in major bursts, the how to, last of which (for believing Catholics) was the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus. As I keep noting, the dream, Catholic belief is that Revelation ended with the death of the last apostle.

Anything new in the past 2000 years has allegedly been deduced from what was already known. As for the idea of how to, God gradually leading mankind along, I see problems with that. For one thing, a great deal of God's commands in the Old Testament make no sense. Essays About? The ritual and ceremonial requirements (e.g., don't eat pork, don't weave cloth with two kinds of material, stay away from menstruating women) were obeyed basically without understanding. If God could give arbitrary commands back in Old Testament times, why couldn't he have prohibited slavery, even if that seemed bewildering at the time and only gradually came to be understood as fundamental human morality? I think it is clearly true that a great deal developed over the last 2000 years (or 4000 years), but aside from the great bursts of Revelation (principally Moses and book process, Jesus), I don't see that the developments were nudged along by essays the american dream, God. For the believing Catholic those nudges need not come from prophets or from how to a list, God's incarnation. They may be there in the image of God, in our conscience, our very minds. That is essays the american, why so few of us are Biblical literalists. A List? God speaks to essays about dream us in telecommunication research, many ways.

Some of what we hear are our own wishes and about, goals. The trick lies in discernment. We do see a moral arc to the universe, do we not? A gradual improvement- as if we are guided. Statemants? Either that or our blind, indifferent universe has inadvertently led to this clear improvement, and essays about the american, continues to do so. I continue to be surprised that some Catholics here tend almost to downplay Divine Revelation and, I might add, the role of the Church and book editing process, the Magisterium.

There is a lot more natural theology on this site than Catholic theology. We do see a moral arc to the universe, do we not? I am somewhat confused by your reference to the universe. I certainly don't see a moral arc to the universe. Are you speaking of the essays the american, human race? I would not know how to begin measuring the morality of the essay, human race over the past several thousand years. Essays? From the viewpoint of Christianity, I am not at analyzing, all sure Western democracy and capitalism constitute a high point in morality. Either that or our blind, indifferent universe has inadvertently led to about this clear improvement, and continues to do so. Human culture is shaped by human beings, not by the universe. I am certainly not downplaying divine revelation or the role of the math tests, Church and the Magisterium, and have no idea why you would think so.

I answered your specific question about the OT. We seem to have a difference of opinion as to the moral progress made by humanity over the ages. I believe that there is a clear improvement in that regard, and I ascribed that to those examples of causes that Christians would believe are at work. If we accept that, there would indeed be a noticeable difference in our moral views as contrasted to the OT. Since for each individual human being, the end is either heaven or hell, why should moral development over time for essays about the american dream, the entire human race be of fun college, any significance? I suppose if we imagine life after death to be the resurrection of the dead and continued life on earth, then there might be some point in continued moral progress, in that those who come along late in the lifetime of humanity would be better equipped to organize a post-resurrection society. But I would expect the more reasonable idea would be that at essays about, the resurrection of the dead, all will be enlightened in some way, so that our distant human ancestors and our distant descendants will be equals.

Of course, any ideas about life after death are purely speculative. Thomas Sowell's book, Conflict of Visions, spells out the claim that there are basically two competing visions. One vision is based on the denial of original sin, so man's potential is statemants, unlimited, the Unconstrained Vision. Essays? The Constrained vision accepts original sin and believes that man's potential is limited due to thesis the wounds of original sin. It's not fool-proof since you, David, normally deny original sin but seem to be more aligning with the constrained vision. Maybe hell is empty. Essays About? Maybe we get graded on a curve. So we just need to maintain a good GPA = God Prayer Average ? I am sorry to hear about how to a list that experience, Doug. Thank you, but I do have this satisfaction: Life handed me a bushel of lemons, and I've managed to make some darned good lemonade. That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of essays the american dream, us have that? Where does it come from?

Does it have any evolutionary benefit? Or is it a call from somewhere, a call to come home? I'm aware of no proof that it can't be a call to come home. I don't think there is an evolutionary benefit in the belief itself. Math Tests? For one thing, it seems many societies have had no such belief. If it were a product of evolution, it would likely be more universal. I do believe, though, that our brains were wired to essays dream perform certain logical shortcuts in forming beliefs in order to make quick decisions in situations that didn't allow time for gathering all relevant facts and how to write a list, subjecting them to rigorous scientific analysis. Those decisions didn't have to always be correct in order to keep us alive. They had to be correct just often enough to make survival more likely than death. And in other situations, where survival was not even an essays about issue, correctness was simply beside the point as far as natural selection was concerned. Just like our wishes do not create reality, so should we also be careful in not being numb to those wishes.

They may be trying to tell us something. I agree that it would be silly to write treat our desires as epistemologically irrelevant. Of course it cannot be a proof proper. Then it would be very much a demand, would it not? Then it would be very much a demand, would it not? So what if it was, as long as I could freely choose to ignore it? Do you think that proof of anything at all is a violation of your free will, or only proofs of about the american, religious doctrines? Proof of God, in the mathematical sense, could indeed compromise free will, it could compel us rather than entice us. But it could also have other negative consequences. If God was a mathematical certainty, how many people would stick around down here and not hasten the meeting with God? Proof of God, in analyzing visuals, the mathematical sense, could indeed compromise free will.

That doesn't answer my question. Is it only your religious beliefs for about the american, which proof would compromise your free will? If God was a mathematical certainty, how many people would stick around down here and not hasten the meeting with God? That would depend, I should think, on whether they were also given proof that hastening their deaths would result in their going to write a list hell. My religious beliefs deal with some pretty big issues, mainly life after death as far as this discussion is concerned.

Proof in about the american dream, other spheres of life does tend to limit one's free will, obviously in a much more mundane, even irrelevant sense. Proof that smoking harms me effectively takes away that choice, proof that my son did a stupid thing binds me to fix the problem. But all of these are trivial examples, people differ in their responses to such real or imagined proof. True and real proof of math tests, God's existence falls in a completely different category. It is so different from anything else that any comparisons are meaningless. As to about the effects of such sure knowledge of God, I still believe that God HAS to be hidden, has to be a hint, an telecommunication research papers invitation. Sure knowledge would lead to essays the american dream chaotic consequences. People would be overwhelmed by those consequences. Proof in other spheres of life does tend to limit one's free will, obviously in a much more mundane, even irrelevant sense. I agree in a way.

If I perceive that something has been proved, I cannot disbelieve by a mere act of will. But I also can't see a reason I should wish I could. As far as I can figure out, it cannot be in editing, my best interest to believe anything that is essays about the american dream, contrary to fact. But that is exactly why it seems reasonable to me to always seek the truth in math tests, good faith, regardless of what I might wish the truth were. True and about dream, real proof of God's existence falls in how to a list, a completely different category. I know that we both seek truth, with different current assessments.

The existence of essays, God is, in my view, the ultimate mystery, the biggest question we can ask, regardless of our answer.

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The American Dream: Essays on the …

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Only one right answer per question Time limit = 30 minutes Only one opportunity to . take the how to write a list, quiz In order to best prepare for the quiz it would be a good idea to review chapters 1- 5 in the E-book as well as complete this study guide. 1. What is the difference between credible and non-credible sources? Provide an example or two of each kind. The difference between credible and about the american dream, non credible sources is credible sources are believable. Citation , Grammatical person , Hard return 666 Words | 3 Pages. Human Interaction in editing the Sahara Desert. Human Interactions Over the past years the Sahara desert has changed as a result of about dream human interactions. Such as tourism, mining . for oil, military testings, nuclear bombings and pollution. How To Write A List? Deserti?cation is one of the many negative human interactions in the Sahara Desert . Deserti?cation is caused by climatic changes, over-grazing, deforestation for fuel or materials, droughts and ploughing the land for agriculture, these all led to the soil eroding away leaving the unprotected layer drying out in. Africa , Desert , Desertification 565 Words | 2 Pages. EASY WAY TO MAKE AN ESSAY Name: Rani Ersalina Trisnawati Class: Accounting 3/ 2011 ID Number: 008201100039 Mr.

Marc President . Essays About? university Jababeka education park Jalan ki hajar dewantara Cikarang The word Essay coming from the term Assay which means “to try”, try to explain people, method, and how to a list, everything that can be explained. Essay needs at about least five paragraphs that consist of one introductory paragraph , three main body paragraphs and math tests, one concluding paragraph . About The American? Introductory is telecommunication papers, the. Essays About The American Dream? Copy editing , Editing , Essay 860 Words | 3 Pages. How To Write A List? can successfully construct a four- paragraph expository essay (introduction, two body paragraphs , and conclusion), . About The American Dream? as well as revise and edit their essay using a rubric and pre-established classroom criteria. The student should present a perspective on American values using logically sound and grammatically correct paragraphs , basing their reasoning on clearly stated themes and math tests, concrete, illustrative examples. Essays About? The produced paragraphs will be evaluated from 0 to 5 based on three categories: organization.

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Duty of care and medical negligence. Tel: +44 114 243 4343. Daniele Bryden, FRCA LLB (Hons) MML, Ian Storey, LLB (Hons); Duty of care and about dream, medical negligence, Continuing Education in Anaesthesia Critical Care Pain , Volume 11, Issue 4, 1 August 2011, Pages 124–127, Download citation file: © 2017 Oxford University Press. Negligence arising from medical acts may result in telecommunication research a civil action by the injured party (claimant) or a criminal prosecution by about, the state. Medical negligence is proved if all components of the three-part test are established on the balance of probabilities (civil suit) or beyond reasonable doubt (criminal prosecution). The three-part test establishes that the editing process, doctor owed a duty of care to the patient, the duty of care was breached, and as a direct result of the breach the patient suffered harm. Successful civil actions result in essays the american monetary compensation to telecommunication research papers the injured party or dependents which may be paid by the employing trust or the doctor's defence organization. Successful criminal prosecutions may result in a custodial sentence for the doctor and an additional GMC fitness to practice hearing. Good record keeping and adherence to established practice guidelines are important as negligence cases may take many years to the american be resolved.

The Department of Health estimates that 10% of hospital inpatient admissions result in an adverse event, 1 but 2% of claims for medical negligence handled by the NHS Litigation Authority result in court action. 2 However, both the number of claims for fun college essays negligence and the sums involved in essays about the american settlement are increasing and so it is important that anaesthetists understand the factors leading to a possible civil claim for negligence and the potentially considerably more serious charge of criminal negligence, both of which can arise from book editing process failures to uphold a suitable standard of care. This article does not consider claims of negligence in relation to consent which has been considered in a separate article in the journal. The principle of ‘duty of care’ was established by Donoghue v Stevenson in 1932 wherein Lord Atkin identified that there was a general duty to take reasonable care to essays the american avoid forseeable injury to a ‘neighbour’. 3 In this case, a woman in book editing process Paisley drank ginger beer from a bottle until she found a decomposing snail at the bottom. As a result the woman became ill and a case was brought against the ginger beer manufacturers for compensation. Lord Atkin determined that the company producing the ginger beer had been negligent in failing to ensure the woman's safety during the production process, even though the ginger beer was not bought by the woman but by her friend.

It was established that a general duty of care was owed to a neighbour; a neighbour was defined as ‘someone who may be reasonably contemplated as closely and directly affected by an act’. In this case, it did not matter who had bought the ginger beer, since it was reasonable to consider that anyone who drank the beer would have suffered the same consequences and could therefore be considered under the ‘neighbour’ principle. Where a duty of care is breached, liability for negligence may arise. Medical negligence is part of a branch of law called tort (delict in Scotland) derived from the Latin verb ‘tortere’=to hurt. The idea of hurt is an important consideration in establishing negligence, as the majority of tortious claims for medical negligence that do not succeed fail because they cannot establish that harm has occurred as a direct result of an act or a failure to act. To determine negligence, a three-stage test must be satisfied. Essays! The procedure therefore relies on establishing fault on visuals essay the part of the doctor, hospital, etc.

The person making the the american, claim (the claimant) must establish on the balance of probabilities that negligence has occurred by the hospital or doctor (the defendant). Compensation is paid in order to return the claimant to the position they would theoretically have been if the harm had not occurred. A monetary value will attach not just to actual expenses incurred (to include a loss of earnings) but additionally to the loss of amenity experienced and the pain and suffering endured in consequence of the injury. Process! There are also more philosophical objectives of promoting accountability and about, ensuring that those at fault are deterred from future acts of carelessness by fun college essays, the need to pay compensation. This deterrent effect is somewhat reduced by a standard fee for professional indemnity for NHS-employed doctors unless the doctor is engaged in independent practice. The Clinical Negligence Scheme for Trusts (CNST) does include such a deterrent element, since the about the american dream, premiums payable by a Trust to indemnify its activities can be reduced by having appropriate measures in place to reduce the likelihood of claims using a three-level rating system that takes account of the robustness of safety and governance processes in math tests operation. 4. A person is owed a duty of the american care. A breach if that duty of care is established. As a direct result of thesis that breach, legally recognized harm has been caused. The relationship between a doctor and essays, a patient is a special one.

Most anaesthetists work in a hospital environment and analyzing visuals essay, do not usually have patients directly admitted under their care. About! When a patient is admitted to hospital, a duty of care relationship is created, which can be applied to any doctor coming into contact with the patient not just the admitting team. Hence, it has been argued by medical law academics that any patient we come across in our professional environment is telecommunication research papers owed a duty of care, not only by the doctors the about the american dream, patient comes into contact with, but also by those who are employed by the Trust to deliver patient care. For example, a patient who has a cardiac arrest on math tests a hospital corridor is owed a duty of care by any doctor who happens to be passing, and provision of assistance in such circumstances would probably be expected and would not be classed as a ‘good Samaritan’ act, however this academic view has not currently been tested in a British court environment to our knowledge. This is established where a doctor's practice has failed to essays the american meet an appropriate standard.

The standard of the ‘reasonable man’ or the famous ‘man on the Clapham omnibus’ who is said to be an thesis statemants ordinary person placed in the same circumstances is usually applied for most tort cases. However, where there has been a potential breach of professional duty, this is reinterpreted as that of the standard of comparable professional practice. Bolam v Friern Hospital Trust is the most well-known case in relation to this professional standard. 5 It concerned a patient who sustained fractures during ECT treatment and about the american dream, who alleged that care under anaesthesia had been negligent in part because he had not been given muscle relaxation for the procedure, and had not been restrained or warned of the analyzing visuals, risks of fracture. It was concluded, however, that negligence could not be established, as evidence was provided that at the time it was not universal practice to administer muscle relaxation, as contrasting opinions existed as to the benefits of muscle relaxation balanced against the increased risks of the relaxant. It was argued that if a doctor acted in accordance with a practice that was considered acceptable by a responsible body of doctors that was sufficient and the claimant must show that no reasonable doctor acting in the same circumstances would have acted in about the american dream that way. Visuals! The ‘Bolam standard’ (by which the alleged negligent practice is about the american compared with that of a doctor's peers) is subject to criticism and heavily dependent on expert evidence for either side which may be in math tests conflict; however, this is the dream, same test as for other professional groups where negligence is under consideration (e.g. engineers). It has been argued that the presence of a body of opinion that supports a doctor's actions is in favour of the medical profession, handing responsibility for determining negligence back on to those same professionals. Support from analyzing essay eminent professionals for a course of action arguably makes it easier to defend claims of a breach of duty.

The Bolam test is still frequently considered in cases of medical negligence, but it is not definitive, as subsequent cases have called in to doubt the idea that an acceptable standard of care is judged by doctors commenting on practice standards and that it may be part of the essays dream, role of the court. ‘The court must be vigilant to fun college essays see whether the reasons given for putting a patient at risk are valid … or whether they stem from a residual adherence to essays out of date ideas’. Fun College! 6 Since the case of essays dream Bolitho, where a child with intermittent croup was not intubated by fun college essays, a paediatric registrar and subsequently suffered hypoxic brain injury from a respiratory arrest, it is possible for the court to about the american dream decide that negligence has been proved even if a body of medical opinion suggests otherwise. 7 In Bolitho, it was accepted that failure by the paediatric registrar to attend to the child during an research papers earlier episode of croup was negligent. However, it was argued that even if the registrar had attended, it would not have been appropriate to intubate the child at that point, and that therefore the about the american, final subsequent respiratory arrest and hypoxic brain injury sustained by the child could not have been prevented by earlier action. The judge reasoned that the argument that a failure to attend the child would not have made any difference to the eventual outcome was inconclusive and asserted that on some occasions, differing bodies of medical opinion could be legitimately distinguished by the court. Book Process! ‘It is not enough for a defendant to call a number of doctors to say that what he had done or not done was in accord with accepted clinical practice. Essays About The American Dream! It is necessary for the judge to consider that evidence and [to] decide whether that clinical practice puts that patient unnecessarily at risk’. Bolitho, however, is not universally applied and telecommunication papers, many judgements of negligence still rely on the principles of peer review outlined in Bolam, although the greater use of evidence-based medicine, and the extensive practice guidelines produced by bodies like NICE, now allows judges to have objective benchmarks of practice for comparison. It is less easy for doctors to rely on providing a supporting body of opinion as a defence for an alleged breach of duty for practice that is contrary to recommendations and guidelines from external agencies.

There is, however, an understanding that progress in medical knowledge takes some time to be disseminated and about dream, not every new change can be immediately put in to practice. Fun College Essays! In Crawford v Board of Governors of Charing Cross Hospital , a patient sustained a brachial plexus injury from being in about one position for too long a time period. 8 An article describing such a complication had been published 6 months previously. However, the anaesthetist had not read this article and was not aware of its implications and so was found not to thesis statemants have breached their duty of care to the patient. Moreover, errors of judgement do not automatically amount to breaches of duty. They only do so in circumstances where the essays, doctor has not acted with a level of care that would be expected from fun college a reasonably competent professional. For doctors in training, this is of particular relevance, as the standard is that expected of the doctor in the same grade of essays that specialty or in that unit.

There is an assumption, established in Nettleship v Weston where a learner driver lost control of a car, that there should be a public expectation of safety, and that doctors in training should be acting to the standard of the grade they are operating in. 9 There are therefore no concessions for a lack of relevant experience, and a doctor in the first day of a new post is expected to work to the same standard of public safety as one who is on the last day of the post. The difference in performance of the two relates to book editing the degree by which the new doctor may be expected to essays about consult and seek assistance to how to write a list compensate for their relative lack of knowledge or skill and the degree to which they should expect to be supervised. We would argue that there is an expectation that supervisors allow trainees to do work only essays the american that they believe them to be capable of doing. The onus therefore is math tests as much on the supervising department/consultant to reassure themselves of the trainee's abilities to do the case or procedure as it does for the trainee to consult (e.g. by departmental/consultant reviews of log books on rotation changes, etc.).

Establishing causation can be difficult, as it must be demonstrated that ‘but for’ the doctor's action/inaction harm would not have occurred. Anaesthetists rarely work alone and it can sometimes be difficult to establish where the harm occurred in relation to essays the american dream an episode of medical care (e.g. paralysis after aortic aneurysm repair may be caused by the surgery or the provision of epidural analgesia). Unsurprisingly, claims for medical negligence most frequently fail due to an inability to establish causation as there are often a variety of possible explanations for statemants the outcome. However, if it can be shown that the breach materially contributed to the damage or it is essays about more likely that the damage was due to negligence than another cause that is usually sufficient. Sometimes, in the absence of any other reasonable explanation for a phenomenon, the principle of ‘res ipsa loquitur’ (literally ‘the thing speaks for itself’) applies (e.g. the finding of a retained swab in the abdomen at laparotomy can only be assumed to be due to analyzing its negligent loss during a previous laparotomy).

Such a situation would apply to procedures performed on the wrong limb/side (e.g. brachial plexus block and if damage occurs from that, then causation is assumed to essays about dream be established unless the defendant can show that there is another reasonable explanation). If negligence occurs as a result of carelessness, then where the essays, carelessness has been so severe that it is judged to be ‘gross’, the doctor may be subject to a charge of criminal negligence. Although the essays the american, requirement to editing prove criminal negligence is a much higher one (i.e. beyond reasonable doubt, the sanctions are considerably greater and may include a custodial prison sentence for any doctor found guilty of such an offence). A doctor found guilty of criminal negligence is also likely to be subject to fitness to practice procedures by the General Medical Council. Prosecutions for criminal negligence are rare, but the number of occasions when doctors are investigated by about dream, the police for a potential linkage to a charge of analyzing manslaughter after a serious untoward event are increasing.

Conduct which goes beyond the level of civil negligence almost invariably involves the death of the essays the american, patient but there are difficulties in how to write a list establishing what actions constitute this. Extreme subjective recklessness such as indifference to an obvious risk to the patient or objective evidence of incompetence or ignorance may all satisfy the requirement. It is essays about dream also of concern that recent prosecutions have generally been of doctors in training, where it is perhaps easier to establish a sufficient degree of incompetence. Ultimately, the thesis statemants, decision rests with a jury as to whether a doctor's action/inaction was so bad that it amounted to dream a crime. R v Adomako concerned an anaesthetist who had failed to statemants notice his patient was disconnected from the ventilator whilst the essays the american, patient was undergoing an eye operation. The patient suffered a fatal cardiac arrest and the anaesthetist was convicted of manslaughter. It is not clear whether Dr Adomako was not in the theatre and had failed to make adequate arrangements to telecommunication research monitor the patient in his absence or had been present and grossly incompetent in delivering the anaesthetic and failing to notice the essays about the american, disconnection as the cause of the patient's deterioration. However, the House of Lords considered that either action was sufficient to uphold a conviction as consistent with a consideration that ‘the extent to which the defendant's conduct departed from the math tests, proper standard of care incumbent upon him, involving as it must have done a risk of death to the patient, was such that it should be judged criminal’.

10 It is sobering to consider that anaesthesia—a specialty associated with a significant risk of death from inadequate actions—could meet such considerations of negligence in the way that other specialties may not. The civil procedure rules in England and Wales allow for claims for medical negligence to essays the american be started within 3 years of the alleged negligence occurring or within 3 years of the victim becoming aware of possible negligence. This is of relevance to minors where the 3 years starts when the analyzing, minor reaches the age of maturity (i.e. 18 years of age). Anaesthetists employed by the NHS and dream, acting within the scope of their employment will be indemnified by process, the CNST. About! This covers only services provided in NHS employment and not ‘good Samaritan acts’, private practice, or medico-legal activity. Medical defence organizations will provide cover for these activities and also where appropriate for telecommunication other independent practice activties (e.g. medical report writing). It is recognized that the essays the american, deterrent effect on individual doctors of thesis civil negligence claims is essays about the american weak, although the process is stressful for the individuals involved and book, time consuming. In 2001, the National Audit Office identified that the average clinical negligence case took 5? years from about dream inception to conclusion and that 22% of outstanding cases related to events over 10 years previously. Analyzing! 11 Unsurprisingly the importance of comprehensive, contemporaneous anaesthetic records is paramount in being able to the american defend any claim. It is also noteworthy that in the Chief Medical Officer's 2003 consultation paper, ‘Making Amends’, many victims of research iatrogenic injury desire explanation, apology, and evidence of learning from essays about any mistakes as major outcomes and how to write a list, they are not content with mere financial compensation.

Medical negligence is a three-part test whereby a duty of professional care is owed to a patient and as a consequence of a breach of that duty, the about the american dream, patient suffers harm. All parts of the test must be satisfied. Civil considerations of negligence require doctors to act to an appropriate standard usually but not exclusively judged by the standard of book editing process their peers, whereas for criminal negligence the standard of the american dream practice has to result in serious harm from actions that could be considered to be incompetent or grossly negligent. Due to math tests the greater availability of practice guidelines to guide the courts, doctors should always consider the implications and justification for deviations from accepted practices should the patient suffer harm, and doctors in training should be aware that they are expected to seek advice and assistance where they lack experience in order to essays dream preserve public safety. Adequacy of thesis note keeping to help defend any claims is vital. Online ISSN 2058-5357 Print ISSN 2058-5349 Copyright © 2017 The British Journal of Anaesthesia Ltd. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Copyright 2017 Oxford University Press Privacy Policy Cookie Policy Legal Notices Site Map Accessibility Get Adobe Reader. This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only.

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cms homework page Some principals are fixtures in essays dream, classrooms; they get into telecommunication papers, every teacher's classroom at least a couple times a month -- even if only for a quick walk-through observation and follow-up. Other principals never seem to find time to get into classrooms until the essays about, deadline for completing evaluations looms. Whether a principal is a fixture or a rarity in the classroom, his or her skill at observing teachers is the essays, linchpin to effective evaluations. To get an idea of what principals look for the american dream as they evaluate teachers, we asked Education World's Principal Files team to share their thoughts. Click here to view a list of the principal contributors to this article on teacher evaluation.

THE KODAK MOMENT: A SNAPSHOT OF LEARNING. When I observe the non-tenured teachers in my school, I use a standard classroom observation approach that I call 'The Kodak Moment,' principal Jim Thompson told Education World. My observation takes a 'snapshot' of learning in a classroom. This article is visuals, presented in six parts. Click the headlines below to link to other parts of the article. More Articles of Interest.

Principals use walk-through observations to essays the american, engage teachers in conversations about student learning. Nashville's superintendent Dr. Pedro Garcia opened himself up to being evaluated online by the community. Notice that Thompson said a snapshot of learning, not a snapshot of teaching. Instead of thesis statemants, observing a teacher teaching a lesson, I start out with the idea that I'm observing learning in Mrs. Smith's class. That is about dream, where I try to keep my emphasis. The more I focus on math tests learning -- evidence of student learning in classrooms and evidence of teacher learning through the development of a collegial learning community -- the stronger my school will be. You can't prove anything was taught, until you have proof of essays about dream, learning, added Thompson, borrowing a quote from Rick DuFour . How To Write A List. DuFour's work in the area of transforming schools into essays about the american dream, professional learning communities focuses on three essential questions:

What do we want students to essays, learn? How do we know students are learning? What do we do when we find out essays about, students are not learning? Those questions are not a bad place to a list, start off when evaluating teachers, said Thompson, who is principal at Wolcott Street School in LeRoy, New York. When I observe a teacher I am looking to glean evidence in response to those questions, especially the last one. One area of teacher evaluations that Thompson feels is discussed too infrequently is the quality of work in which teachers engage students. That is a key area to give teachers feedback on, said Thompson, citing the work of Phil Schlechty in Working on the Work. If focusing on student learning is the essays about, key to evaluating non-tenured teachers, what does Thompson think the focus of evaluating tenured teachers should be? With experienced teachers, the key is to actively engage teachers as learners, said Thompson. Most teacher contracts provide a menu of 'best practices' that tenured teachers can choose to book editing process, focus on for their professional development and evaluation.

They can be evaluated based on project learning, cooperative learning strategies, specific curriculum work, peer observation The key is that the more we engage teachers as learners, the better their classroom practices will become. The better their practices become, the the american, higher degrees of fun college, learning we see. At Lewistown (Pennsylvania) Area High School, principal Vance Varner is always looking for evidence of student learning too. Has the teacher created a classroom environment that is conducive to learning? Is the about, classroom climate student centered? Are students engaged in the learning process? Those are some of the questions I'm considering as I observe and evaluate teachers. I'm looking to see that the light is going off and students are learning while they are being academically pushed, added Varner.

LOOKING FOR EVIDENCE OF SOLID LESSON PLANNING. Closely tied to student learning are the lesson plans that teachers use to actively engage students. Their lessons should include brief explanations or mini-lessons and then segue into an activity in math tests, which students interact with one another, learning materials, or technology, with the teacher acting as facilitator, said principal Addie Gaines. At the start of the school year, our staff collaborated to articulate criteria that described the essays about the american dream, classroom instruction that we held as a high standard, added Gaines, principal at Kirbyville (Missouri) Elementary School. Research Papers. We can all measure ourselves and our lessons against those criteria and look for essays dream evidence of those teaching standards to be present. Rather than picking at what is wrong, evaluating our performance with those criteria in mind creates a climate where teachers want to improve things for kids. Principal Ron Tibbets recognizes the fun college essays, complexity of lesson planning. The teaching act is so interwoven with different threads that it is essays about, impossible to identify one strand that holds the entire tapestry together, said Tibbets, principal at the Henry Barnard Laboratory School of Rhode Island College in Providence. Papers. The following are among the aspects of a lesson that Tibbetts thinks are most important: Is there a logic to the lesson and essays the american, material being taught? Is the book process, material connected to previous lessons?

Does this lesson have an introduction, a middle that includes guided work and about the american dream, independent work, and an end that includes student assessment and math tests, a conclusion? Are students meaningfully engaged in about the american dream, the lesson -- time on task -- and, when students are not engaged, how much time elapses before the teacher brings them back on how to task? Are students equitably called-on by the teacher? That includes gender representation and minority representation. Essays Dream. When a teacher questions students, are the questions a mixture of divergent and convergent questions? Do students have an opportunity to share their thoughts and ideas? A good teacher makes it very clear to students why the lesson is being taught, said principal Karen Mink of O.C. Papers. Allen School in Aurora, Illinois.

I look for the components of a lesson that demonstrate that the teacher knows why she is teaching it. Principal Duane Kline agreed. Too often I'm left with the perception that the kids don't really know what they are supposed to be learning, he said, so I ask all teachers to essays about the american, post on book the board the essential questions for each lesson. Those questions help students define what they are to be learning. Questions engage students much more than simply posting a lesson objective. A LESSON'S NUTS AND BOLTS. Principal Michelle Gayle examines every lesson she observes to be certain it addresses standards and essays dream, benchmarks. Her observation instrument includes a place where she records that information as well as evidence of math tests, low, mid-level, and higher-order questioning and learning. We are a Florida Reading Initiative (FRI) School, said Gayle, so I look for aspects of our FRI plan in every classroom -- things such as active word walls and essays about the american, students who are using text marking and other strategies that enable them to learn as they read. In addition, Gayle, who is principal at Griffin Middle School in Tallahassee, looks for evidence of how to write, research-based instructional strategies; infusion of technology within the lesson; the essays dream, use of manipulatives and other resource materials; classroom displays; and target boards that display examples of high-quality work so students know what it looks like. At Whitebead Elementary School in Pauls Valley, Oklahoma, principal Mary Smith looks for lots of things when observing a classroom lesson.

--- Is everyone on task during the analyzing, presentation of the lesson? --- Does the lesson flow smoothly? --- Is the teacher organized? --- How does the teacher handle distractions? --- Is the essays about dream, lesson grade-appropriate? --- How does the teacher wrap up the lesson? Principal Marguerite McNeely of Lawrence Middle School in DeVille, Louisiana, focuses on the sequence of a lesson. Fun College Essays. I want to essays dream, see that the analyzing essay, lesson supports yesterday's lesson, illustrates today's objectives, and opens the door for tomorrow's learning. I'm not sure it is the most important thing, but when I observe a teacher lesson I look for good use of time, said principal Brian Hazeltine of Airdrie (Alberta) Koinonia Christian School in Canada. Master teachers make use of every minute. When the bell rings, things start happening.

Because the teacher is so organized and efficient, students are always busy and essays the american dream, engaged and classroom management largely takes care of itself. Gwendolyn McClinton, principal at math tests, Florence B. About The American Dream. Price Elementary School in Chicago, also focuses her observations on student engagement. You'll see the students' enthusiasm for learning if the lesson is an interactive one. Math Tests. The teacher is energized too -- a moving target. Essays About The American Dream. A good teacher never sits down. When principal Brenda Hedden observes a lesson at the Park City (Utah) Learning Center she's looking to see if instruction is appropriate for students. I want to see if the teacher is essays, pitching where the about the american, student can hit, Hedden explained. Before observing a teacher, principal Tim Messick always asks to review the lesson he will observe. I want to see that the teacher has written clear objectives about what will be taught, said Messick, principal at Providence Day School in Charlotte, North Carolina.

In addition, I want to see that teachers have looked for ways to make their lessons practical and relevant to students. Thesis Statemants. I want to see that they are engaging students through hands-on activities. And, finally, I want to see that the lesson plan includes a place for post-lesson reflection -- a place where teachers will answer questions such as Did I meet my objectives?, What were some highlights from my lesson?, What would I do differently next time?, and What have I learned about my teaching as a result of my assessment of the lesson? THE STUDENT-TEACHER CONNECTION. For principal Teri Stokes at Weatherly Heights Elementary School in Huntsville, Alabama, the most important thing she looks for when observing a teacher is the essays about the american dream, overall climate of the room. That includes the seriousness of the learning environment, the physical appearance of the math tests, classroom, and the consideration and respect that are 'felt' when I walk into the room. Brenda Hedden agreed. I can learn a lot about teachers' abilities by watching student interactions with them.

I look for essays respect from the teacher toward the students, said Karen Mink. I look for essay the teacher to have a genuine interest in what the students have to offer. Principal Gretchen Schlie looks for dream a teacher's 'connectedness' with students. Are they getting students involved and interacting? Is the math tests, teacher interacting on a personal level, or is she or he more standoffish? Children don't learn or listen if they sense you are not invested in dream, what you are teaching, added Schlie, principal at the International Christian School in Seoul, Korea. If you don't deem a lesson important, why should they? Bonita Henderson, assistant principal at Central Fairmount School in Cincinnati, looks first for editing signs of rapport between the teacher and the student. The trust factor must be evident, she said.

I don't want the teacher to about the american, give me what they think I want to see. Thesis Statemants. I want to about dream, see the natural interaction between a teacher and students. I want to see a classroom where the teacher and analyzing essay, all the essays about the american dream, students are learning from one another. If there is a good rapport between a teacher and students, learning will happen, added Karen Mink. Principal Michael Miller always holds a pre-conference with teachers before doing an observation at Saturn Elementary School in how to write a list, Cocoa, Florida. Essays The American. They discuss the how to a list, lesson that Miller will observe. Each year, Miller also includes a special look-for in his observation. Essays About Dream. This year's special emphasis relates to the LCD projectors that were installed in all classrooms. I've asked all teachers to incorporate our new LCD projectors into their lessons, said Miller.

That way, I get to a list, ensure teachers are using our new technology to aid in their teaching. Aurelie Bush, assistant principal at Lisbon (Maine) Community School looks for teachers who have been able to about the american dream, grow in their efforts to provide an environment where students are involved in their own learning. Some of the process, things she hopes to about the american dream, see include. --- develop lessons tied to state standards. --- elicit participation among their students. --- respond positively to appropriate student responses. --- give students the opportunity to reflect on what is statemants, being taught. --- are passionate about teaching. --- aware of what the learning goals are and what is expected of them.

--- motivated and challenged at their individual levels. --- working hard in a classroom that has an upbeat and positive feel. --- enthusiastically engaged in a discussion or group investigation. --- able to evaluate their own and each other's work in a positive and essays about, respectful manner. At Edenrose Public School in book editing process, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada), principal Deepi Kang-Weiscz focuses her observations on the affective domain. Since the about dream, affective domain sets the tone for teaching and learning, I first look for evidence of a positive classroom environment; strong teacher rapport with students -- all students, including the challenging ones; student engagement; the appropriate cognitive level of the lesson; and evidence of differentiation of math tests, instruction. When he is doing an essays the american observation, principal Larry Davis of Doctors Inlet Elementary School in Middleburg, Florida, makes a special point to look around the classroom. Thesis Statemants. He looks to see that teachers have posted the classroom rules, discipline plan, and emergency routes.

He looks to be sure there are plenty of signs of a literature-rich environment and clear evidences of the school-wide emphasis on reading instruction. He looks for word walls and student portfolios too. He also looks for evidence of a good classroom management plan, but he admits that most of his visits are announced and that the teachers will usually bribe the students to behave when Mr. D comes to watch the class. I look around the classroom environment for essays about dream signs of a teacher's creativity, said Gwendolyn McClinton. Is the classroom inviting? Are learning centers set up around the classroom? Is the classroom set up so that students can work in small groups? Is there dialogue going on between students as they help each other? Does the teacher seem to have control of the classroom? Is there a fair amount of student work posted?

Bonita Henderson looks closely at student work that is displayed too. Write. I want to see that because, to me, it shows that the teacher values students' work. Every classroom teacher knows that lessons -- even great lessons -- don't always go according to plan. When Phil Shaman observes the teachers at Canada's Neepawa (Manitoba) Area Collegiate School, one of the things he looks for is a teacher's ability to about, shift gears when things are not going according to plan. If a teacher is struggling with a lesson, Shaman said, I want to math tests, see if he continues to go with the planned lesson or if he is able to shift gears midway thru and try something different. Article by Gary Hopkins. Education WorldA® Editor-in-Chief. Copyright A© 2006 Education World. Submit your own lesson plan for a chance to receive a FREE $50 Classroom Supplies Gift Card! Receive timely lesson ideas and PD tips. Sign up for essays about the american dream our free weekly newsletter and receive.

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