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biography etymology Born in 1949 in essay topics for law, England, Fred Frith began musical life with violin lessons at the age of five and a place in the church choir. He first picked up a guitar while in his teens and gave his earliest performances in the relatively forgiving atmosphere of British folk clubs. In 1968 he joined up with Tim Hodgkinson to form Henry Cow, an enduring eotheri rock group which achieved a certain notoriety on the European independent circuit and beyond. Through this intense ten-year collaboration, Frith developed a willingness to try anything and learn as he went along, as well as a lasting appetite for collective work. He also began to approach composing from an improviseris perspective, and vice-versa. After the experience break-up of Henry Cow in 1978, Frith moved to essay New York, where he came into contact with many of the musicians with whom heis since been associated, including John Zorn, Tom Cora, Bob Ostertag, Ikue Mori and many others. Fourteen years in New York gave rise to groups like Massacre (with Bill Laswell and Fred Maher), Skeleton Crew (with Tom Cora and Zeena Parkins), Keep the Dog (a sextet performing an extensive repertoire of Frithis compositions), and the continuing Guitar Quartet. It also provided a fertile environment for improvisation, an activity which is in america still close to his heart. Starting in the late eighties, Frith began to concentrate on composing for essay topics for law, dance, film, and theatre, and this in turn led to writing music for others to write an essay the presentation play. Recent examples include iLong on Logici and essay for law, iFreedom in Fragmentsi for ROVA Sax Quartet; iIn Memoryi for four voices, four guitars and four percussionists; the string quartet iLelekovice,i iPacifici for the twenty-piece Ensemble Eva Kant in Bologna; and essay shopping, iHelter Skelter,i an opera that resulted from a six-month visit to Marseille working with iyoung, unemployed rock musicians.i As a composer, his work is characterized by an unusual approach to melody and the way that melodies are played, a fascination with continuously subverting musical surfaces, the essay topics for law contradiction between rigorous form and improvised content, and the incorporation of efoundi sound and an essay of the, home-made instruments. He has been as much influenced by painters and writers as by other musicians, particularly in for law, the contrast between brutal reality and lyrical fantasy (and the epigrammatic structures) inherent in the work of Eduardo Galeano and the Parisian painter BEatrice Turquand diAuzay.
Alongside his other activities, Frith has continued to perform in survey, a variety of contexts, playing bass in John Zornis Naked City, violin in Lars Hollmeris Looping Home Orchestra, and guitar on recordings ranging from the The Residents and RenE Lussier to Brian Eno and topics, Amy Denio. Current projects include iStone, Brick, Glass, Wood, Wirei (graphic scores for 11 to shopping experience 21 players), a forthcoming collaboration with the Ensemble Moderne, and music for choreographers Amanda Miller and Paul Selwyn Norton. He is the subject of Nicolas Humbert and Werner Penzelsi award-winning documentary film iStep Across the Border. as guest musician: Between 1975 and present, has played on records by topics, Eugene Chadbourne, Lindsay Cooper, Curlew, Amy Denio, Brian Eno, Heiner Goebbels, Half Japanese, The Residents, Michihiro Sato, Rebby Sharp, Chris Stamey, The Swans, Tenko, the Dr. Umezu Band, Violent Femmes, Robert Wyatt, Zazou Bikaye, John Zorn and many others. Born in dissertation, Yancey Mills, Virginia, Tom Cora made his musical debut as drummer on a local television program, DandyDoodleShow . Reared on for law, the gospel, blues and country music of the Appalachians, he passed the mid-seventies as guitarist with the an essay in which you analyze the presentation sow house-band of a Washington, DC jazz club. He then suddenly abandoned the guitar and took up the cello instead. Cora secluded himself and studied cello with Casals' student, Luis Garcia-Renart. During this time he explored non-idiomatic improvising and Turkish and Eastern European folk music, as well as constructing instruments for his group, The Moose Skowron Tuned Metal Ensemble.
For two years, prior to the age of Reagan, he led a government funded group that spent its summers performing at various ports along the Hudson River, aboard the Floating Foundation of essay, Photography; and he toured Europe with a group led by Karl Berger that included Lee Konitz and Don Cherry. You Analyze The Presentation Sow! By 1979 Tom had moved to topics for law New York where he began an ng thesis extended working relationship with Shockabilly guitarist Eugene Chadbourne, introducing the essay cello to the honky tonk circuits of North America. Between stints on the road with Chadbourne he became a familiar face in the improvising clubs and venues of New York alongside John Zorn, Wayne Horvitz, David Moss, Toshinori Kondo and others. There followed the formation of difference between, Curlew, a collaboration with George Cartwright, whose records won much recognition for for law, helping define new areas of ng thesis sa filipino 1, rhythmic music. In the summer of '82 Tom Cora and topics, Fred Frith formed Skeleton Crew. It was based on the premise of stretching the resources of the minimum number of people in halimbawa sa filipino 1, the maximum number of ways. They divided up the drum kit between them and essay topics for law, played it at the same time as their other instruments, an extension of the one-man-band principle.
Tom took up the bass guitar and expository and persuasive essay, began constructing musical contraptions to be played with the feet, thus throwing himself into a four-limbed approach to music. During its five years --the last two of which it became a trio with Zeena Parkins-- Skeleton Crew performed hundreds of concerts in North America, Europe and Japan, including an extensive tour of Eastern Europe. 1986 was the year that Tom began in earnest to address himself to topics for law the problem of the ng thesis 1 solo concert. The iproblemi lay in essay topics, the fact that the prospect of carrying a concert-length performance single-handedly seemed deeply frightening to the budding cellist, but that was also part of the attraction. Essay! Ten years later, with two solo records behind him, Cora honed the solo to a deft balancing act of risk and intention which has been burned into essay for law the memory of audiences all over 2012 ap government essay questions North America, Europe and Japan. Topics For Law! Meanwhile, Cora was no stranger to collaboration: CURLEW was reviving itself as a performing and touring band; NIMAL, with Momo Rossel, was born; a duo with Hans Reichel was not only and class essay a meeting of strings but a meeting of daxophone and daxello; the collective FRAME (with E. Sharp, N. Rothenberg and P. Hollinger) toured what was then called the essay topics for law Soviet Union; and THIRD PERSON was born from live collaborations with percussionist Samm Bennett. This trio, with the third position constantly shifting, documented a year of race and class in america essay, live concerts at the Knitting Factory with their first CD, The Bends. Third persons have included Butch Morris, Mark Ribot, Zeena Parkins, Kazutoki Umezu and Steve Lacy.
In 1990 Tom took a week-long pause from essay topics for law, a European tour to rehearse and play two concerts as a guest with the race in america essay veteran Dutch band, THE EX. Though the topics two had been longtime mutual admirers, little did they know at this first meeting that they were to 2012 ap government essay questions be hurled directly into some years of intense collaboration together; collaboration in the truest sense. Now, six years, two CDs and nearly a hundred concerts later, their resolve continues. Essay! The Dutch connection also meant a two month residency at STEIM, the electro-acoustic research center in Amsterdam where Tom tailored a live sampling and triggering system to his ifour-limbed approach,i which was unveiled with a 25 concert solo tour in the Fall of '92. Though most visible as a performer in the presentation, recent years, Cora has been equally occupied in less nomadic activities: composition commissions from Guy Klucevsek and Ralph Records; film music for the National Film Board of Canada; music for the video The Misfits, a documentary of 30 years of the Fluxus movement; a Bessie award-winning composition for essay topics for law, longtime collaborator choreographer Donna Uchizono; a NewYork Foundation for the Arts Fellowship; and a solo cello film score for Dziga Vertov's, Man With the Movie Camera, commissioned by the American Museum of the Moving Image. This turned into survey dissertation more than 30 live performances in Europe (late '94/early '95), with solo cello in essay topics for law, front of Vertov's icity symphony.i Cora was recently awarded a Meet the Composer Commissioning Grant to realize an ensemble score for Man with the Movie Camera. It will be performed live with the film at several North American venues in survey dissertation, the Spring of '96. Most recently there is essay topics ROOF, the meeting place of Tom Cora, Phil Minton, Luc Ex and Michael Vatcher.
It's not just a collective, but a band whose highly articulate improvisational spirit serves tightly rehearsed compositions. The membersi widely differing backgrounds belie a pointed empathy as often at sa filipino 1, the service of the subversion of expectations as in the affirmation and joy of collective music making. Their first CD, The Untraceable Cigar, has just been released on topics for law, RedNote (Amsterdam). And last, but not least, Tom finds himself once again collaborating with Skeleton Crew on in which you analyze the presentation sow, Etymology, a sound sample library on CD-ROM. This license-free CD-ROM contains the sonic sounds and wire manipulation techniques of essay, Fred Frith and Tom Cora. In the AIFF format, Etymology is designed for musicians and sound designers who use digital audio workstations on the Mac O/S platform.
Sound designer, Thomas Dimuzio is producing Etymology for Rarefaction. TOM CORA / SELECTED DISCOGRAPHY Or Complete Discography.
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Obama takes on the teacher unions. President Obama gets an A+ for his education speech just now. He made all the traditional and necessary points that one would expect a progressive Democrat to make — such as the crucial necessity of essay, more early childhood programs — but he also added elements that will make teachers’ unions uncomfortable. And, frankly, that’s terrific. The Democratic Party has been too close to the unions for too long, and their interest is not precisely the same as the students’. Essay! The unions would be failing their members if they didn’t cry foul when bad teachers were pushed out, but that’s what we need more of. Education reform is essay topics going to mean challenging the unions, and Obama signaled that that’s what he plans to do. Obama also addressed the Republican talking point that he should just focus on the economy rather than getting distracted with a liberal social agenda. He said: I know there’s some who believe we can only handle one challenge at a time.
And they forget that Lincoln helped lay down the transcontinental railroad and expository and persuasive essay, passed the Homestead Act and created the National Academy of topics, Sciences in the midst of civil war. Essay! Likewise, President Roosevelt didn’t have the luxury of choosing between ending a depression and fighting a war; he had to do both. President Kennedy didn’t have the luxury of choosing between civil rights and essay topics, sending us to the moon. Then Obama gave a blunt assessment of how we’ve let our education standards slip. He noted that it’s not just a question of raising test scores, but of boosting the competitiveness of our economy:
Despite resources that are unmatched anywhere in the world, we’ve let our grades slip, our schools crumble, our teacher quality fall short, and other nations outpace us. Let me give you a few statistics. In 8th grade math, we’ve fallen to 9th place. Singapore’s middle-schoolers outperform ours three to one. Just a third of our 13- and 14-year-olds can read as well as they should. And year after year, a stubborn gap persists between how well white students are doing compared to their African American and Latino classmates. Survey Dissertation! The relative decline of topics for law, American education is untenable for race and class in america our economy, it’s unsustainable for our democracy, it’s unacceptable for our children. The president said nice things about charter schools, while acknowledging their problems, and praised merit pay.
He called for better data systems, so that we know what works and which teachers are effective. All this often makes teacher unions nervous, because of course tests are imperfect measures of performance. Yet what’s the alternative? We give students SAT’s and AP’s and other exams, knowing that they are profoundly flawed but accepting that they are still better than nothing. And as I’ve written recently, the evidence is accumulating that some teachers are far, far better at imparting information than others. These highly effective teachers aren’t the ones with more graduate training, and they aren’t the ones with more experience (beyond about five years), and they aren’t even the ones with traditional teacher certification training. It’s very difficult to predict which ones will be good, and there may be ways to improve the effectiveness of for law, teachers. But it’s crazy to protect the jobs of ineffective teachers when the losers are students, particularly the difference between expository and persuasive, neediest ones. The hard knot in education reform is going to be getting rid of bad teachers and topics for law, recruiting more good ones, and Obama tackled that issue head on: Too many supporters of ng thesis 2 kabanata, my party have resisted the idea of rewarding excellence in teaching with extra pay, even though we know it can make a difference in the classroom…. It’s time to start rewarding good teachers, stop making excuses for bad ones….let me be clear: If a teacher is given a chance or two chances or three chances but still does not improve, there’s no excuse for that person to continue teaching.
I reject a system that rewards failure and protects a person from its consequences. The stakes are too high. For Law! We can afford nothing but the questions, best when it comes to our children’s teachers and the schools where they teach. I see education reform as one of our nation’s greatest challenges. Topics For Law! Partly that’s because it’s an dissertation, economic issue: We can’t develop our economic potential when so many students drop out of high school and never go to college. And partly it’s a justice issue: As a country, we consign our neediest students to third-rate schools, where they never get the help that might enable them to topics for law escape the cycles of essay experience, poverty. Presidents have never had much of an impact, but now Obama has a chance by using stimulus funds and essay, the bully pulpit, as well as a growing body of research that gives a better sense of what may work.
Early on after Obama’s election, I worried that he would put education on essay experience, the back burner, but I was wrong. And maybe the thing that makes me most optimistic is Obama’s willingness to talk straight to his own supporters in the teachers’ unions, for that suggests that this is not just a shower of topics for law, sound bites but something he is race and class deadly serious about achieving. I’d particularly welcome comments from teachers. I’m curious to essay topics what extent opinion among teachers corresponds with the formal positions of the unions. About Shopping! For you teachers on the front lines, what did you think of Obama’s speech? How do you see the reform proposals? Comments are no longer being accepted.
It’s interesting that Obama, a part-time university professor, takes on teachers’ unions, but ignores rampant inflation in university tuition. Why does Obama demand accountability of grade-school teachers, but not of universities? Tuitions have gone up 400% in essay topics about the last decade. There is absolutely no justification for such egregious increases. Obama’s plans to offer even bigger tuition subsidies, without requiring reform of university finances, will simply feed more inflation that undoes the benefits of between and persuasive essay, scholarships and loans. Universities are run with the same condescension and air of entitlement that plagues Wall St., and taxpayers are footing the bill in both cases. Can we please acknowledge that teachers alone cannot undo what years of neglect and apathy at home have done to topics a child. When parents hold kids accountable, when the household values and supports education, then and only then will hard work that so many teacher do be fruitful for all. Obama is spot on. 2012 Ap Government Questions! I am a teacher, and nothing upsets me more than seeing ineffective teachers keep their jobs. There’s too much at stake.
The unions are a MAJOR source of the problem with public education. They protect ineffective teachers because to do otherwise would make them irrelevant. Topics! As a result, it’s the students who suffer. Their very existence all too often creates needless tension between faculty and administration, which distracts everyone from the business of teaching. And they resist proven efforts to incentivize good teachers. Write Of The Sow! Again, it’s the students who suffer.
To the essay for law, comment before mine, it would make no sense for ap government questions Obama to focus on universities and tuition. We have to fix primary and secondary education first. In any case, despite rapidly rising tuitions, our country’s universities are among the best in the world. It’s K-12 where we lag. I am all for helping out top performing teachers, but watch what happens, all of essay topics for law, a sudden there will be all types of race and class, performance review up grades giving massive amounts of teachers pay raises. What is as or more important to topics providing incentive to top teachers is to fire the lousy ones.
If there was ever a good time to 2012 ap government essay do that it is now. More high quality people than ever will want to be teachers. Having watched my kids go through a “top” high school I have to say that maybe 20% of the teachers were strong educators. But the bottom 30% were horrible. If the schools started to get rid of the bottom 30% a whole bunch of the teachers in that catagory would wake up and essay topics for law, start to take their jobs seriously. Its time the unions stop protecting the lousy teachers. In the long run that will only make the of the, unions stronger. If merit pay is essay for law tied to test scores, I hope an survey, honest effort will be made to ensure that all teachers start the beginning of the year with students of nearly the same performance level and readiness to learn.
It must be acknowledged that, unlike in for law industry where the owner can purchase a consistent quality of raw material, kids arrive at school with vastly different experiences and supports. Suppose the principal has a personal dislike for Teacher A and stacks her class with historically low-achieving and/or behavior problem students, but selects the cream of the crop for write an essay in which you analyze the well-liked Teacher B. Topics! Teacher A may stay hours after school preparing her well-delivered lessons, while Teacher B heads out the door when contractually permitted and is merely adequate in her presentations. At year’s end, Teacher A’s students will still likely fall far behind Teacher B’s, simply because they were farther from the an essay you analyze the presentation, finish line when the race began. Teacher B collects the extra pay, but where’s the merit in that? I’m not saying merit pay can’t work, but there must be fair safeguards in place. JimF is entirely correct about universities. As for essay the public K-12 school system, the an essay the presentation of the sow, problems are not going to essay for law be met with platitudes like “Let’s reward good teachers with better pay”. I’m not against this idea entirely but how is that going to happen in a fair way? Will there be a formula to take in account parental participation, student participation, administration efficacy as well as improved test scores? Unlike other professions, a teacher’s “product” is manufactured by about shopping experience, four entities: the teacher, the parents, the administration and the student. If one of topics, these groups drops the essay shopping, ball, the essay topics for law, student suffers but most likely the teacher will pay the write an essay sow, price–in this “new” system, quite literally.
People would feel a lot better about essay topics, all these great ideas if there were actually some specifics detailing how all this reform will be accomplished in race and class a fair and measurable manner. Essay! Start by paying teachers more to begin with. Once you’ve attracted a higher grade of applicant, enact a merit based system that has been devised by mathematicians not academics. This will ensure some measure of survey, “fairness”. As for lengthening the school day and school year–fabulous idea! I live in essay Japan where kids go to school longer each day and more days a year. The children can handle it. So can the teachers and administration if they are paid accordingly. As a member of of the sow, teacher’s union, I can understand some of the criticisms levied at us. We don’t control who walks in the door. And while that is an excuse to topics some, it is expository and persuasive also a reality.
Apathy is not new in our students and their parents, but I have never seen it so tangible. Any criticism of teachers’ unions must also include criticisms of the other stakeholders as well. From federal and state bureaucrats who create developmentally inappropriate standards to the talking heads in the media who have never taught a dangerous or uncaring student, I would like to hear similar salvos fired at those Monday morning quarterbacks whose ignorance is often more shocking than my students’. I am a teacher in a school that serves socio-economically disadvantaged, mostly non-native-English speakers. The parents of my students typically have a 3rd grade education at most. Many of them are illiterate in their native languages, not to mention English.
They cannot help their kids with homework and mostly do not know how to interface with institutions, including schools. Their children tend not to attend preschool. It is not unusual for entering kindergartners in my district to have no experience with pencils, crayons, or books. Many of essay, them do not know the alphabet and are not able to identify their own written name. Many of experience, them do not speak English. For Law! They all make progress, some of ng thesis sa filipino, it astonishing. They learn English; they learn to read. But it is essay topics for law hard for sa filipino 1 them to catch up, given where they began.
If I’m to be judged on test scores, then judge me on the progress my students make, not on some absolute that doesn’t take into account how far behind they were when they arrived on essay topics for law, my doorstep. In five years of teaching at two different NYC high schools, I’ve met only a couple of bad teachers and 2012 ap government, dozens of topics, dedicated hard-working ones. But all of us could be a lot better teachers if we had time to really think about race in america, improving our craft. That means fewer students – 34 students x 5 classes is an impossible workload of homework and tests to grade. Think about what two minutes a student a day means. I agree that training at the start of your career before you are in the classroom is not as effective as later, after a few years, but, again, this means money – to get relieve some of that 170 students so we can re-train during the day or in the evenings. Essay For Law! I’d be happy to be a better teacher – it doesn’t happen by magic, but by a combination of professional development, experience and reflection. I’d also be happy to take some extra money, and obviously the shopping experience, profession will get better applicants if it pays more – it’s still treated as a “woman’s” (read: low pay) profession. But I won’t take it to give up my tenure. The school system had three years to topics evaluate me and decide if I was going to be a good teacher – plenty of time.
As to merit pay, I absolutely reject the use of 2012 ap government, multiple choice testing as a basis to decide who’s a good teacher – or a successful student. I can train my kids to do well on essay, the Regents tests – and I do, because the kids think it’s important (they’ve been told so often) and an unhappy administration can make my work life really difficult despite my tenure. But the way we teach “to” them they have become garbage tests – useless in creating or even showing real college skills. In know some great great teachers, whose students love them, whose students learn a tremendous amount, because they are innovative and have brilliant lessons – and because they have confidence in those lessons and refuse to give up their valuable class time to test preparation. Administration doesn’t like them – they don’t fit the bureaucratic definition of a “good” teacher. Teachers virtually unanimously hate the falsity of No Child Left Behind-type testing. Survey Dissertation! If you want us to essay for law buy into rewarding “merit,” first show us that you really know what a good teacher is. I believe President Obama is absolutely correct. Write In Which The Presentation! Teacher’s Unions will be more flexible and adaptable than many believe in under taking this great endeavor.
Our public schools and for law, universities are the powerful foundation upon which the quality of our lives are built and, as such, they require our entire focus. Any significant change in survey dissertation policy has almost always been faced with critics worrying about all that might go wrong and using language tilted to keeping the status quo. I was a middle school teacher for essay for law 36 years in California and I have not lost my optimism. It is refreshing and healing to have a leader who understands and values the inherent greatness that must possess our public schools. I am a second-year teacher in Oakland, California, at one of the most racially and ethnically diverse schools in survey dissertation the state. My students alone come from homes that speak 9+ different native languages. I teach 6th grade math and science.
Every day, I see my students achieving their goals in essay math and science, only to see them be shortchanged by their teachers in their English and history classes. As important as math and halimbawa ng thesis sa filipino 2 kabanata, science are, if my students are functionally illiterate, their lives are over. I also see an incredible disparity between our Asian-American students and our African American students. Our Asian-American students have an API of 734 (800 being considered academically acceptable), whereas the for law, African-American students have an API of 534. Expository! Every single factor contributing to essay this gap involves adults, not students: 1) teachers who are not invested in improving their student’s education; 2) administrators that are unwilling to push their teachers to between and persuasive higher levels, and who don’t take the time to topics for law make students feel valued at the school; 3) an essay experience, overall culture of mediocrity, where few, if any, adults are wiling to put in the HARD WORK that it takes to overcome the literacy gap from poverty; 4) a misunderstanding of cultures – adults not understanding that it is essay topics for law our responsibility to invest students in their education, especially if their families have not done so. As a middle school Theatre Arts teacher, I am encouraged that President Obama is difference between essay speaking as candidly an sensibly on education. Topics For Law! Merit pay makes sense; putting more money into public education and good charter schools makes sense. Between Expository! I am hoping that he will go so far as to redefine “core” curriculum, pointing out the sense of arts education in a childs intellectual, social and creative development. Not too many people know that arts education is considered a part of “core curriculum.” The arts is essay topics a synthesis of 2012 ap government essay, all subjects and experiences in living. It explains, defines, reflects concrete as well as abstract thought #038; concepts. Teaching outside of the box is becoming more and more necessary, due to students of diverse languages, learning styles, exceptionalities and at-risk, low performance.
I would love to see the statistics A+ schools reveal, regarding student learning through public schools infused with Arts education. Essay! Data shows these schools providing regular instruction in Theatre Arts, Dance, Music, Visual Arts, by qualified arts teachers, are among the most successful education models in 1 our country today.. And yet year after year public school Arts programs are the among the first to be threatened. It is essential that every child, not just the privileged who can afford private arts lessons, be exposed to, versed and essay for law, practiced in arts education. If President Obama will extend his vision of educating the and class in america, entire child, mind, body and for law, soul; recognizing #038; rewarding arts educators for 2012 ap government their rightful place in the core curriculum, I will begin to feel there is real hope for essay the future of our country. Essay Shopping! We need to topics be reassured that no children will be left behind in learning through the survey dissertation, arts. As a university student, I completely agree. Essay For Law! I also feel that teacher accountability at 2012 ap government essay questions state/public universities should be a high priority. While research is vital for a healthy university, teaching is even more so, if only essay topics, because universities would lose all purpose without teaching.
I wonder if teaching effectiveness could be determined by ap government, personality, or some other metric (creativity, etc…) that would at essay least provide some guidance. While I would hesitate to kick teachers out based on low scores, I would certainly be for placing underserved children (including the gifted) under the care of those superteachers rather than inept athletic coaches. Yes, there are bad teachers, just as there are bad Presidents, Congresspeople and newspaper reporters. Bad teachers should not be teaching. Period. Sa Filipino 2 Kabanata! I am a teacher and a member of the United Federation of Teachers and I do not want to work with bad teachers. I just want to be sure that the definition of a bad teacher and essay for law, designation of a person as being a bad teacher is done on halimbawa sa filipino, a fair and topics for law, consistent basis,
Are we going to ng thesis 2 kabanata define a bad teacher as someone whose students don’t do well on standardized tests? If that’s the criteria, how are we going to find all the bad art, music or gym teachers? Are we going to fire special education teachers who teach students with cognitive disabilities because those students don’t do as well as students without disabilities? If so, how are we going to replace them? Shouldn’t we also fire the essay topics, principals who hire those bad teachers?
How about cutting off funds to the colleges that turn them out with teaching degrees? And what about all those state exams teachers have to take to be licensed. Essay About Shopping! I had to for law take five. 2012 Ap Government Essay Questions! Shouldn’t they be able to for law screen out the bad teachers? If not, why did I have to take them?
Sure, we have to dissertation start somewhere, and teachers and topics, teacher unions are an easy target. But blaming teacher unions for the education problems that exist is like blaming the auto workers union for Chrysler going broke. I wonder how you’d like to be judged by an “imperfect measure of performance”? Student achievement is write in which of the greatly affected by family life, class size, school environment, socioeconomic status, and a dozen other factors out of a teacher’s control. Essay! Just how–precisely–do you propose to judge teachers when almost all the crucial variables are out of the survey, their control? “of course tests are imperfect measures of performance. Yet what’s the alternative?” Teacher evaluations–by staff, students, parents, and other teachers.
Evaluating the students should be part of evaluating teacher quality, but not the only part. National teaching standards should include standards for subjective rating of teacher performance. Yes, subjective evaluation is topics for law imperfect, but teachers use it for evaluating students so why shouldn’t we use it to evaluate teachers as well. It would consist of administration, student, teacher and survey, parent input on teacher performance as well as occasional in-class evaluations by essay topics for law, visiting experts. Halimbawa Sa Filipino 1! No, this isn’t perfect but it is reasonable, and can be used to augment student test results rather than replace them. Just as standardized testing does not fully capture the abilities of a student, student testing does not wholly capture the abilities of a teacher.
But I won’t take it to give up my tenure. The school system had three years to evaluate me and decide if I was going to for law be a good teacher – plenty of time. So after the third year you don’t have to dissertation be accountable for how well you teach? If you notice, few of these comments from teachers get at the core issue of what is in their control – good teaching. It’s always factors beyond their control that we hear about: class size, supervisors, tests. Sorry, guys, the issue is results – given the hand you were dealt. Why are teachers so unable to see this? Blaming parents is absurd: the best teachers make school a wonderful haven from essay for law bad home life. I have spent many years in school reform. Most teachers work hard and think they are doing the best they can. But that’s absurd – thinking you’re doing the best you can is not your job.
Doing better than yesterday is your job, and looking hard at between your habits is your job. Essay For Law! And looking at student performance deficits and essay, improving them is your job. Essay Topics For Law! As Winston Churchill said: sometimes you have to essay about give more than your best effort. You have to do what is necessary. Well, I’m not a teacher but a physician. However, this is similar to essay topics the “pay for perfomance” that many health insurers and the government want to or have implemented in order to improve physician adherence to healthcare guidelines. I see the same issues physicians have had with such a system that teachers will have. 1. Sa Filipino 1! Despite attempts at statistical methods to risk-adjust for essay for law sicker patients (i.e. 2012! less well-prepared, behaviorally-challenged, etc. students), no method has ever been very good about essay topics for law, doing this. 2 Kabanata 1! And indeed, some MDs or medical groups (i.e. Essay For Law! school systems, schools) game the system by not accepting sicker patients (challenging students).
2. Essay About Shopping! Physicians who are graded on for law, things like diabetes control, weight control, etc. when in actuality, the end point comprises more than what the physician has control over. For example, the doctor can prescribe medicine but can’t force the and class essay, patient to take them, can’t force the patient to eat healthier, etc. However, they can be graded on things like whether nutritional counseling was brought up. (Dr. Donabedian writes about for law, quality improvement in healthcare. Performance would be based on a process rather than an difference between expository and persuasive essay, outcome.) Similarly, perhaps teachers can be graded on things like taking the essay topics, time to call a parent or trying out a new teaching method, which is within their control, rather than straight-out test scores. After all the test scores comprise not just what the teacher does in the classroom but whether the students is motivated, has interested parents, etc. I support more funding for teacher salaries – none of my friends went into full-time teaching – the pay was too low. A good teacher at 30 years old will not necessarily be a good teacher at dissertation 60 years old. Not to mention that a younger teacher who is essay topics willing to work for less money will save the school district money that they might use for hiring an additional teacher, or otherwise investing more in the school’s quality.
As someone who has taught history in an urban school in my city’s poorest neighborhood for 8 years, I feel I can speak both from the heart and from experience. Shopping Experience! “Merit pay” is such a broad term, and topics, Obama uses it broadly. Paying the essay shopping experience, best teachers more sounds sensible and fair. But who are the best teachers? Are we going to measure teacher performance the essay, way we measure student performance, with paper-and-pencil tests? And is a teacher who is good with urban kids whose parents speak English as a second language, if at all, going to be as good with middle-class kids in white suburbs? Or vice versa? Teachers gladly teach bright students in 2012 questions homogenous groups with few disciplinary issues for less money; wouldn’t you? Too, studies show that giving teacher’s bonuses for extra work actually cuts into their productivity and the quality of their work.
Paying car salesmen extra for more sales may work, but it doesn’t work with teachers; their motivations are very different. What makes more sense is to offer teachers of math, science and other disciplines where teacher shortages exist higher salaries based on supply and demand. Also, to essay offer teachers with higher academic qualifications higher salaries to teach in halimbawa 2 kabanata the war zones that many of essay topics, our urban school districts have become. Finally, no school reform movement should ignore the write in which you analyze, current structure of teacher employment and topics, retirement, which encourages teachers never to take risks, change schools or try out work in other fields for short periods. The combination of local control of school funding and union protection of longevity over everything else is deadly and keeps the ng thesis, worst teachers in front of classrooms for essay topics the longest time. Here is the letter I sent to Obama after I heard his speech on television: Going to college is about a great thing. Getting kids to graduate from essay topics high school is something we all should strive to do. But, we have to start making these high school diplomas mean something.
Right now, kids are sitting in classes they are not capable of write an essay in which you analyze sow, passing. Be realistic, not everyone is college material and has the mental facilities to succeed in for law academic areas. Regardless, these are the subjects the kids today are being forced to take to get a diploma. As a teacher, I strive to do the best for my students daily. But, I am also realistic. I know that there are certain things my students cannot master and because of this I cannot teach on as high a level as I would like to. I have to water down the between and persuasive, topics and essay topics for law, hopefully teach enough to get them to pass the state regents exams. I’m filling their heads with topics that are way over their heads and halimbawa sa filipino 2 kabanata 1, while they might pass, they are learning nothing. I have to do this because my kids need that high school diploma to get anywhere in life.
You also talk majestically of charter schools. I don’t understand why you won’t put the same effort into improving public schools. In New York City high schools there are 34 students in each class. In my very overcrowded school, there are kids who arrive at 7:15 AM and others that do not leave until after 5:00 PM. We have classes that meet in topics for law substandard trailers. We have class rooms with no windows or ventilation. We have two rooms made where there was once one. The walls between them are so thin that the dissertation, sound of chalk on the black board is disruptive in the adjoining room. Tutoring takes place in the hallways and often kids cannot even get to tutoring because there is no time for it during the day.
Public school teachers are hard working, caring people working in some of the worst conditions around. You would be amazed at the “products” we can produce given the materials we have to use. We need your help. Vouchers and charter schools are not going to do it. I know I am rambling here, but I can’t help it. I voted for you.
I sent money to essay topics your campaign. I believed in the change that you were promising. About! I still want to topics believe but your education policy is scaring me. Please, talk to teachers and visit schools. Visit the public schools and 2012 ap government essay questions, see what is really going on. Ask us. We’ll tell you what we need. For those worried about teachers receiving bad students, and then being judged on their improvements, that is for law is the purpose of testing. If a teacher has students that tested poorly the year before, and then the an essay in which the presentation of the sow, students test moderately after a year of that teacher, it would be obvious that that teacher is better than another teacher who received students who had moderate test scores, and then left with moderate test scores.
Absolutely great speech: I think the major issues are. (1) Cleaning out the school system of bad teachers and replacing them with potentially good ones, as soon as training allows. Many good professionals are willing to topics for law switch into teaching in sa filipino 2 kabanata this economy. It’s time to make it one of the more desired/well-compensated jobs in topics for law our society, contingent on difference between expository essay, performance. (2) Teachers need help.
Not enough parents are doing their job, and the socio-emotional problems that kids are bringing to school are troubling. This problem cross income lines. We need to be accountable for kids at all hours of the topics, day. Parents need performance evaluations as well. Halimbawa 1! (I know how radical that sounds!) (3) It’s time to essay for law bring equity to the school system. We have to re-think property taxes. This blog expands on dissertation, Nicholas Kristof’s twice-weekly columns, sharing thoughts that shape the writing but don’t always make it into the 800-word text.
It’s also the place where readers make their voices heard. As parents of biracial kids, we shudder to say the word. Essay For Law! But we have to. Readmore… Announcing a Trump Poetry Contest. Enter my contest for poems about our times and the Trump presidency.Readmore… Despite Progress, Child Marriage Is Still Legal in All 50 States. Several states have moved in recent months to strengthen their laws against child marriage. Difference And Persuasive Essay! Readmore… Nicholas Kristof met Abel when he was a 17-year-old orphan, and the effective head of a household.
I caught up with him 7 years later. Topics! Readmore… For Women in Prison, Tampons Should Be Free. The availability of survey, sanitary products isn’t simply a matter of budget lines and purchasing orders. Essay! It has to do with power. Readmore…
Why wait for halimbawa sa filipino 2 kabanata 1 governments or established charities when you can start an NGO in essay your basement? Readers submitted photographs to the Magazine that illustrate the empowerment of women. Nicholas Kristof talked to the Magazine about how educating girls can help fight poverty.
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Faculty Guest Essay: Just War and Law of War: A Primer. Professor Johnson, then at the School of Advanced Air Power Studies, Maxwell AFB, lectured to US special forces on human rights and theories of justice in war. Emphases have been added to topics for law assist freshmen readers. Prof. Johnson later taught at the US Marine Corps Academy. - Jeremy Lewis. The great Prussian military theorist Carl von Clausewitz included in his definitive work, On War , a straightforward definition of war: it is an act to compel our enemies to do our will. But Clausewitz also recognized that compellence by force is ap government essay questions, accompanied by certain self-imposed, imperceptible limitations . . . known as international law and topics, custom. Essay Shopping Experience? Thus , constraint in war is generally self-imposed , informed by legal parameters and tradition. As Clausewitz alludes, war by its very nature involves conflict, but not all conflict is war . Forty percent of human skeletons recovered in the Egyptian Nubia, dating some 12,000 to 14,000 years ago, showed evidence of violent death by lethal instruments.
Yet although such violence was a testimony to essay topics the nature of you analyze the presentation of the sow relationships between primitive humans, it was not indicative of essay topics any comprehensive concept of in america war. The rise of organized society is the key to differentiating between wanton violence perpetrated by marauding nomads and states at war. With the agricultural revolution, previously nomadic peoples settled and essay, a sense of communal identity evolved. Strength of numbers was one of the and persuasive first advantages that accrued to these settled peoples over hunter-gatherer tribes. The subsequent rise of a social construct fostered the development of shared customs and essay, values that gave rise to specific social structures and classes. As these societies became more role-differentiated and complex, castes developed values and customs specific to their roles. Over time, a set of ideals evolved in in which you analyze the presentation of the these societies (and within each caste) that was intended to regulate the behavior of its members. These ideals are at essay topics for law, the root of self-imposed restraint in war. Different civilizations developed different ideals and thereby different rules regulating the conduct of war. For example, the great Arabic historian Ibn Khaldun summarized in his seminal Muqadimma the traditional Islamic understanding of war as universal and inevitable and therefore a feature of human society that is sanctioned, if not willed by God himself.
As a result, war and peace fall within the realm of divine legislation and Islamic ethics regarding war are eo ipso derived from the same sources upon which Islamic law is based. About Shopping Experience? The fundamental source from which a consistent ethical system of war can be derived is, of course, the topics Qur'an , which is held by Muslims to be God's final and definitive revelation to humanity. But there is also the example set forth in the life of the Prophet Muhammad, or sunnah (custom or practice). It clarified the scripture, elaborated upon it, supplemented it, and thus fulfilled new demands. The record of actions or sayings of the Prophet himself, hadith , also became a source for deliberations on the nature of war and what was and what was not allowed therein. But as disagreement between Muslims during the Persian Gulf War of 1990 would indicate, there is much diffusion regarding the nature of a just war (or jihad ) within Islamic ethics. Much of that controversy resulted from the tension between Islam's legal and ethical dimensions. Between Expository And Persuasive? The same can be said of the Western tradition, that is, the tension between early Judeo-Christian ethics and the rise of the secular Western concept of law. To begin to understand the Western way of for law war, one must necessarily begin with the between and persuasive Old Testament.
The Old Testament recounts war after war, genocide, ethnic cleansing, rape, plunder, and a host of topics other atrocities associated with war. Indeed, on many occasions the Hebrews were instructed by Yahweh , or Jehovah, to do these things. For the ancient Hebrews, war was waged upon the command of God for the vindication of justice and the restoration of peace . The Hebrew word shalom , or peace , meant more than simply the absence of war--it meant well-being and difference between and persuasive, prosperity . Peace also meant security and for that reason is at the etymological root of the Jewish word for impregnable fortress, Yeru'shalom , or Jerusalem. As evidenced in the Old Testament, for the Hebrews peace was a gift of God. If the Hebrews fulfilled the covenant, God bestowed peace upon them. And peace bestowed abundance. Jehovah therefore bestowed peace and allowed and sometimes commanded war in order to restore peace. Interestingly, war and defeat for the Hebrews was also a form of chastisement. When Josiah was defeated at Megiddo, Israel became enslaved. Later, Jehovah even suffered the essay topics Jews to be taken captive into Babylon.
The Hebrews' defeat and 2012 essay, enslavement was a consequence of their disobedience. Nevertheless, war was waged of necessity and therefore was restrained by a code. This code was elaborated in Deuteronomy 20 . Essay Topics? Old Testament legislation (i.e., Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy) was a direct revelation from Jehovah through Moses. Not unlike Islam, the divine origin of Old Testament law constituted one of its distinctive features. Greek law, on essay, the other hand, was entirely man-made. For the early Greeks, peace was also associated with prosperity ( eirené ) and Hellenistic Greeks similarly linked security with justice. Arguably, it was the Greeks who first promulgated the notion that man fights not only in defense of his society but also in defense of his ideals apart from divine legislation . In that sense, war ennobled the human spirit in the sense that the for law highest values of man--courage, valor, sacrifice--were made manifest. The Greeks internalized these ideals that would later govern intra-Hellenic warfare and ultimately warfare in the Western world. Two formal agreements have survived that illustrate Hellenistic ideals in war.
The first was a tradition reported by the geographer Strabo around 700 BC during the War of the Lelantine Plain, in which the opposing armies agreed to refrain from the use of missiles. The second, mentioned by the orator Aeschines, suggests that around 600 BC, the victors of the First Sacred War swore never again to cut off food and water to besieged fellow Greeks. These and other rules of survey dissertation war, referred to as koina nomina (common customs), were socially reinforced in Greek mythology and the Homeric sagas. From 700-400 BC, restraints on topics, warfare in Greece continued to evolve. Among the Greeks, the between object in battle was decisive victory and the restoration of for law peace. Surrender could not be refused if requested and a retreating enemy was exempt from attack. Attacking the social and economic order was informally banned. As a result, warfare between the various poleis was generally short and rarely endangered the survival of any one state. It was a very different matter, however, when Greeks fought non-Greeks and the common customs broke down during the Peloponnesian War. Nevertheless, the Greek ideal of in america essay restraint remained largely intact and greatly influenced the Roman Empire, which sought to emulate much of the Greek ethos.
Not unlike the Hebrews and the Greeks, the Romans associated peace ( pax ) with security and prosperity and were more than willing to wage war in essay for law order to impose peace. In Virgil's Aeneid , Anchises bid his son Aeneas to make war for the sake of peace: Roman, be this thy care--these thine arts--to bear dominion over the nations and to impose the law of peace, to spare the humbled and to war down the proud. Thus, again, we find the linkage between peace and justice and the necessity of war to achieve both. Dissertation? By the same token, the Latin word pax is from the topics same root word for pact, an agreement not to fight , and therefore is survey, similarly linked with the word securitas ('security). The barbarian tribes that delivered the deathblow to the Roman Empire did not destroy Roman moral authority in this regard, however, as it re-emerged in the Catholic Church. For Law? And before the fall of Rome, with Constantine's ascendancy to Emperor in 312 AD, Christian morality had a profound influence on Roman ethics . The conversion of Constantine and the resultant Christian character of the latter Empire laid the groundwork for the Catholic concept of survey just war. The development of essay just war theory is of immense importance to the development of Western civilization and the Western way of war. Theoretically at halimbawa sa filipino 2 kabanata, least, the tradition placed war under the dominion of conscience and in doing so established the precept that right was more important than might. Derived largely from the Greek ethos stressing democratic virtues alongside such virtues as courage and bravery, war now required a moral sanction.
Moreover, war required the imprimatur of state authority and was to be carried out by professionals. Early Christian doctrine regarding jus ad bellum --the right to wage war --was first formulated by Ambrose and then developed more fully by Augustine and Thomas Aquinas . Ambrose had little if any reservations about Christian participation in war--the state existed to protect the Church. No doubt his position as Bishop of Milan in northern Italy, on the frontier facing barbarian enemies, shaped his perspective. His primary treatise in this regard, On the Duties of the Clergy , was influenced by Stoicism and the Old Testament and signaled a fundamental shift in Christian doctrine on the appropriateness and conduct of war, giving rise to the concept of just war. Augustine (354-430 AD) is generally considered to be the father of jus ad bellum . Augustine was a realist . Early Christian pacifism had stressed that all violence was morally wrong, but Augustine, writing as the empire collapsed around him, concluded that perfect peace was not possible save the direct intervention of Jesus Christ. Thus, the Church had to be protected since it provided the essay for law essential stability needed for Christianity to survive in a violent and unjust world. The object of just war, then, was the establishment of peace , or the absence of war, and the promulgation of justice . In America Essay? To Augustine, the key was intent and to a lesser degree the codification of what constituted a noncombatant. With regard to the former, war was not to essay topics be pursued for wealth or power but only in which sow, as a means to essay vindicate justice. About Experience? Providing the war was just, the individual soldier's role was therefore equally justified and violence, though regrettable, was allowed. As dispassionately as possible, the soldier's role was to punish the transgressor, reestablish right order, and prevent further wrongdoing. Regarding noncombatants, Augustine was less clear.
It is topics, largely inferred that Augustine believed that noncombatants were to be spared any violence associated with war but there is survey dissertation, some indication that he held an expanded notion of collective war guilt that could potentially include whole populations. Nevertheless, noncombatant immunity is generally considered integral to just war theory as propounded by essay for law, Augustine and enlarged upon by Aquinas. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) further codified the in which you analyze the presentation of the sow position of the Catholic Church regarding war in essay topics for law his seminal work, Summa Theologica . Race And Class Essay? Aquinas reduced the essay topics idea of just war to three fundamental tenets: A just war must have a just cause ; it must be fought on right authority ; and it must be waged by essay, a right intention . A just cause existed where some fault was to be punished. Essay? Right authority existed where the magistrate was acting as a minister of God in executing God's vengeance upon the evil-doer. Right intention existed where the pursuit of justice and the establishment of peace motivated the magistrate. Although Augustine's ideas can be characterized as defensive in disposition, Aquinas contended that heresy and other crimes against God warranted attack--allowing for an offensive disposition. The just cause was pursued by a vindicator, fighting against an unjust opponent that had perpetrated some form of evil. Aquinas thus armed the Church with an offensive dogma--the armed missionary--that would later underpin the justifications made for the Crusades and the extirpation and attempted extermination of non-European peoples in the Americas. Nevertheless, among civilized peoples, restraint toward an enemy was regarded as appropriate in order to lay the foundation for post-conflict reconciliation and Christian conversion. There is no question that Augustinian and questions, Thomist teachings had a profound influence on the Western concept of war. First, jus ad bellum provided for self-imposed restraint in for law war in survey dissertation terms of vindictive justice; and second, the spirit of the Greek's common customs was reinforced in the Augustinian and Thomist ideas regarding jus in bello --that is, rules governing the conduct of war.
These values were reinforced further in the Middle Ages within the idea of chivalry. The idea of just war as it emerged in essay topics the late Middle Ages manifested a dialect between the difference between expository and persuasive essay theological (Church doctrine) and the legal (drawn from Greek and for law, Roman codes of conduct). In Which Sow? The synthesis of the two found its first expression in essay the chivalric codes . Although at halimbawa ng thesis 2 kabanata 1, first glance these codes appear to have been rendered largely irrelevant by the Hundred Years' War (ending in 1453), what is often overlooked is that the topics for law knightly ideal ( jus militaire ) did not perish. Before the Hundred Years War, Honoré Bonet's L'Arbre des battailes (Tree of Battles) and Christine de Pisan's Les Faits d'armes et de chivalrie (Acts of Arms and Chivalry) both praised and write an essay of the sow, entrenched the virtuousness of war as an ideal in terms of a means to achieve peace and justice. When the essay topics knight acted virtuously --that is, with restraint and in the pursuit of justice--war itself was virtuous. Despite the apparent loss of survey this ideal during the Hundred Years War, it re-emerged in the regimental system. The creation of the British regimental system by topics for law, a victorious English parliament.
recovering from a bloody civil war against monarchial power had a profound impact on English military culture and ultimately the Western way of race essay war. The knightly ideal of virtuous warfare restrained by an ethical code was extended and reinforced in the regimental system in topics an effort to regulate the behavior of the common soldier. Officers upheld the knightly concept of the gentleman and a code of behavior in war. The soldiers, in turn, would be restrained by the officers from acting out their more vulgar inclinations. An enemy whose culture regimental officers deemed compatible with their own was considered a worthy opponent . The enemy therefore ceased to be a threat to social stability and an essay of the, was to be treated fairly and with professional restraint. At the same time, with the rise of the nation-state, religious differences largely ceased to essay be the predominant motivation for war. Nations now went to war for more practical reasons . As war aims became more limited, restraint became more pronounced in a way analogous to the Hellenistic Greek city-states. With national hatreds muted, and the conduct of war governed by a strict code of ethics, hostilities became more and more regulated. Such regulation would be reinforced during the about shopping experience period known as the Enlightenment. The Reformation of essay topics for law Christianity begun by Martin Luther in 1517 challenged the Catholic Church as the sole authority in matters of morality and ethics. An Essay In Which You Analyze The Presentation Of The? Protestant theology offered new interpretations and posited that the Church had failed to live up to the ideals of equality and morality as expressed in the person of Jesus Christ.
Europe was still Christian, yet the topics wars of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries had often been the product of religious intolerance. Therefore, it became increasingly exceptionable to argue social and political points from a theological basis because the shopping discussion would degenerate into heated and unresolvable arguments about doctrinal matters. As a result, European intellectuals devised secular solutions embodied in the idea of natural law, which itself was an topics for law, expression of Greek Stoicism, Epicureanism, and halimbawa sa filipino 2 kabanata 1, the emerging physical sciences that offered rules sans divine legislation. With respect to war, natural law would find its apotheosis in the writings of Hugo de Groot of Holland, better known by for law, his Latin name as Hugo Grotius . Called by many the father of modern international law, Grotius wrote De Jure Belli ac Pacis (On the Law of War and Peace), published in between expository essay 1625, in which he set forth the idea that there are certain inalienable rights held by each individual in human society . War, as an instrument of society, must therefore adhere to a specific code in terms of its justification and conduct in order to preserve these inalienable rights. Grotius's central thesis was that war was analogous to civil action--that is, the idea that there is an injury done or offered . Grotius returned to topics for law the Augustinian notion that war was just in the defense but he broadened the idea of self-defense to survey include preemptive strike against another state with clear hostile intent. With respect to jus in bello (or the conduct of topics for law war), for Grotius, Those things that conduce to the End, do receive their intrinsic value from the End.
In other words, the ends justify the means. This is not to suggest that Grotius favored unrestrained and wanton violence but rather he emphasized what later ethicists would call double effect . Not unlike early Christian writers, Grotius contended that what matters is intent. If the intent is by definition just, but otherwise innocent lives are lost, the ends nevertheless outweigh the 2012 ap government essay means. For example, if a village is bombarded in order to permit the seizure of a bridge that is essay topics for law, crucial to victory by a state engaged in a just cause, while it is regrettable that noncombatants were killed in the process, the deaths were necessary and therefore legal. The importance of Grotius's work is that it represented the first step in moving just war doctrine away from write an essay you analyze sow a mostly theological basis to what can charitably be described as a universal secular or legal basis . The legal basis for war was enlarged upon by essay, subsequent writers, including John Locke . What distinguished Locke from others at the time was not his justification for ng thesis 2 kabanata, war--which largely reflected earlier thinking--but rather his emphasis on right conduct . Essay? To Locke, a just defender had the right to punish an evil-doer and exact reparations, but this right extended no further than to those who were actually guilty. If a victorious state extended punishment to the innocent, then just defense became unjust conquest. In effect, Locke limited the use of force only against the enemy government and its soldiery, not innocent noncombatants. Never before had anyone advanced the idea that an dissertation, enemy's population had inalienable rights to immunity as such. Locke's ideas are important because hey had a particular influence on the founders of the United States, where the first true modern law of war emerged. The American way of essay topics for law war is an essay you analyze of the sow, derived from the Western tradition and American hegemony in the late twentieth century has largely shaped the topics just war tradition. When Americans go to war, it is to defeat evil --or so Americans believe.
The undoing of evil is the justification for war, rooted in the Augustinian tradition, and has been the historical motivator for Americans to kill one another and other peoples since at least the American Revolution--but with a unique twist. The early Fathers embarked upon war for specific and limited goals and race essay, conducted war in a way that would not shred the social fabric. Such an ideal resulted in essay self-imposed restraints both in the resort to violence and in difference between and persuasive the application of violence. Yet, at the same time, American leaders have considered war also to be an instrument of State policy. It was the intersection of these two themes that defined the transformation of the American way of war during the Civil War. The military necessity of total war expanded the idea of the combatant and the just war tradition and associated law of essay war necessarily evolved as well. During the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln asked Dr. Francis Lieber to prepare a code of write you analyze the presentation of the sow law for Federal forces. Dr. Lieber wrote two documents.
The first addressed the topics for law issue of guerrillas specifically with regard to the law of war. But the second, General Orders No. 100, became the first modern statement of the law of war and the foundation for much of law of war as it developed to survey dissertation the present. Dr. Lieber's writings codified centuries of thought with respect to just war; however, more akin to a broad interpretation of Augustine and unlike Locke, Dr. Lieber asserted that the civilian population could be regarded as a legitimate target of destruction in the sense of essay collective war guilt. In that sense, Dr. Lieber wrote that military necessity consisted of 2012 ap government essay questions those measures indispensable to securing the essay topics ends of war. Military necessity therefore permitted direct destruction of life or limb of armed enemies, and of other persons whose destruction is incidentally unavoidable. Moreover, war existed as a state of armed conflict between sovereign nations or governments. In that the citizens of a hostile state were no less an enemy than the state's soldiers, they were subject to the hardships of war.
Since the restoration of in america essay peace and the preservation of justice were the ultimate object of war, the essay deaths of otherwise innocent noncombatants was regarded as necessary in the pursuit of quick victory. As Dr. In Which You Analyze The Presentation? Lieber wrote: Sharp wars are brief . Unquestionably, General Sherman's march to the sea and his burning of the city of Atlanta reflected this total war outlook as well as the assumed culpability of Confederate citizens in the perpetration of an essay topics for law, unjust war. General Orders No. 100 remained the principal law of war reference in the United States for the balance of the race and class essay nineteenth century and into the early twentieth century. But the major powers, including the United States, sought to essay topics universalize the concept of law of war. These efforts included the first Hague Peace Conference of 1899; a second conference in 2012 essay questions 1907; the Washington Conference on the Limitation of Armament in for law 1922; the Hague Commission of Jurists in 1923; Aerial Law of War in 1923; and the 1949 Geneva Conventions . Detailing these various conventions is beyond the scope of this essay. Essay About Experience? Suffice it to say that all of these efforts reflected centuries of thought in the West regarding the nature of war and essay for law, its proper conduct.
Upon reflection, several points are notable regarding the proper conduct of war in the West. Survey? First, what is legal is not necessarily moral and what is moral is not necessarily legal . Yet the two are inextricably intertwined in the Western tradition (and to some extent the topics Muslim tradition as well). Halimbawa Ng Thesis? At the heart of the just war tradition is essay topics, right intent. 2012 Ap Government Essay? Secondarily, we find the principle of discrimination , which, in simple terms, means noncombatant immunity. But noncombatant immunity is not absolute. It has always been permissible to attack combatants even though some noncombatants may be killed or injured in the process, so long as the injury to noncombatants is indirect and unintentional. The great ethical dilemma that remains unresolved, however, is essay, where the threshold resides between direct and indirect and intentional and unintentional. That noncombatant immunity within the just war tradition can be overridden in dissertation order to preserve and for law, protect the very tradition itself is you analyze of the, a paradox.
Indeed, supreme emergency and essay topics, other arguments arising from the need to an essay the presentation override noncombatant immunity formed the basis for justifying the aerial bombardment of civilians in Germany and Japan by the Allies during the essay topics latter stages of World War II. Objectionable as that standard may be by today's apparent sensitivity regarding collateral damage , the killing of innocent civilians by aerial bombardment remains today an unresolved legal and moral dilemma as evidenced by claims that NATO violated the law of war during air attacks on Serbia as recently as 1999. NATO and halimbawa, the United States thoroughly rejected the accusation--as the United States continues to do with respect to air attacks on Iraq--offering moral and topics, legal arguments rooted thoroughly in the just war tradition. So what does it all mean? This essay is sa filipino 1, simply a very brief attempt to trace the evolution of just war thought in order to illustrate the ethical roots of the Western way of war. Interestingly, one sees the influence of the Greeks, Augustine, and thinkers not mentioned, such as the Right Honorable Lord John Fletcher Moulton, in the play of essay topics for law children, in terms of that which is fair and unfair, just and unjust, and what constitutes proportionate response.
This is not to suggest that war is child's play, but rather to suggest that, like child's play, war has developed a set of rules that are generally self-imposed, even by survey, those who admit of divine legislation to restrain themselves regarding the conduct of war. In the end, war is a dynamic concept, still evolving and adapting to changing social, political, and juridical realities. As continued globalization links societies, one may hope that the dialogue regarding just war will promote agreement with respect to a universal law of war that may ultimately be reflected in essay for law a universal idea of peace.
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Change management essay on for law, McDonalds. Change management can be defined as ‘the process of continually renewing an essay, organisation’s direction, structure, and capabilities to serve the essay topics, ever changing needs to external and race and class in america essay, internal customers’ (Moran and topics for law, Brightman, 2001). As per Burnes (2004) change is a feature which is dissertation, always present in the life of organisation. It exist both at operational and strategic level. The organisation is topics, aware about where the change is required and is fully capable of planning and implementing these changes in its structure .According to Burnes 2004; Rieley and Clarkson, 2001, the organisations strategy and in america essay, organisational strategies are something which goes hand in hand and cannot be separated. Topics? In the words of Graetz, 2000, ‘Against a backdrop of increasing globalisation, deregulation, the essay about shopping, rapid pace of technological innovation, a growing knowledge of workforce, and shifting social and demographic trends, few would dispute that the primary task of for law management today is leadership of organisational change.’ In early times the theories believed that if the organisation keeps changing management system then it can no longer run effectively nor can it make any improvement in performance (Rieley and write in which sow, Clarkson, 2001). It was believed that the company had to for law, bring new management theory into routine in order to achieve efficiency and improvement in the performance. This Means that an organisation has to give ample time for a particular change to be adopted and settle down in daily routine so that it can be run in efficient manner (Luecke, 2003).However in today’s time It is believed that staff of the organisation should go through continuous change to achieve efficiency (burnes, 2004; Rieley and Clarkson, 2001)
According to Grundy, 1993 ‘change which is marked by rapid shifts in you analyze of the sow, strategy, structure or culture, or in essay topics for law, all three.’ Senior, 2002 adds to it saying that this kind of sudden change or implementation can be caused only write an essay in which of the due to malfunctioning of the internal structure or it can be caused due to external pressure. Every organisation is looking to move forward by essay topics implanting a management system with will boost organisations strength and capability, enhancing its competitiveness. 2012 Essay? An organisation has to deal with unforeseen situations in today’s highly competitive environment and to deal with this it has to topics, be more flexible and ready for any situational changes that it will have to make, like adoption of 2012 ap government essay questions new technology or some latest development in theory for current market. In the fast moving economic environment there continuous changes in the type of technology, the way the product is marketed, trends etc. the organisation has to be more flexible to adopt changes in order to remain competitive in the global market. Change can be good in a way; it can make complex work very simple and helps to improve lives through new innovations. Organisations bring change in their working structures to essay topics for law, be more competitive and providing the in america, best to for law, their customers. As per shopping, Carlpio (1998) change is something to do with implementation of new innovative ways of doing things, enabling the topics, room for improvement in the system through practice. Number of changes can be introduced in the system but the one which brings success to the organisation is considered to be the most important one of all. A change in management system is about shopping experience, important specially when a particular system which the running organisation is facing difficulties or has some problems with it. Changes are brought in to improve the organisations performance. Changes are mostly brought due to forces which can be internal or external yee, 1998.
Changes can be brought at different level of an organisation (Swenson, 1997) The modification needed or which can be done maybe many or quite a few (Reigeluth, 1994). There could be various factors for change (Bamford and Forrester, 2003). Change can be either internal or external. Essay? External include new technology which is current requirement of the industry or trend in the current economy which may have direct impact on profitability of the the presentation of the sow, business. A structured method of change was adopted in 1946 by Lewin (Bamford and Forrester, 2003) what lewin had to say was something different than the old theories, he mentioned that in for law, order to apply any new theory or change management an organisation will have to first discard it’s old management structure or system. Management of changes pays a role in identifying objectives of the organisation and then sets goals accordingly. Its role is to implement new changes in write an essay of the, the organisation in which it can be noticed that these changes ultimately bring innovations. The first step towards organisational change is to understand the requirements of the essay topics, organisation and issues with the current management structure. The purpose of the paper is to provide insight of change management process in the chosen company which is McDonalds and provide solution and recommendation for the same. McDonalds is a company with mile stones of in america essay success which was started in 1954 by essay for law Ray Kroc as a burger shop which was then turned through extensive marketing planning and campaigning making it a global brands in difference between expository and persuasive, today’s time.
It is renowned fast food brands all over the world with more than 32,000 branches in 117 countries.McDonald’s trade mark was a carefully created and was a successful hit which was a clown with a smile. The big Mac is one of the most successful products of topics McDonalds. McDonalds offers a menu which is almost the same all cross the world. The menu includes burgers, hamburgers, cheese burgers and about, drinks include soft drinks with fries. McDonalds target customers includes kids, teens and families. It is now the most renowned brand in fast food that sells ready to eat and quickly served fast food. In spite of being a famous brandMcDonaldsis still facing some issue and needs to topics for law, change its management structure and image as the people in current time have a bit different expectations then those in previous days (McDonalds 2010) In today’s time people have become more diet and health conscious and are now moving towards food which is race in america, healthy and has more nutritional values. For Law? Fast food has always been known as junk food with no nutritional value and the popular opinion was that fast food results into obesity by increasing fats in the body. Today’s generation is more figure conscious and are looking forward for 2012 ap government questions, food which is low fat and high in topics for law, proteins.
McDonaldsis facing problems as it is a well established fast food brand and fast food is an essay you analyze of the sow, always related to unhealthy and fattening food, while competitors ofMcDonaldshave already made a move towards health conscious products by introducing entire new range which is healthy and non fattening. McDonalds needs to change the way it markets itself and also need to for law, introduce a new line of products, as per expectations of new generation’s customers. Advertising and marketing places an important role in establishing an image of the company in the eyes of the society in which it operates. The scope of change widely lies in the implementation of integrated marketing strategy. In this paper the 2012 questions, importance is given to marketing and advertisement part as to launch new range of healthy products, the topics for law, company has to implement new marketing practises. The new marketing campaign will adopt a new health conscious process which will flow along with a trend of fitting with health related issues like obesity in young children’s and create awareness about health eating practises. The main objective of this campaign is to promote its new products which are healthy and contains low fats. This will help create positive image of McDonalds among the customers and make them aware of new products which are healthier than the earlier once.
To execute these plans the company has to plan its new strategy of advertising and an essay you analyze the presentation sow, marketing ideas and put a team in place to essay, implement this strategy. The company has also introduced new smoothes and difference expository and persuasive essay, shakes along with healthy breakfast which is available before 12 in all the branches in UK. The marketing integrated campaigns main aim to topics, reflect company mission and new attitude is been seen by write the presentation the public through companies new promotion and marketing plans. When implementing change, conflicts will always follow. There are always conflicts on the route towards changes either before or after it has been initiated. Change in management can be the reason to bring success or failure to an organisation; however conflicts can bring problems if there are not resolved in time as they can bring obstacles in the new management structure introduced. The management has to essay, be aware that it should be capable of not only about shopping introducing necessary changes but also be able to implement them effectively clearing all the obstacles. The main reason to bring changes in the organisation structure especially through marketing campaign is to topics, improve the image of the organisation and to make the company more competitive in its industry. Write An Essay In Which Of The? The company might have to topics, face many obstacles in doing this and these obstacles can be both external and internal. It is important to in which, know the consent of the stakeholders of the organisation as they are very important part of the organisation.
Stake holders include share holders, customers, supplier and essay, employees. It is important for an organisation to keep all its stakeholders happy because if they are happy then it’s beneficial for the organisation. But there will conflict due to changes as there will be resistance from the side of employees or customers themselves as often people resist changing. There may be employees or customers who would accept the change happily but the between and persuasive essay, problem is essay, with those who do not agree with new management system which is to ap government questions, be implemented. Essay Topics For Law? Most of the time they may think that the change which has been brought is nothing to do with the issue or it may worsen the dissertation, situations. I it may also happen that within employees they might not trust people who are in charge of this new change. Employees are not the only one who creates obstacles for change sometimes even the customers are not ready for topics, change.
If they do not take to essay about experience, change positively then this may create issue for topics, the company to achieve its goal for the change. Along with this another problem that McDonalds may face is finding the right staff to drive this change that will be responsible to deliver these changes in department of marketing and communication. In addition to from employees and customer’s resistance there can be other barriers this may affect the process of change. Race? The strategic implementation is important part of changes; complications in this can be problematic for the company. There can be many other issues which can create barriers in changes such as conflict in view of share holders or the problem in finance and lack of budget of the company another problem can be sustaining the process of change. As per carlopio 1998 innovation is something that does not happen in a day it takes series of phases to finish the process of change. Staff involved in this change management process must undergo some kind of training and learning procedure to make them competent to sustain the essay topics, series of change until it attains success.
Inability to handle or lack of experience and knowledge in implementation of strategic change may not be able to achieve integrated marketing and communication strategies. So to overcome the problem of negative response the management of the 2012, company should make the staff go through necessary training and development programmes. The training programme should be such that it should provide complete understanding of the programme to the members of the staff. It should make sure that none of the information is missed in the training programme. Essay? After the programme there should be a follow up to check if all the members have understood and have sufficient information to support change. There can be internal conflicts between the members of the staff due to halimbawa ng thesis sa filipino 2 kabanata 1, cultural issues.
This bring problem in harmony of the members in the organisation, leading to conflict within the company. McDonalds must understand the cultures of its employees and essay, should identify the problem that may be caused because of the conflicts if any (wikins and Dyer, 1998) McDonalds should incorporate governance in the system to expository, enhance the quality of staff and the time spent by them at the work place. Different appraisal policies can help to boost employees. Working environment can also be improved so that staff members can have a good time while working for the company which at the same time also benefits the organisation. Strong organisation culture along with good management team is needed to solve such internal conflict issues. The second most important change is to sustain the success that had been achieved through implementation of new management process.
Change is part of the society and it comes again in regular interval of time (Carlopio, 1998). For the success of change management it is important that all the stakeholders know or are made aware that current change has been brought for the betterment of them. The management of the organisation should constantly analyse the topics for law, current market trends and predict future scenarios, so that it can prepare itself for next set of change that will be required for essay, the success of the organisation. The success of the topics for law, new changes in management cannot be correctly predicted as it completely depends on the attitudes of the young generation and the society. Changing the image from fast seller to a company who provides healthy meal is not a easy process, but with strong marketing campaigns and advertisement the message can be sent to people and there is a chance that this message will be delivered. It is imperative that the new image of McDonalds reaches all 117 countries.
After this message has been promoted there is a chance of getting rid of the critic’s comments that McDonalds brands have unhealthy and fattening. In other words innovation can be explained as a bunch or new ideas which have been successfully implemented (Kuhn, 1993). Innovation can be led by two factors which is technology based innovation and the second one is demand based innovation. However most of the innovations are charged up realisation of demand instead of technology. Changes are mainly driven by constant research and development, performed by companies and write an essay sow, RD is topics, given a lot of 2012 essay attention.
Apart from RD there can be other ways of essay for law bringing innovation and one of the simplest ways to keep improving working practises while in the daily routine. Combination of knowledge and and class in america essay, extensive work experience can help to innovate a new a better way of doing things. Radical innovation always come from the RD department of the essay for law, company but innovations which are incremental can only come from through practice (Lundvall, 1992). McDonalds will have to plan and implement its new marketing campaigns effectively with effective ways of doing it. The company has to take care that its internal staff is competent in difference essay, delivering the outcome and that is minimum resistance from the internally. There is a good chance that McDonalds can change its image in food industry from junk food supplier to a health conscious meal provider. As per topics for law, beverage 2003, the race and class in america essay, management of the organisation has to be on toss all the time to keep the organisation up to the market expectation.
They have to continuously analyse and monitor current market conditions so that that they are aware of the current standing of the company in essay for law, the market. To bring innovation the management will have to keep a check on which ideas are working and which are not doing well when implemented and accordingly change the management structure. To implement a management change the leader must create a environment which is safe and will support new changes in difference essay, the organisation. A above all It can be said that a change in management is good only topics for law if that particular change has potential to improve companies competitiveness in the market and bring more success to the organisation. Halimbawa? The organisation should keep monitoring current situations and make changes only if it is felt necessary, as change in topics for law, organisation is a complex decision and has direct impact on the image of the essay, organisation. With proper care and preparation and topics, organisation (McDonalds) can survive the ng thesis sa filipino 2 kabanata, toughest competition. Carlopio, J., (1998), “Implementation: making workplace and technical change happen”, McGraw-hill publication, Sydney. Swenson, D.X., (1997), “Requisite conditions for team empowerment”, empowerment in organisations, Vol. 5 No. 1.
Reigeluth, C. M. (1994). Essay Topics? The imperative for essay shopping experience, systemic change. In C. M. Reigeluth R. J. Garfinkle (Eds.), Systemic change in education (pp. 3-11). Essay Topics? Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. Wilkins, A., Dyer, W. Jr (1988), “Toward culturally sensitive theories of cultural change”, Academy of Management Review , Vol. 13.
Kuhn, R.L., Ed., (1993), “ Generating Creativity and Innovation in Large Bureaucracies” , Quorum Books, London. Lundvall, B.A., (1992), “ National Systems of Innovation: Towards a Theory of. Innovation and Interactive learning” , Pinter, London. Beverage, w. M., (2002), “slow change in fast culture”, Educause review, pp. 10-11. Moran, J. W. and Brightman, B. K. (2001) ‘Leading organizational change’, Career Development International, Burnes, B. (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics, 4th edn (Harlow: Rieley, J. B. and Clarkson, I. (2001) ‘The impact of change on performance’, Journal of halimbawa ng thesis sa filipino 1 Change Management, Graetz, F. Topics For Law? (2000) ‘Strategic change leadership’, Management Decision, 38(8), pp. 550–562.
Luecke, R. (2003), “ Managing Change and Transition”, Harvard Business School Press, Boston. Burnes, B. (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics, 4th edn (Harlow: Bamford, D. R. and Forrester, P. L. (2003) ‘Managing planned and survey dissertation, emergent change within an operations. management environment’, International Journal of Operations Production Management, issue 23, Vol. 5. McDonalds, (2010), “about McDonalds”, http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd, viewed on 5 th march 2011. If you enjoyed this article, subscribe to receive more just like it. Including student tips and essay for law, advice. Enter your email address below to receive helpful student articles and questions, tips. 2017 The WritePass Journal. All rights reserved.
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