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They ensure employee adherence to company policies and procedures. They are also in oliver and great expectations, charge of tragic, assigning sales territories and quota to sales teams and representatives. Area sales managers develop and learn essay english, implement standards for productivity, customer-service and quality of service. They carry out sales forecast to determine company financial objectives and target market for a product/service. Their roles also involve preparing and submitting annual budgets with detailed expenditure to company executives for approval. As part of crucible, their tasks, area sales managers visit existing and potential clients to offer products/services as well as elaborate on product features and its ability to meet client requirements. They contact customers via calls, emails, and arranged meetings to secure sales contracts. Twist And Great Expectations Essay. They also strive to build and maintain good working relationship with current and potential clients in order to create an atmosphere that fosters sales. Area sales managers’ job description also involves monitoring the performance of sales staff and tragic essays, providing coaching to address employee inability.
They motivate and support sales team to achieve set goals. They also organize conference calls/meetings during which sales activities are discussed and appropriate decisions are taken. Part of the duties of area sales managers also includes presenting periodic reports to company directors on sales operations. Describe In Essay. They are responsible for the analysis and interpretation of sales records and customer accounts. They also conduct research to identify new product opportunities and hero crucible, trending consumer needs. The area sales manager job typically requires a business related Bachelor’s degree, such as in economics, accounting, finance, and marketing. Some of the qualities needed to succeed on the job include leadership skills, analytical skills and communication skills. Area Sales Manager Job Description Example/Template.
The role of the area sales manager is vital to the success of a company’s sales department. The job description example below shows the major tasks, duties, and responsibilities most employers usually assign to area sales managers to essay english, complete: Oversee the development of business plans and strategies by tragic crucible a sales department Analyze and how to review research paper, survey sales territories to make proper adjustments where necessary Oversee the hero essays crucible, interviewing, hiring, and training of sales staff Ensure sales personnel adhere to company policies, rules, and regulation Assign sales territories and quota to sales units and yourself, representatives Develop and implement standards for productivity, customer-service, and quality of service Conduct sales forecast to determine company financial objectives and tragic, target market for a product/service Prepare and submit annual budgets to company executives for approval Visit existing and how to review research paper, potential clients to offer products/services and to elaborate on product features Contact customers via cold calls, emails, and arranged meetings to secure sales deals and tragic hero essays, contract Build and maintain good working relationship with clients to create an atmosphere that fosters sales Monitor the performance of sales employees and provide the how to research paper, necessary guidance to tragic hero crucible, improve efficiency Motivate and support sales teams to achieve set goals/targets Organize conference calls/meetings during which sales activities are discussed and argument papers buy, appropriate decisions taken Present periodic reports to company directors on sales operations Analyze and interpret sales records and customer accounts Carry out research to identify new sales opportunities. Tragic Hero Crucible. Area Sales Manager Resume Preparation. If you are preparing a resume for the area sales manager job, you will need to have a section to highlight the work experience you’ve had in learn essay english, your career. This helps to improve the effectiveness of your resume as most employers of area sales managers usually give preference to hero crucible, applicants with adequate experience of the job. To help you to make your job experience section, the learn essay, sample job description provided above can serve as a good source of the information you need, which is the functions of an area sales manager. Tragic. Requirements Skills, Abilities, and Knowledge for white essay, Area Sales Manager Role.
If you are gunning for the area sales manager’s job and are looking for what employers’ requirements are, the list below shows it: Education and Training: To become an area sales manager, you require a Bachelor’s degree in business related disciplines such as economics, management, and tragic hero essays crucible, accounting. Some employers may require a Master’s degree. The Area sales manager job requires at least 1-5 years of experience in the field of sales usually as a sales representative Leadership Skill: Area sales managers are adept in managing the activities and performance of sales staff in order to describe yourself in essay, achieve set goals Analytical Skill: Area sales managers are able to carry out analysis and interpretation of sales data Communication Skill: Area sales managers are well-versed in interacting with clients to offer them products/services and to address product issues. Area Sales Manager Skills for Resume. In building an area sales manager resume, the essays, above mentioned qualities can be useful in completing the skills section of describe, your resume. If you have any of them, you should ensure to highlight them in your resume. Tragic Essays. They will make the resume more effective in convincing employers of how to review a literature paper, your competence because employers already believe that applicants who have such qualities will make more successful area sales managers than those who don’t. The area sales manager performs a leading role in tragic hero essays, the realization of a company’s sales objective in an assigned area. Knowing the specific duties and responsibilities of an area sales manager will help you in preparing well for oliver twist essay, the career if that is tragic hero, what you are aspiring for.
Also, the area sales manager job description template provided above will enable you as a recruiter looking for capable hands to fill the role to design a work description that is effective in finding, recruiting, and assigning tasks to such individuals. Did you find this post helpful in understanding the kind of work area sales managers do? Please make a comment or share your duties and responsibilities if you have worked as an area sales manager in the box below . You may need to pass a job test to be hired for a position, improve your chances of making high scores today! Job Assessment Tests: How to Top Your Competition. As part of the white prompt, hiring process, most applicants that passed the tragic hero essays, initial Resume/CV screening phase are required to pass an assessment test for how to review a literature paper, the job or apprenticeship position they are applying for.
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Essay: Jack Welch as a transformational leader. Leadership is the collective action of everyone to influence. One’s behavior actions and words determine how he or she will influence ( Scott, 2005). In my paper, I will explore the important concept of leadership and more particularly transformation leadership. I will discuss the transformational model of leadership as I base Jack Welch as a good example of essays crucible, such a leader in the modern workplace. From the argument research it will come out clearly that leadership styles and capabilities that are associated with effectiveness, leadership competencies have been essential to all organizations. Leadership is hero essays basically the collective action of anyone to influence.
Ones behavior actions and words determine how he or she can influence. (Scott, 2005). As such, a leader is someone who guides other in doing what is required but does not command them. On the same note, leader is born but not trained. Through his captivate nature, something that is well brought about by like elephants essay his visionary nature, he has been able to transform his company to the next level. Transformation is all about the ability of the leader to be an influential figure, motivational factor and the capability of empower others into tragic hero essays putting an effort into effectiveness of their organizations. More research thus needs to critical essay be done regarding what leadership entails especially in the modern working environment that gets complex with time. Type of leadership #038; Core competencies. An understanding of the main qualities that make a leader is vital as it is the qualities that bring out the different kinds of leaders. Tragic Crucible. Emerging approaches on leadership tend to be result-oriented and papers buy driven. Charismatic leader’s exhibit ambitious move and are aware of the essays crucible main aims and are able to communicate effectively .Leaders have Strong moral and self-discipline.
Charisma attracts people around and provides for chances of competition thus success attributive nature of leaders ten to critical analysis rubric link all happenings to specific cause. An approach of exchange relationship between leaders and the led bring closer faster development and goal achievement. Transformative leaders tend to be the most popular type of leaders in that they forego personal need is for the benefit of the tragic hero essays crucible general community. Transformational leaders can be identified as people who recognize potential in their subordinates and help in developing it. Transformational type of leadership is identified by mentoring and empowering employees to contribute. This is illustrated here in the diagram. Transformational leaders pay attention to papers worries also developmental wishes of their followers, help them in looking at old problems from essays crucible new perspectives, and have the ability of expectations essay, exciting and inspiring followers towards achieving organizational goals.
Joseph (2010) denotes that transformational type leadership, if contrasted with transactional leadership appears to be strongly associated with lower forms of turnover rates, increased productivity besides employee satisfaction. Transformational leaders are viewed by superiors as being more competent, higher performers and more promotable. Jack Welch as a Transformational Leader. Having joined GE in 1960, Jack Welch was in 1981 named CEO of GE. In the early years Jack Welch as CEO initiated a plan of restructuring that consisted of cuts in massive jobs, placing the many businesses in number one or in number two according to various respective segments and unprofitable ones could be sold.
Jack Welch although celebrated as the leader of the global manufacturer, always famous for the technological prowess, he utilized the actual human process in bringing change into the vast GE organization. Showing respect to every individual because of the essential force brought towards organizational change, Jack formed the tragic hero model of extraordinary performance which each leader of a corporate may learn from. Under Jack’s leadership, the managers have a varied range of essay english, latitude that can help build the GE units in the entrepreneurial fashion. Being determined in harnessing the joint power of the employees of GE, Welch also had to tragic hero redefine the analysis essay grading correlation between subordinates and the boss. An individual being the source of innovation and creativity as written by Welch, people should have to agree that the better way that one can manage a group of people is by just going out of their own way. Welch developed a 4 E leadership model; the E’s here are acronyms to tragic essays crucible the following as discussed next. i. Energy- ‘go, go, go’ is the motto of the individuals who have energy. Essay. These people have energy that is not bound and always get up early each day ready to face any job. ii. Energizers-these people know how to make others perform. They always outline visions and in many occasions get people who will perform it.
They know how to excite people about a crusade or a cause. They give others credit selflessly when thing are right but when wrong they accept responsibility quickly. iii. Edge-these are the competitive type. They know well how to make difficult decisions, for instance, hiring, promoting and hero crucible firing stand their way. iv. Execute-the essential one to describe yourself the whole model. Tragic Hero. Without good results, other e’s have little use. The executers recognize when productivity and activity ain’t same. Describe Yourself. They are also capable of changing edge and energy into work and results.
A Case study on the 2 -decade transformation of General Electric under the leadership of tragic essays crucible, Welch. In 1981, as the Chief Executive Officer, Jack Welch’s mission was to give more energy to the General Electric, one of the largest companies in argument papers, America. By just reviewing the company’s mission and values, he made GE to experience an increase in tragic hero crucible, the capital base from USD 24 billion to how to a literature paper USD 74billion which formed a good base for crucible the readiness to meet more competitors among other predicaments in the future. He focused on describe the realignment of the hero objectives and the motivation hence making the managers stretch to limits that were previously unknown. Firms that did not merit to either the first or second positions in performance in the industrial development were met by blows such as divestment or faced closure. Though at some point he was termed as a destroyer, he is known to have caused a great impact in the restructuring of the GE to become one of the best corporate organizations globally. The management and motivation structure of Jack Welch entailed three major areas: i. He set the goals and prepared the yourself in essay firm on a corporate basis for the purposes of the competition challenges; ii. He also set to empower all the workers at hero all the oliver twist essay levels of the organizations; and.
iii. Ensuring that there was a communication of the new goals and visions via the whole organization by way of communication tools, for instance, extensive programs of training, forming new teams as well as the 3600 review processes. In the essays crucible mind of Welch, he purposely had the vision of transforming and creating a firm which will have people at all the levels being held accountable for like elephants their deeds, and in the long run help in making decisions which will make the work better. His motive was not to control the employees but to liberate the workers. Welch termed this as forming an organization from barriers and one that will facilitate employees to tragic hero essays have self-direction and motivation to enhance realization of their goals. He had discovered that GE was being run the same way it was organized many years since its incorporation near the turn of century. Welch found out that the company was specifically represented by an overwhelming nine stacks of management that lay between the research shop floor and tragic essays the CEO. The bureaucracy enhanced a non-responsive and an inward focus in analysis essay grading, the company where the workers had a hell of time in communicating with one another. As a matter of fact, had it not been that Welch caused a massive cost restructuring in hero, the GE, the analysts had projected that the GE would plunge into a hole of losses by the end of the twist and great expectations year 1982. In addressing the issue of GE falling into unproductive business, Welch did a complete overhaul of the management structure and thus eliminated all the layers of essays crucible, management, consolidated the jobs that seemed to overlap and the business units and made all the workers at every level to be held accountable for their work. They put to a halt to gathering unnecessary data as relates to finances and also did away with reports that were regarded as unnecessary.
Previously, the business managers usually requested for daily reports that contained much detail that often caused a chunk of a high stack of paper which made the sheer mass of detailed pieces of information impossible to be mastered thus making the information useless. In relation to the firm equipment, the operators started being accountable for a literature paper the quality and standard of their work thus reducing the essence of having the inspectors. The net effect was that the workers had the chance of to get rid of the aspects of their work that was not productive as well as unnecessary. The most significant thing is that this has been the Work-Out plan that has led to the opening of the communication channels that helped the inception of innovative change. Currently, the Welch favors the Work-Out which to him is an empowerment concept.
A great number of employees in tragic hero essays crucible, GE get a chance to be together to share ideas and thoughts as well as the know-how amid building and fostering a creative and teamwork environment. The plan facilitates communicating within the firm and responsibility with the ultimate goal being to drive above team performance. The rationale of giving the members the chance to table their ideas in the decision making was to promote individual openness and enable them to constructively challenge their leaders thus promoting a more motivated working environment. This was thus a management strategy that was a success to argument Welch. All the Work-Outs involved the follow-up activities where the commitments previously assigned were deliberated upon and the issue of accountability was enforced. The concept of empowerment has been of two types. First, the workers are actually satisfied by the fact that they are allowed to give out essays their concerns and second, the company has been able to benefit from the insights that are usually shared in the Work-Outs. Under the auspices of the CEO, Welch, the papers buy GE realized that people are not like machines however each person has the potential of enhancing productivity. Knowledge of how best to hero crucible use the human resource gives the elephants essay company a competitive edge as well as making the crucible worker feel an air of importance in the process of production and generally feel motivated.
In as much as it is hard to determine and measure the importance of empowerment, the GE has the belief that the company’s success in the future will ultimately indicate that it was a right move to have been made. The significant point is to hills like essay prompt investigate the way leaders like Welch is able to make the decisions that empowerment is the tragic essays right mechanism and how they generally decide that as the oliver twist essay best mechanism for their firms. In order to essays encourage the setting of goals and empowerment within the GE, Welch just needed to influence the buy establishment of vivid lines of communication in tragic, the firm. He had realized that many workers came to GE from different backgrounds and skills. However he did not want to take them for granted and reshaping them with the philosophy of GE but wanted them to be free thinkers. He encouraged the art of free thinking and hills like essay therefore challenges the status quo. The concept of open communication is hero essays of essence in how to review a literature research, GE since it facilitated his objective of motivating the workers to think outside the box. This is because the crucible channels work in both directions and thus give the workers the analysis rubric chance to air their grievances and thus work towards creating a consensus for action. It also helps in the motivation of the workers since that inculcates the feeling of directly contributing to the success of the company. Cultural change processes. The Work-Out process in the GE was formed in 1988 as part of the drive for better productivity and efficiency.
In the initial stages, the essays intention of the in essay Work-Outs was for tragic hero the identification and elimination of the unwanted processes that were left over from the past years where the management structure contained more layers. Upon the process of restructuring, a lot of groups performed more work with lesser workforce as compared to making comprehensive operational changes. The Work-Out process involved the like white essay identification of an area of need improvement and putting people together from all the tragic sides of the argument papers buy design process, marketing process, production process as well as the sales process to identify a better method. The Work-Outs discuss the issues and put some recommendations on record (Richard, 2009). The recommendations are then presented to the managers who are accountable such that they may accept or reject the proposals at the instance. Tragic. The whole process leads to responsive leadership and a greater rate of how to a literature research, change in the organization. During the inception of the Work-Out, numerous groups attacked the things that did not seem to make sense in tragic hero essays, the new GE. As the Work-Out plan underwent evolution, the customers and partners of supply were incorporated in the process. The plan is currently part of the day to day life in GE. Jack Welch will be remembered for causing changes such as: ‘ Merger #038; Acquisition- he is remembered to have made around 200 mergers and acquisition with his first acquisition with Hungary Lighting in 1989 and the reason behind the success of the mergers was the incorporation of the integration model.
This facilitated the argument papers future of GE. ‘ Delayering- on assuming office as CEO, Welch saw the degree of the large bureaucracy in GE. There were a lot of managers and thus he embarked on the removal of the whole system of management which formed Welch’s hardware revolution. He dismantled the walls of separating the manufacturing and marketing functions within the GE. ‘ E-initiative- upon assuming office, Welch recommended that everything in the GE be made digital. This, according to him, was an important step towards making the tragic crucible firm faster and argument papers agile. The digitalization facilitated sales of hero essays, up to USD 8 billion in 2000 through the internet. The e- initiative also helped the GE to save on the operational costs.
‘ Globalization- According to him, GE should be moved to the global arena in order to how to enhance competition. Therefore in 1980s, GE started a revolution to ensure placement of GE in the global markets. With the key growth initiative, the concept of globalization has had a role in helping GE rise at almost a double digit in rates. Currently, globalization is a major component of the GE fabric. ‘ GE Six Sigma Quality Coach- GE is an internet based mentoring program that facilitates in the training of the GE workforce on the quality initiative (Kim, 2009). This is a significant tool that helps GE achieve the Six Sigma Quality.
‘ Work-Out- this was Welch’s cultural initiative that was responsible for the changing of attitudes and behaviors within the GE. The Work-Out made sure that the management listened to employees giving them a voice the making of decisions. Work-Out is credited for having caused a culture devoid of boundaries which was helpful in creating GE’s learning engine. The few simple ideas that Jack’s attitude of tragic hero essays, management break into are; ensuring flow of free information in the whole organization, hierarchical break down and to encourage people to speak, hear and feel free to a literature research paper the new ideas. At the tragic age of 36 when Jack first became the vice president in learn essay, GE he received every person’s call when a problem arose regardless of the tragic hero crucible persons post and this was the organization which Jack built in terms of organizational communication. Jack successful transformed the contented behemoth to describe in essay a strong company that is prepared to face the competition of the world. ‘ By getting out layers of the tragic hero crucible bureaucracy who are not necessary and organization flattening, Jack enlightened the employees and describe in essay also empowering them in making decisions and an effect to their jobs, also the whole company. Also he relied on satisfaction slope and the stretch goals to push further to achievement of new goals in the company. ‘ Relaying via the various communication means, motivational mediums and hero training there was an addition of empowerment.
Welch also underlined all his words to accompany actions and also exemplary attitude. Learn. By use of 3600 review process, suitable bonus schemes and the structural changes in the organization, Jack formed and started channels of tragic hero essays crucible, communication at GE which allowed for describe networking that was unprecedented, openness and teamwork to crucible be seen at GE. ‘ Every factor combined to form motivational force for all the employees in GE. In turn, the motivation also leads to an outstanding performance in General Electric Corporation and oliver twist essay Jack Welch. In conclusion, a leader is someone who guides other in doing what is required but does not command them. Tragic Hero Essays. Transformation is argument all about the tragic hero essays crucible ability of the leader to essay be an influential figure, motivational factor and hero the capability of empower others into putting an effort into effectiveness of their organizations. It is also clear that emerging approaches on leadership tend to be result-oriented and driven. Charismatic leader’s exhibit ambitious move and are aware of the main aims and are able to critical essay communicate effectively .leaders have Strong moral and self-discipline. Charisma attracts people around and provides for chances of competition thus success attributive nature of hero crucible, leaders ten to link all happenings to specific cause. An approach of exchange relationship between leaders and the led bring closer faster development and goal achievement. Transformative leaders tend to be the most popular type of leaders in that they forego personal need is for the benefit of the general community.
Joseph G.2010. Essay English. Residential Construction Management: Managing According to the Lifecycle. J. Ross Publishing.pg121. Richard D.2009.Management. Cengage Learning.pp514-15. Credit Suisse (Research Institute).2012. Gender diversity and corporate performance. Zurich, Switzerland, 13 July 2012. Credit Suisse AG.
Scott N . 2005. Hero Crucible. Executive Leadership for Effective Administration. Pearson/Allyn and Bacon. Kim H. How To A Literature. 2009. Six Sigma for the New Millennium: A CSSBB Guidebook’s Quality Press. Marc H . 2004. High Performance Teams: How to tragic hero crucible Make Them Work. Greenwood Publishing Group. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Management essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
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A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE SYMPHONIES OF BEETHOVEN. Translated by Michel Austin. Some thirty six or seven years ago, Beethoven’s works, which at the time were completely unknown in France, were tried out at the Opera’s concerts spirituels . Today it would be hard to believe the storm of criticism from the majority of hero essays crucible, musicians that greeted this wonderful music. It was described as bizarre, incoherent, diffuse, bristling with harsh modulations and wild harmonies, bereft of in essay, melody, over the top, too noisy, and horribly difficult to hero crucible play. To satisfy the oliver and great expectations essay demands of the men of good taste who at the time held sway at the Academie royale de musique , M. Habeneck, who later organised and directed with such care the performance of the hero essays symphonies at the Conservatoire, found himself obliged to make monstrous cuts in them, of a kind that would only be tolerated in a ballet by in essay, Gallemberg or an opera by Gaveaux. Without such corrections Beethoven would not have been granted the honour of appearing on hero essays crucible the programme of the concerts spirituels between a solo for bassoon and a flute concerto. At the first hearing of those passages that had been marked with a red pencil, Kreutzer took to flight blocking his ears, and he had to argument summon all his courage to tragic crucible steel himself to listen at the other rehearsals to what was left of the symphony in D major (no. 2). Buy? Let us not forget that M. Kreutzer’s opinion on Beethoven was shared by ninety nine per cent of hero, musicians in Paris at learn the time, and that without the persistent efforts of the tiny fraction who took the opposite view, the greatest composer of modern times would probably still be largely unknown today. Essays? The mere fact that fragments of Beethoven were performed at the Opera was therefore of considerable significance, and we can state this with good reason, since without this the Societe des concerts du Conservatoire would probably not have been founded. The credit for this noble institution belongs to this small group of intelligent men and to the public.
The public – I mean the true public, which does not belong to any particular clique – is guided by its own feelings and not by narrow ideas or any ridiculous theories it may have conceived on art. That public, which is often mistaken in its judgments, since it frequently changes its mind, was struck at the outset by some of Beethoven’s salient qualities. It did not ask whether this particular modulation was related to another, whether certain harmonies were acceptable to pundits , nor whether it was admissible to use certain rhythms which were as yet unknown. All it noticed was that these rhythms, harmonies and modulations, adorned with noble and passionate melodies, and enhanced by powerful orchestral writing, exerted on it a strong impression of a completely novel kind. Nothing more was needed to stimulate its applause. Only at rare intervals does our French public experience the keen and incandescent emotion that the art of critical analysis grading, music can generate; but when its emotions are truly stirred, nothing can equal its gratitude for the artist who caused this, whoever he may be. Thus from its first appearance, the famous allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, which had been inserted in the second to make the rest palatable , was judged at its true worth by the audience at hero the concerts spirituels . A loud clamour arose for describe yourself in essay the piece to be repeated, and at the second performance the first movement and scherzo of the symphony in D (no.
2), which at first hearing had made little impression, scored an almost comparable success. Tragic Crucible? The obvious interest in Beethoven that the public began to show from then on doubled the oliver and great energy of his defenders and tragic reduced to inaction, if not to silence, the majority of hills like prompt, his detractors. Little by little, thanks to these glimmerings of dawn which tell the clear-sighted on which side the essays crucible sun is about to rise, the core of supporters increased in size and the result was the foundation, almost entirely for Beethoven’s sake, of the magnificent Societe du Conservatoire , which nowadays has scarcely a rival in the world. We will attempt to analyse the symphonies of this great master, starting with the first symphony which the Conservatoire performs so rarely. Through its form, melodic style, and the spareness of how to review research, its harmonic and orchestral writing, this work is tragic, quite different from the other compositions of Beethoven which followed. In writing this symphony the composer was evidently under the influence of Mozart’s ideas, which he has throughout imitated ingeniously and at times magnified.
But in the first and oliver and great expectations second movements one can notice from time to time certain rhythmic patterns which the author of Don Giovanni has admittedly used, but very rarely and in a much less striking way. The first allegro has a six bar theme, which though not very distinctive in itself, acquires interest subsequently through the skilful way in which it is treated. It is followed by a transitional melody of a rather undistinguished style. Hero Crucible? A half-cadence which is repeated three or four times leads to a passage for wind instruments with imitations at the fourth above. It is all the more surprising to find this here, as it was often used before in several overtures to French operas.
The andante includes a soft accompaniment for timpani which nowadays seems rather commonplace, but which can nevertheless be seen as the forerunner of the striking effects which Beethoven was to produce later with this instrument, which his predecessors had in describe in essay, general used to little or no purpose. This piece is full of charm; the hero essays crucible theme is graceful and lends itself well to fugal developments, through which the composer has been able to exploit it in ingenious and witty ways. The scherzo is the first born in this family of delightful musical jests (scherzi), a form invented by Beethoven who established its tempo. In almost all his instrumental works it takes the place of the minuet of oliver twist and great expectations, Mozart and Haydn, which is only half the speed of the scherzo and tragic essays very different in character. This one is delightful in its freshness, nimbleness, and charm. It is the only really novel piece in this work, in which the poetic idea, which plays such a large and rich part in the majority of works which followed, is describe yourself, completely absent. This is admirably crafted music, clear, alert, but lacking in strong personality, cold and sometimes rather small-minded, as for example in hero essays, the final rondo, which has the character of a musical amusement. In a word, this is not Beethoven. We are about to meet him. Everything in this symphony is noble, energetic and proud; the introduction ( largo ) is a masterpiece.
The most beautiful effects follow in quick succession, always in unexpected ways but without causing any confusion. Argument Buy? The melody has a touching solemnity; from the very first bars it commands respect and sets the emotional tone. Rhythms are now more adventurous, the essays orchestral writing richer, more sonorous and varied. This wonderful adagio leads to an allegro con brio which has a sweeping vitality. The grupetto in the first bar of the theme played by violas and cellos in unison is subsequently developed it its own right, either to generate surging crescendo passages or to bring about buy, imitations between wind and strings, all of them at hero essays once novel and lively in character. In the middle comes a melody, played by clarinets, horns and bassoons for hills the first half, and rounded off as a tutti by tragic hero essays crucible, the rest of the orchestra; it has a masculine energy which is papers, further enhanced by the felicitous choice of accompanying chords.
The andante is tragic hero essays crucible, not treated in the same way as that of the first symphony; instead of describe yourself, a theme developed in canonical imitation it consists of a pure and innocent theme, presented at first plainly by the strings, then exquisitely embellished with delicate strokes; they faithfully reproduce the tender character of the main theme. This is the enchanting depiction of innocent joy, scarcely troubled by passing touches of melancholy. The scherzo is as openly joyful in its capricious fantasy as the andante was completely happy and calm. Tragic Hero Crucible? Everything in this symphony smiles, and even the martial surges of the first allegro are free from any hint of critical analysis essay, violence; they only speak of the tragic hero crucible youthful ardour of a noble heart which has preserved intact the most beautiful illusions of life. The author still believes in immortal glory, in english, love, in devotion… What abandonment in his joy, what wit, what exuberance! The various instruments fight over particles of hero crucible, a theme which none of them plays in full, yet each fragment is coloured in a thousand different ways by being tossed from one instrument to white elephants essay the other. To hear this is like witnessing the enchanted sport of hero essays, Oberon’s graceful spirits. The finale is of the same character: it is a scherzo in double time, perhaps even more delicate and witty in its playfulness. It is a serious mistake to truncate the title which the composer provided for the symphony.
It reads: Heroic symphony to commemorate the memory of a great man . As will be seen, the subject here is analysis rubric, not battles or triumphal marches, as many, misled by the abbreviated title, might expect, but rather deep and serious thoughts, melancholy memories, ceremonies of imposing grandeur and sadness, in short a funeral oration for a hero. I know few examples in music of tragic essays crucible, a style where sorrow has been so unfailingly conveyed in forms of such purity and such nobility of expression. Essay? The first movement is in triple time and in a tempo which is almost that of a waltz, yet nothing could be more serious and more dramatic than this allegro . The energetic theme on which it is crucible, built is yourself, not at first presented in its complete form. Contrary to normal practice, the composer has initially provided only hero essays, a glimpse of his melodic idea, which is a literature, only revealed in tragic hero essays crucible, its full power after a few bars’ introduction. The rhythmic writing is extremely striking in the frequent use of syncopation and, through the stress on the weak beat, the insertion of bars in duple time into bars in triple time. When to this irregular rhythm some harsh dissonances are added, as we find towards the middle of the development section, where the how to research first violins play a high F natural against an E natural, the hero crucible fifth of the chord of A minor, it is difficult not to describe yourself shudder at this depiction of indomitable fury. This is the tragic hero essays voice of how to a literature paper, despair and almost of essays crucible, rage. Yet one wonders, Why this despair, Why this rage? The reason for it is not obvious. Then in the next bar the orchestra suddenly calms down, as though, exhausted by its own outburst, its strength was abruptly deserting it. A gentler passage follows, which evokes all the most painful feelings that memory can stir in the mind.
It is learn english, impossible to describe or merely to indicate the multiplicity of melodic and harmonic guises in which Beethoven presents his theme. We will only mention an extremely odd case, which has caused a great deal of argument. The French publisher corrected it in his edition of the hero essays score, in the belief it was an engraving error, but after further enquiry the passage was reinstated. The first and second violins on their own are playing tremolando a major second (B flat, A flat), part of the chord of the learn essay english seventh on the dominant of E flat, when a horn gives the impression of having made a mistake by coming in four bars too soon, and rudely intrudes with the beginning of the main theme which consists only of the hero notes E flat, G, E flat, B flat. The strange effect produced by this melody built on the three notes of the tonic chord against the two discordant notes of the hills white elephants essay dominant chord can easily be imagined, even though the distance between the parts greatly softens the clash. But just as the ear is about to protest against this anomaly, an energetic tutti cuts off the horn, ends piano on tragic hero the tonic chord and gives way to the entry of the cellos which then play the complete theme with the appropriate harmony. Review A Literature Paper? Taking a detached view it is difficult to find a serious justification for hero this musical caprice*.
But it is said that the author attached much importance to it. It is even related that at the first rehearsal of the symphony, M. Ries who was present stopped the orchestra and exclaimed: Too early, too early, the hills like elephants horn is tragic essays, wrong!. Papers? As a reward for his indiscretion, he was roundly taken to task by hero essays crucible, a furious Beethoven. *However you look at it, if that was really what Beethoven wanted, and oliver twist expectations essay if there is any truth in the anecdotes which circulate on the subject, it must be admitted that this whim is an absurdity. There is no comparable oddity in the rest of the tragic crucible score. The funeral march is a drama in its own right.
It is like a translation of Virgil’s beautiful lines on the funeral procession of the young Pallas: Multaque praeterea Laurentis praemia pugnae. Adgerat, et longo praedam jubet ordine duci. Post bellator equus, positis insignibus, Aethon. It lacrymans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora. The ending in particular is and great expectations essay, deeply moving. The theme of the march returns, but now in a fragmented form, interspersed with silences, and only accompanied by three pizzicato notes in the double basses. When these tatters of the sad melody, left on their own, bare, broken and lifeless, have collapsed one after the other onto the tonic, the wind instruments utter a final cry, the last farewell of the warriors to their companion in arms, and the whole orchestra fades away on a pianissimo pause. Following normal practice the third movement is entitled scherzo . Hero Essays? In Italian the critical essay grading rubric word means play, or jest. At first sight it is hero essays crucible, hard to elephants see how this kind of music can find a place in this epic composition. It has to be heard to tragic essays crucible be understood.
The piece does indeed have the rhythm and tempo of a scherzo ; these are games, but real funeral games, constantly darkened by thoughts of death, games of the kind that the warriors of the Iliad would celebrate around the tombs of their leaders. Even in twist and great expectations, his most imaginative orchestral developments Beethoven has been able to preserve the serious and sombre colouring, the deep sadness which of course had to predominate in such a subject. The finale is hero essays crucible, just a continuation of the same poetical idea. There is a very striking example of orchestral writing at the beginning, which illustrates the kind of effect that can be produced by papers, juxtaposing different instrumental timbres. The violins play a B flat, which is immediately taken up by flutes and oboes as a kind of echo. Although the sound is played at the same dynamic level, at tragic hero essays the same speed and with the same force, the dialogue produces such a great difference between the describe yourself in essay notes that the nuance between them might be likened to the contrast between blue and purple . Such tonal refinements were completely unknown before Beethoven, and it is to him that we owe them.
For all its great variety this finale is nevertheless built on hero a simple fugal theme. And Great Essay? Besides a profusion of ingenious details the composer develops on top of it two other themes, one of which is exceptionally beautiful. The melody is as it were derived from a different one, but its shape conceals this. On the contrary it is much more touching and expressive, far more graceful than the original theme, which has rather the character of a bass line and serves this function very well. This melody returns shortly before the end, in a slower tempo and with different harmonies which further enhance its sad character. The hero costs many a tear.
After these final regrets devoted to his memory the poet abandons the elegiac tone and intones with rapture a hymn of glory. Though rather brief this conclusion is very brilliant and provides a fitting crown to the musical monument. Beethoven may have written more striking works than this symphony, and several of his other compositions make a greater impact on the public. But it has to be admitted that the Eroica symphony is so powerful in its musical thought and execution, its style so energetic and so constantly elevated, and its form so poetic, that it is the equal of the composer’s very greatest works. Whenever this symphony is tragic essays crucible, performed I am overcome with feelings of deep and as it were antique sadness; yet the public seems hardly moved. Learn Essay English? One must feel sorry for the predicament of the artist: though fired with such enthusiasm he has not managed to make himself intelligible even to an elite audience and make it rise it to the level of his own inspiration. This is all the tragic hero crucible more regrettable as in other circumstances this same audience warms up to the composer and shares his emotion and tears.
It is fired with an ardent and genuine passion for some of his compositions, which may be equally worthy of admiration but are nevertheless no more beautiful than this work. It appreciates at its true worth the oliver twist and great expectations essay allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, the allegretto scherzando of the eighth, the finale of the hero fifth, the a literature scherzo of the tragic hero essays crucible ninth. Hills Like White Essay? It even appears to be deeply moved by the funeral march of this symphony – the Eroica . But as far as the first movement is concerned, there is no escaping the truth, and I have observed this for more than twenty years: the public listens to it with composure, regards it as a well crafted and quite powerful piece, but beyond that … nothing. There is no point in philosophising. Hero Essays Crucible? It is no good saying to oneself that the same has always been true everywhere for all artistic creations of an elevated kind, that the papers springs of poetic emotion are hidden and difficult to fathom, that the feeling for beauty which some individuals possess is completely absent from the masses, even that it cannot possibly be otherwise… None of this provides any consolation or can appease the anger – call it instinctive, involuntary, even absurd if you like – which fills one’s heart at the sight of a misunderstood masterpiece, of a composition of such nobility which the crowd observes but does not see, listens to but does not hear, and allows to pass by with hardly a sideways glance, as though dealing with something mediocre or ordinary. It is dreadful to have to say to oneself with total certainty: what I find beautiful is beauty itself for tragic hero essays me, but may not be so for my best friend. Someone who normally feels the same way as I do will be affected in oliver and great, quite a different way. It may be that the work which sends me into raptures, makes me shiver, and moves me to tears, leaves him cold, or even annoys and irritates him… The majority of great poets have no feeling for music and hero only enjoy melodies of a trivial or childish character. Many intelligent people, who think they like music, have no idea of the emotions it can stir. These are painful truths, but they are tangible and obvious, and only a peculiar kind of obstinacy prevents one from recognising them.
I have seen a bitch howling with pleasure on hearing a major third played in double stopping on a violin, yet her pups have never reacted in a similar way, whether you play them a third, a fifth, a sixth, an octave, or any other consonant or discordant chord. Whatever the composition of the public, it always reacts to great musical conceptions in essay prompt, the same way as that bitch and her pups. There are nerves that react to certain vibrations, but this ability to respond, incomplete as it is, is not equally disseminated and is subject to innumerable variations. Tragic Crucible? It follows that it is virtual lunacy to rely on some artistic means rather than others to affect it and that the best a composer can do is to rubric remain blindly true to his own feelings and resign himself in advance to all the hero essays whims of fortune. One day I was walking out of the Conservatoire with three or four dilettanti after a performance of the Choral symphony. – How do you find this work? one of them asked me. – Immense! magnificent! overwhelming! – That is strange, I was bored stiff. And what about you? he added, turning to an Italian… – Well, I find this unintelligible, or rather intolerable, there is no melody… But here are some papers talking about it, and let us see what they say: – Beethoven’s Choral symphony is the pinnacle of modern music; art has yet to produce anything comparable for the nobility of its style, the grandeur of the design and the finish of the details. (Another paper) – Beethoven’s Choral symphony is a monstrosity. (Another paper) – This work is how to, not completely barren of ideas, but they are poorly presented and the sum total is incoherent and devoid of charm. (Another paper) – Beethoven’s Choral symphony has some wonderful passages, but the composer was obviously short of inspiration. As his exhausted imagination let him down he had to devote his energies, sometimes to good effect, to making up through craftsmanship what he was lacking in inspiration.
The few themes found in tragic essays, the work are superbly treated and set out in buy, a perfectly clear and logical sequence. In short, it is a very interesting work by a tired genius . Where is the truth, and where is the error? Everywhere and nowhere. Everybody is right. What to someone seems beautiful is not so for someone else, simply because one person was moved and the other remained indifferent, and the former experienced profound delight while the latter acute boredom. What can be done about this?… nothing… but it is dreadful; I would rather be mad and believe in absolute beauty.
Beethoven forsakes here completely the tones of epic and elegy to return to the less elevated, less sombre, though perhaps no less difficult style of the second symphony. The tone of tragic essays, this score is generally lively, alert, and joyful, or of a heavenly gentleness. Leaving aside the brooding adagio which serves as an introduction the first movement is buy, almost wholly dedicated to joy. The theme in detached notes with which the allegro begins is no more than a canvas on hero crucible which the composer lays out subsequently other more substantial melodies, and what looked at the start of the movement like the principal theme is made to appear of secondary importance. Though it leads to unusual and interesting results, this device had already been used by Mozart and Haydn with comparable success.
But in essay english, the second part of the same allegro a really new melody is introduced, the hero first bars of which arrest the listener’s attention, draw him into its mysterious developments then surprise him with its unexpected conclusion. This is what happens. After a fairly vigorous tutti, the first violins break the opening theme into fragments which they turn into a dialogue pianissimo with the second violins. This leads to held notes on the dominant seventh of the key of B natural, each of which is separated by two bars of silence, filled only by a soft tremolo on the timpani on the note B flat, the enharmonic major third of the papers buy fundamental F sharp. The passage is repeated, then the timpani fall silent and leave the strings murmuring gently other fragments of the theme, and a new enharmonic modulation leads to a six-four chord of B flat. The timpani re-enter on the same note, now the genuine tonic and not as before the leading note, and continue with the tremolo for some twenty bars. The tonal force of this B flat hardly registers initially, but gradually increases as the crucible tremolo is prolonged. Then the other instruments intersperse their forward momentum with short and incomplete fragments under the continuous rumble of the timpani, and this leads to analysis essay a general forte where the tragic essays perfect chord of B flat is finally established in all its majesty in the full orchestra. This astonishing crescendo is one of the happiest inspirations we know in music. The only passage that could be compared is the conclusion of the famous scherzo of the review symphony in C minor, though despite its overwhelming impact it is tragic crucible, not conceived on such a vast scale, as it starts from piano to oliver twist expectations essay reach the final explosion but without departing from the home key, whereas the crescendo we have just described starts mezzo forte , disappears for a while in a pianissimo under harmonies of hero crucible, constantly vague and indeterminate colour, then reappears with chords in a more defined tonality, and only bursts out when the cloud obscuring this modulation has completely dissipated.
It is like a river whose peaceful flow vanishes suddenly from sight and only re-emerges from learn, its underground course to come crashing down in a foaming waterfall. As for the adagio , it defies analysis… So pure are the forms, so angelic the expression of the melody and so irresistibly tender, that the prodigious skill of the craftsmanship is completely hidden from view. From the tragic hero essays very first bars one is gripped by emotion which by essay, the end has reached an hero essays, unbearable pitch of intensity. It is only among one of the giants of poetry that it is possible to find something to compare to learn english this sublime movement from the giant of tragic, music. Nothing resembles more the learn english impression made by this adagio than the tragic hero essays crucible feelings one experiences when reading the touching episode of Francesca di Rimini in the Divina Commedia , the narrative of which Virgil cannot hear without bursting into tears, and which at the last verse causes Dante to fall, just as a dead body collapses . This movement seems to have been breathed by the archangel Michael when, seized with a fit of melancholy, he contemplated the universe, standing on the threshold of the empyrean. Argument Buy? The scherzo consists almost entirely of phrases in tragic hero essays, two beats that are forced to fit into the framework of bars in triple time. Beethoven has used this device frequently and it imparts considerable vitality to the music. Melodic endings become as a result more incisive and buy unexpected; in any case, these cross-rhythms have in themselves real charm, though it is hero crucible, difficult to explain why.
There is special pleasure in seeing the beat dislocated in this way yet coming together again at the end of learn, each period, and the musical logic though temporarily suspended eventually reaching a satisfactory conclusion and a complete solution. The melody of the trio , played by the wind section, has exquisite freshness. The tempo is slower than that of the hero essays crucible rest of the scherzo , and its simplicity gains extra elegance from the teasing little phrases delightfully tossed by the violins over the harmonic texture. Oliver Essay? The finale is joyful and hero essays alert and critical analysis grading restricts itself to normal rhythmic forms. It consists of a jingle of scintillating notes in a continuous chatter, sometimes interrupted by a few raucous and wild chords, another example of those angry outbursts to hero essays which we have already drawn attention with this composer. This, without doubt the most famous of the symphonies, is also in our opinion the first in which Beethoven gave wings to his vast imagination without being guided by or relying on any external source of inspiration. In the first, second and fourth symphonies, he has more or less enlarged already existing forms, suffusing them with all the poetry his youthful vigour was capable of adding in terms of brilliant and passionate inspiration. In the third (the Eroica ) the forms are admittedly broadened and the musical thought rises to great heights, yet there is no mistaking the critical influence of one of those divine poets whom the great artist had long worshipped in his heart. Beethoven, faithful to the precept of tragic hero essays crucible, Horace: «Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna», regularly read Homer, and in his magnificent musical epic, inspired, it is said rightly or wrongly, by a contemporary hero, the memories of the ancient Iliad self-evidently play a wonderfully beautiful part. By contrast the C minor symphony seems to hills white essay arise directly and solely from Beethoven’s own genius. In it he develops his own intimate thoughts, it is about his secret suffering, his concentrated anger, his dreams full of such sad despair, his nocturnal visions, his outbursts of enthusiasm.
The forms taken by melody, harmony, rhythm and essays crucible the orchestral writing are as substantially individual and novel as they are powerful and noble. The first movement depicts those turbulent feelings which move a great soul seized with despair – not the calm and concentrated despair which has an air of resignation, nor the sombre and silent despair of a literature research paper, Romeo learning of the tragic hero essays death of Juliet, but rather the terrifying fury of Othello when he hears from the mouth of Iago the poisonous calumnies which convince him of Desdemona’s crime. Critical Grading? At times the mood is one of frenzied delirium which breaks out in terrifying cries, at others one of exaggerated despair which can express nothing but regret and self-pity. Listen to those orchestral hiccoughs, the tragic hero crucible chords exchanged between wind and strings which grow fainter as they come and go, like the painful breathing of critical essay rubric, a dying man, then give way to a violent gesture, where the orchestra seems to hero essays crucible rise again revived by oliver, a flash of tragic hero essays crucible, anger. See how this quivering orchestral mass hesitates for a moment before plunging headlong, divided into two fiery unisons like two streams of lava. Can you deny that this passionate style of writing is beyond and above everything that had been written before in orchestral music? There is a striking example in this movement of the effect produced by yourself, the occasionally excessive doubling of parts and of the raw character of the chord of a fourth on the supertonic, in other words the second inversion of the dominant. It occurs frequently without preparation or resolution, and tragic hero crucible once even without the leading note and on english a pause: the low D is in all the string voices, while there is tragic, a bare and dissonant G on top in some wind parts. Learn Essay? The character of the adagio is rather reminiscent of the allegretto in A minor of the hero seventh symphony and of the slow movement in E flat of the fourth. It has the solemn melancholy of the former, and buy the touching grace of the tragic hero latter. The theme played first by the cellos and violas in unison, with a simple pizzicato accompaniment in learn english, the double basses, is followed by a passage for wind instruments which keeps returning in tragic essays, identical form and in the same key from beginning to end of the movement, whatever the successive changes undergone by the first theme.
This persistent repetition of the identical phrase, constantly repeated with the same simple and deep sadness, gradually stirs in the mind of the listener an indescribable feeling, without doubt the most intense of its kind that we have experienced. Among the most daring harmonic effects in this sublime elegy we may mention: 1 0 the high note held by flutes and clarinets on the dominant E flat while the strings are active lower down and in essay progress through the tragic essays crucible chord of the sixth, D flat, F, B flat, which has no connection with the high pedal note; 2 0 the describe episodic passage played by a flute, an oboe and tragic essays two clarinets in oliver and great, contrary motion, which occasionally results in unprepared dissonances of the second, between the leading note G and F, the major sixth of A flat. This third inversion of the hero chord of the leading seventh is learn, forbidden by the majority of theorists, as is the high pedal we have just mentioned, yet the result is altogether delightful. There is also at the last entry of the first theme a canon in unison at an interval of one bar , between the violins and flutes, the clarinets and essays bassoons, which would give added interest to critical essay rubric the melody treated in this way if the imitation by the wind instruments could be heard; unfortunately the whole orchestra is playing loud at the same moment and makes it almost inaudible. The scherzo is a strange composition.
The first bars, which in themselves have nothing that should alarm, provoke that inexplicable emotion experienced under the magnetic gaze of some individuals. Everything here is mysterious and sombre; the hero essays crucible orchestral effects, all more or less sinister in character, seem to oliver twist and great belong to hero the world of thought of the famous scene of Blacksberg in Goethe’s Faust . The prevailing dynamics are piano and mezzo forte . The central section (the trio) is taken up by a passage for the basses, bowed with full vigour, the white elephants essay ponderous roughness of which rattles the feet of the music stands and sounds rather like the antics of an exhilarated elephant… But the monster moves away, and the sound of its wild frolics gradually fades. The theme of the scherzo reappears pizzicato ; gradually silence is established, and only a few lightly plucked notes are heard from the violins together with the hero crucible strange clicking sounds produced by the high A flat of the bassoons clashing with G, the grading rubric octave of the tonic of the dominant minor ninth. The strings then break the sequence and settle gently on a bowed chord of tragic hero, A flat on which they doze off. The timpani using sponge-headed sticks keep the rhythm going on like essay their own with light strokes which stand out faintly against the general somnolence of the hero essays rest of the orchestra. These timpani notes are Cs; the piece is in C minor, but the chord of A flat, long held by the other instruments, seems to be introducing a different key; for its part the solitary pulsing of the timpani on C tends to learn essay preserve the feeling of the original key. The ear hesitates… where will this harmonic mystery end?… and then the soft throbbing of the timpani gradually increase in volume, joined by the violins which have started to move again, changing the harmony. This leads to the dominant seventh chord of G, B, D and F while the timpani continue to play obstinately the tonic C. The whole orchestra, reinforced by the trombones which have not yet appeared, explodes now in the major in a triumphal march and the finale begins. The electrifying effect of tragic, this passage is well known, and there is no need to elaborate for the reader. Twist And Great Expectations? Critics have nevertheless sought to diminish the composer’s merit by asserting that he had merely resorted to a commonplace device in making the brilliance of the major mode follow the darkness of a pianissimo in a minor key, that the triumphal theme was lacking in originality, and essays crucible that interest flagged as the movement progressed instead of increasing.
We would answer: is it because the how to review transition from tragic hero essays crucible, piano to forte , and from minor to major , are known devices that there is less genius in creating such a work?… How many other composers have not tried to achieve this same effect? And how can their efforts compare with the gigantic hymn of victory, in which the soul of the poet musician, liberated from earthly shackles and suffering, seems to like white elephants essay prompt soar radiantly to heaven?… It is true that the essays first four bars of the march are not of striking originality; but there is learn essay english, a limit to what can be done with the genre of the fanfare, and crucible we do not believe it possible to invent new types of fanfare without giving up completely its simple, grandiose and festive character. Beethoven wanted for how to review a literature research paper the start of his finale a fanfare-like entry; in the rest of the movement, in hero, fact even in the continuation of the principal theme, he quickly reverts to the lofty and original style that is his hallmark. As for the criticism that he failed to sustain interest through the end of the movement, one might answer that in the present state of the art of music it is impossible to produce a more shattering effect than the transition from the scherzo to the triumphal march, and it was therefore not possible to intensify that effect any further. Argument Buy? To remain at such a height is already a prodigious feat; despite the breadth with which Beethoven develops his material, he nevertheless brings it off. But this consistency of level from the beginning to the end is enough to give the impression of tragic crucible, a fall-off; so great has been the initial impact on the listener, whose emotional response has been raised to the highest pitch, that it is all the more difficult to sustain it subsequently at the same level.
In a long row of columns of the same height perspective suggests that the describe yourself in essay more distant ones are actually smaller. Hero Essays Crucible? It could be that our inadequate constitutions would adapt better to a more laconic ending such as Gluck’s Our general is calling you back : the oliver twist and great essay audience would thus not have the time to cool down, and the symphony would be over before fatigue prevented the audience from following in the composer’s footsteps. Tragic Hero Essays? But this remark only applies so to speak to the way the work is presented; it does not disqualify this finale from being in itself of a magnificence and richness next to which very few pieces could stand comparison without being obliterated. This astonishing landscape could have been designed by Poussin and drawn by Michelangelo. The author of Fidelio and of the Eroica symphony sets out to depict the tranquillity of the countryside and the shepherds’ gentle way of analysis essay grading, life. But let us be clear: we are not dealing here with the picture-postcard and prettified shepherds of M. de Florian, still less those of M. Lebrun, who wrote the Rossignol [The Nightingale], or those of J.-J. Rousseau, the composer of the Devin du Village [The Village Soothsayer]. We are dealing here with real nature.
The title given by the composer to essays crucible his first movement is Gentle feelings stirred by the sight of a beautiful landscape . The shepherds begin to move about nonchalantly in the fields; their pipes can be heard from a distance and close-by. Exquisite sounds caress you like the scented morning breeze. A flight or rather swarms of hills prompt, twittering birds pass overhead, and tragic essays the atmosphere occasionally feels laden with mists. Heavy clouds come to hide the sun, then suddenly they scatter and let floods of analysis grading, dazzling light fall straight down on the fields and tragic essays crucible the woods. These are the images that come to like white essay mind when I hear this piece, and despite the vagueness of instrumental language I suppose that many listeners have probably reacted in hero crucible, the same way.
Further on there is a Scene by the brook . Contemplation… The composer probably created this wonderful adagio lying on his back in the grass, his eyes turned to heaven, his ear listening to the wind, fascinated by countless reflections of sound and light, observing and listening at once to oliver and great expectations the white ripples of the river as they break gently on the stones of the bank. This is delightful. There are some who vehemently criticise Beethoven for wanting to essays reproduce at the end of the hills elephants essay prompt adagio the song of three birds, at first in succession and then together. In my view the normal test of the appropriateness or absurdity of such attempts is whether they come off or not. On this point I would therefore say to Beethoven’s critics that they are right as far as the nightingale is concerned: the imitation of its song is no more successful here than in M. Lebrun’s well-known flute solo, for the very simple reason that since the nightingale only emits indistinct sounds of hero crucible, indeterminate pitch it cannot be imitated by instruments with a fixed and precise pitch.
But it seems to me that the case is argument papers buy, different with the hero quail and the cuckoo, whose cry involves either one or two real notes of fixed pitch, and english can therefore be fully imitated in a realistic way. Now if the composer is criticised for introducing a childishly literal imitation of bird-song in hero, a scene where all the quiet voices of heaven, earth and water must naturally find their place, I would say in reply that the same objection could be made when in the storm he also imitates faithfully the gusts of hills white elephants essay, wind, the flashes of lightning and the bellowing of animals. And heaven knows that no one has ever dreamed of criticising the storm of the pastoral symphony! But let us proceed. The poet now brings us in the midst of hero essays, a Joyful gathering of peasants. The dancing and laughter are restrained at first; the oboe plays a cheerful refrain accompanied by a bassoon that can only manage to produce two notes. Beethoven’s intention was probably to hills like elephants essay prompt suggest in this way an old German peasant, sitting on a cask with a decrepit old instrument, from which all he can draw are the two principal notes of the key of F, the dominant and the tonic. Every time the oboe plays its naive and jolly tune like a girl in her Sunday clothes, the old bassoon blows his two notes. When the hero crucible melody modulates to a different key the bassoon falls silent and quietly counts his rests, until the original key returns and he is able to interject again unruffled his F, C and F. This burlesque effect is wonderfully apt but the public seems to miss it almost completely.
The dance gets more animated and becomes wild and noisy. A rough theme in duple time signals the arrival of mountaineers with their heavy clogs. The first section in triple time is repeated, but even more animated. The dancers mingle excitedly, the women’s hair flies loose over their shoulders, the mountaineers add their noise and intoxication, there is clapping, shouting and critical analysis essay grading rubric running, and tragic the scene goes wild and furious… Then suddenly a distant clap of thunder strikes terror in twist and great expectations essay, the midst of this rustic ball and scatters the dancers. Storm, lightning . I despair of being able to convey an idea of this prodigious piece. It has to hero crucible be heard to understand how realistic and sublime imitative music can become in the hands of someone like Beethoven. Listen to the gusts of wind gorged with rain, the dull growl of the essay basses, the shrill hissing of piccolos announcing the fearful storm that is about the break out. The hurricane approaches and tragic crucible increases in intensity. A huge chromatic scale, starting in the upper instruments, plunges to the depths of the orchestra, picks up the basses on the way, drags them upwards, like a surging whirlwind that sweeps everything in its way. The trombones then burst out, the thunder of the timpani intensifies in violence; this is no longer rain and wind but a terrifying cataclysm, a universal deluge and the end of the world.
In truth the piece induces dizziness, and there are many who on hearing this storm are not sure whether the emotion they experience is one of pleasure or of pain. Hills White Essay Prompt? The symphony concludes with the Thanksgiving of the peasants after the return of hero, fine weather . And Great? Everything smiles again, the shepherds come back and hero essays answer each other on the mountain as they call their scattered flocks. The sky is clear, the torrents gradually dry out, calm returns and with it the rustic songs with their gentle tones. They soothe the mind, shattered as it was by the awesome splendour of the preceding tableau. Is it really necessary after this to write of the stylistic oddities to be found in this mighty work – the groups of five notes on the cellos clashing with passages of four notes in the double-basses, which grind together without being able to papers buy blend into a genuine unison?
Must one mention the horn call which plays an arpeggio on hero essays the chord of C while the strings hold that of F?… In truth I cannot. To do this one has to think rationally, and how can you avoid being intoxicated when in the grip of such a subject! Far from it – if only one could sleep and go on sleeping for months on end, and inhabit in one’s dreams the unknown sphere which for a moment genius has allowed us to glimpse. After such a concert should one have the misfortune to have to see some comic opera, attend a soiree of fashionable songs and a flute concerto, one would have a look of stupefaction. Review A Literature? Should someone ask you: – How do you find this Italian duet? You would reply in all seriousness. – And these variations for clarinet? – And the finale of the new opera? And some distinguished artist who has heard your answers but does not know why you are so preoccupied, will point at you and say: Who is this idiot? How the ancient poems, for all their beauty and hero the admiration they evoke, pale before this marvel of modern music! Theocritus and Virgil were great landscape artists; lines like the following are music to the ears: «Te quoque, magna Pales, et te, memorande, canemus.
Pastor ab Amphryso; vos Sylvae amnesque Lycaei.» especially when they are not recited by barbarians like us French, who pronounce Latin in such a way that it could be mistaken for a peasant dialect… But Beethoven’s poem!… these long periods so full of colour!… these speaking images!… these scents!… this light!… this eloquent silence!… these vast horizons!… these magic hideouts in the woods!… these golden harvests!… these pink clouds like wandering specks in yourself, the sky!… this vast plain dozing under the midday sun!… Man is absent!… nature alone reveals herself glorying in her splendour… And the tragic deep rest of everything that lives! And the wonderful life of everything that rests!… The little stream that pursues its murmuring course towards the river!… the river, the source of all water, which descends towards the ocean in majestic silence!… Then man appears, the yourself in essay man from the tragic crucible countryside, robust and full of religious feeling… his joyful play interrupted by and great, the storm… his fears… his hymn of thanksgiving… Hide your faces, poor great poets of tragic essays, antiquity, poor immortals. Your conventional language, so pure and harmonious, cannot compete with the art of sound. You are vanquished, no doubt with glory, but vanquished all the same! You have not experienced what nowadays we call melody, harmony, the combination of different timbres, instrumental colour, modulations, the skilful clashes of conflicting sounds which fight and then embrace, the sounds that surprise the ear, the strange tones which stir the innermost recesses of the soul. The stammering of the childish art which you referred to as music could not give you any idea of critical analysis grading rubric, this. Tragic Hero Essays? For cultured minds you alone were the great melodists, the masters of harmony, rhythm, and expression. But these words had a very different meaning in your vocabulary from what we give them now. Describe In Essay? The art of sound in its true meaning, independent of anything else, was only born yesterday.
It has scarcely reached manhood, and is barely twenty years old. It is beautiful and all-powerful: it is the tragic hero essays Pythian Apollo of modern times. How To A Literature Paper? We owe to it a world of emotion and feeling which was closed to tragic essays crucible you. Describe Yourself? Yes, great venerated poets, you are vanquished: Inclyti sed victi . Tragic Essays Crucible? The seventh symphony is famous for its allegretto *. It is not that the and great three other movements are less worthy of admiration – far from it. But the public usually judges a work on the effect it produces, and only measures that effect by the volume of the applause. Consequently the movement that always receives the loudest applause is invariably thought to be the most beautiful (even though there is a certain kind of priceless beauty that is not liable to excite noisy approval). And then, to enhance even further the object of such partiality everything else is sacrificed to it. In France at tragic hero essays least that is invariably the custom.
That is why when talking of Beethoven one refers to the Storm of the pastoral symphony, the review a literature research finale of the symphony in C minor, the andante of the symphony in A, etc., etc. *Which is hero essays crucible, always referred to as the adagio or andante . Like White Elephants Essay Prompt? It has apparently not been established whether this work was composed after the Pastoral and the Eroica , and hero a number of people believe on the contrary that it preceded them by some time. If this opinion is well founded, then the number which identifies it as the seventh would only oliver twist and great essay, be that of its sequence in the order of publication. Tragic Hero Crucible? The first movement opens with a broad and majestic introduction where melody, modulations and the orchestral writing successively hold the listener’s attention. Essay? It begins with one of those instrumental effects of tragic hero crucible, which Beethoven is indisputably the creator. The whole orchestra plays a loud and sharp chord, and the ensuing silence reveals the slender voice of an exposed oboe, whose entry was disguised by the orchestral tutti and now develops the melody on its own. There could hardly be a more original way of starting.
At the argument buy end of the tragic essays introduction the how to review research note E, the dominant of hero crucible, A, returns after a series of twist essay, excursions into neighbouring keys and forms the subject of a series of exchanges between violins and flutes, similar to tragic hero crucible the effect found in the opening bars of the finale of the Eroica symphony . Review? The E comes and goes for six bars without accompaniment, changing its appearance every time it passes from strings to wind. Finally it is taken over by flute and oboe and serves as bridge between the introduction and the allegro : it becomes the tragic crucible first note of the main theme, whose rhythmic outline it gradually sketches. I have heard this theme ridiculed for describe in essay its rustic simplicity. Had the essays crucible composer written in large letters at the head of this allegro the words Dance of peasants , as he has done for the Pastoral symphony, the charge that it lacks nobility would probably not have been made. This shows that while some listeners do not like to be forewarned of the how to research subject treated by the composer, there are others on the contrary who are inclined to react unfavourably to any theme that comes in an unfamiliar guise, if the essays explanation for the anomaly is not provided in advance.
Given the impossibility of deciding between such conflicting views the best course for a composer in such circumstances is to and great essay follow his own instinct instead of pursuing the vain delusion of universal approval. This theme has a strongly characterised rhythm, which permeates the harmony and shows up in a multitude of forms without ever interrupting the forward momentum of the music up to the end of the movement. Tragic? The use of an ostinato rhythmic pattern has never been attempted so successfully. The ample developments of the allegro constantly revolve around the same idea, and so incredible is the essay skill with which it is hero essays, written, so frequent and ingenious the critical analysis essay grading variations in tonality, so novel the chordal progressions and their grouping, that the movement is over before the attention and warm response generated in tragic, the listener can lose any of their keenness. The harmonic effect which champions of academic rigour criticise most vehemently is also the happiest: the resolution of the dissonance in the six-five chord on the subdominant of the key of E natural. This dissonance of a second on a very loud tremolo in the upper parts between the first and second violins is resolved in a completely novel way. One might have sustained the E and raised the F sharp to G, or sustained the F and brought the E down to D: but Beethoven did neither, and oliver twist essay without changing the bass he merged the two dissonant parts into tragic essays an octave on twist and great essay F natural, by moving the F sharp a semitone lower and the E down by a major seventh. The chord of a fifth and major sixth thus becomes a minor sixth without the fifth which has dissolved into F natural. The sudden transition from forte to piano at the exact point in hero, this unusual harmonic transformation gives it an even stronger character and enhances its charm. Before passing on to the following movement let us not omit to mention the striking crescendo through which Beethoven brings back his favourite rhythm which he had momentarily left aside.
This is done by hills like elephants essay, means of a two bar phrase (D, C sharp, B sharp, B sharp, C sharp) in the key of A major, which is repeated eleven times in the lower register by the basses and violas, while the wind instruments sustain an E at the top, bottom and middle of the range in quadruple octaves, and the violins sound a bell-like phrase, the three notes E, A, E, C, repeated in increasingly fast figuration and hero essays combined in such a way as to present always the dominant when the basses play D or B sharp, and the tonic or its third when they play C. This is completely novel, and fortunately no imitator has tried, I believe, to squander this beautiful invention. Learn Essay? As in the first movement though in a different form, a simple rhythm is tragic hero, again the principal cause of the extraordinary effect produced by the allegretto . The rhythmic pattern consists merely of a dactyl followed by a spondee played relentlessly, either in three parts, or in in essay, only one, then in all parts together. Sometimes it serves as an accompaniment, but frequently it focuses attention on tragic hero crucible itself, and also provides the essay grading rubric starting point for a small fugal episode with two subjects played by the strings. It appears first in the lower strings – violas, cellos, double-basses – played piano , then is repeated soon after in a pianissimo full of melancholy and mystery. From there it passes to the second violins while the cellos sing a kind of lament in the minor mode. The rhythmic pattern rises from octave to octave, reaches the hero crucible first violins who then pass it in a crescendo to the wind instruments at the top of the orchestra, where it bursts out in its full force. Sounded with even greater vehemence the melody now assumes the character of an prompt, anguished lament. Conflicting rhythms clash painfully with each other; these are tears, sobs and supplications, this is the expression of limitless grief and all-consuming suffering… But a ray of hope appears: these heartbreaking sounds are followed by a transparent melody, pure, simple, gentle, sad and resigned like patience smiling to suffering . The basses continue on their own with their inexorable rhythm under this melodic rainbow; to borrow yet another quotation from English poetry, « One fatal remembrance, one sorrow, that throws.
Its black shade alike o'er our joys and our woes. » After a similar alternation of anguish and resignation, the tragic essays crucible orchestra, as though drained by such a painful struggle, plays only fragments of the main theme and collapses in exhaustion. Flutes and oboes pick up the theme in a dying voice, but do not have the strength to finish it, which the violins do with a few barely audible pizzicato notes. At this point the wind instruments, reviving like the flame of a candle on the point of extinction, utter a deep sigh on an unresolved harmony and… the rest is silence . This mournful cry, which begins and ends the andante , is produced by a six-four chord, which always tends to resolve itself onto another one. Ending on an unresolved harmony is the oliver essay only way to conclude, by leaving the listener in suspense and thereby increasing the impression of dreamy sadness into which everything that came before must have plunged him. The theme of the scherzo modulates in a very novel way.
It is in F major, and instead of concluding at the end of the first phrase in C, B flat, D minor, A minor, A flat, or D flat, like the crucible majority of like white elephants, pieces of this kind, the modulation reaches the key of A major, a major third above the tonic. The scherzo of the essays crucible Pastoral symphony , also in F, modulates to D major, a third below. There is argument, some similarity of colour in crucible, these key sequences; but other resemblances can also be observed between the two works. The trio of the seventh symphony ( presto meno assai ), in which the how to a literature violins hold the dominant almost continuously, while oboes and clarinets play underneath a bright rustic melody, is very much in the spirit of landscape painting and the idyll. Yet another new type of crucible, crescendo can be found there, played in the lower register by the second horn, who repeats softly the notes A and G sharp in duple time, though the main beat is in triple time, with emphasis on the G sharp though A is the real note. The public always seems taken by hills like elephants prompt, surprise on hearing this passage. The finale is at crucible least as rich as the preceding movements in new combinations, incisive modulations and delightful flights of fantasy. The theme has some similarities with that from Gluck's overture to Armide , though only in the disposition of the opening notes, and review paper these are more obvious to the eye than to the ear: in performance the tragic hero two themes could hardly be more different. The freshness and elegance of paper, Beethoven’s theme, very different from the chivalrous dash of that of Gluck, would make a greater impression if the chords played in the high register by the wind instruments did not cover so much the first violins playing in the middle range, while second violins and hero crucible violas underneath accompany the melody with a tremolo in double-stopping. English? Throughout this finale Beethoven has achieved effects as graceful as they are unexpected with the sudden transition from the key of tragic essays crucible, C sharp minor to that of D major.
Among his most daring and felicitous harmonic inventions is without doubt the long pedal on the dominant E, decorated with a D sharp of equal value as the main note. The chord of the seventh is sometimes brought about in review a literature research, the upper part, with the result that the D natural of the upper parts coincides precisely with the D sharp of the basses. One might imagine that the result would be a dreadful dissonance, or at tragic hero essays least a lack of harmonic clarity; yet this is not the case, and the tonal thrust of this dominant is such that the D sharp does not disfigure it in any way, and that only the buzzing E registers. Beethoven did not write music for the eyes . The coda, launched by this threatening pedal, has extraordinary brilliance, and is fully worthy of bringing this work to its conclusion – a masterpiece of technical skill, taste, imagination, craftsmanship and inspiration. This symphony is also in F, like the Pastoral , though it is designed on a more modest scale than the preceding symphonies. Yet though it hardly exceeds the first symphony (in C major) in the breadth of describe in essay, its forms, it is at least far superior to it in three respects – instrumental writing, rhythm and melodic style.
The first movement has two themes, both of them gentle and peaceful in character. The second and in our view the more striking of the two always seems to avoid the perfect cadence, by modulating first in tragic hero crucible, a completely unexpected way (the phrase begins in D major and ends in C major), and then dissipating itself inconclusively on the diminished seventh chord of the critical analysis rubric subdominant. This capricious turn in tragic crucible, the melody gives the how to review research listener the feeling that the composer, inclined at first towards gentle feelings, has suddenly been distracted by a sad thought which interrupts his joyful song. The andante scherzando is one of those creations for which there is neither model nor counterpart: it drops from tragic hero essays, heaven complete into learn essay english the composer’s imagination; he writes it at a single stretch and we are amazed to hear it. The role of the wind instruments is here the opposite hero crucible, of their normal one: they accompany with repeated chords, played pianissimo eight times in every bar, the airy dialogue a punta d’arco between violins and basses.
This has a gentle innocence which is delightful in review research, its nonchalant manner, like the song of crucible, two children picking flowers in a field on a fine spring morning. The main theme consists of hills white elephants essay prompt, two sections of three bars each, the hero essays symmetry of which is broken by the silence which follows the basses’ reply; as a result the first section ends on the weak beat and the second on the strong. Twist And Great Essay? The harmonic ticking of the oboes, clarinets, horns and tragic hero essays bassoons so captivates the argument papers listener that he does not notice the crucible lack of symmetry in the strings’ melody which results from the essay additional silent bar. The function of this bar is evidently to leave exposed for longer the delightful chord over which the lively melody flutters. This example shows once more that the law of symmetry can sometimes be broken to good effect.
But it is hard to believe that this exquisite idyll should end with the commonplace which Beethoven disliked most, namely the Italian cadence. Tragic Essays Crucible? At the moment when the instrumental dialogue of the how to review a literature two small orchestras of wind and strings is at its most enchanting, the composer, as though suddenly obliged to stop, makes the violins play tremolo the four notes G, F, A, B flat (sixth, dominant, leading note, tonic), repeat them several times in a hurry, exactly as when the Italians sing Felicita , and then come to crucible an abrupt halt. Yourself? I have never been able to make sense of this musical joke. At this point a minuet, similar in design and hero essays crucible tempo to those of Haydn, takes the place of the scherzo in triple time which Beethoven invented and which he has used in hills white essay, all his other symphonic works in such an ingenious and striking way. Tragic Essays? In truth this is a rather ordinary piece, and the old-fashioned form seems to have stifled musical thought. The finale by contrast sparkles with wit; the musical material is brilliantly original and richly developed.
It has diatonic progressions in two parts and in contrary motion, through which the composer achieves a crescendo of huge dimension which brings the oliver expectations work to a most effective conclusion. The harmonic writing does however contain a few rough edges caused by passing notes which are not resolved quickly enough on the right notes and tragic hero which sometimes even pause on learn essay a silence. At the cost of some violence to the letter of musical theory it is easy to explain away these passing dissonances, but in tragic hero crucible, performance they always grate on the ear to a greater or lesser degree. But consider the high pedal held by the flutes and a literature oboes on F, while the timpani underneath repeat the same note in octaves at the return of the tragic theme, and argument buy the violins play the notes C, G and B flat from the dominant seventh chord, preceded by the third F, A from the tonic chord. This sustained high note may not be allowed by theory, since it does not always fit into the harmony, but it does not cause any offence.
On the hero essays contrary, thanks to the skilful layout of the buy instruments and tragic the character of the essay english musical phrase, the result of this bunching of sounds is hero, excellent and remarkably smooth. English? Before concluding we cannot omit mentioning an orchestral effect which perhaps more than any other takes the listener by surprise when this finale is performed: the note C sharp played very loud by the mass of the orchestra in unison and in octaves after a diminuendo which has faded out in the key of C major. The first two times this rasp is immediately followed by the return of the theme in F, and it becomes clear that the tragic essays crucible C sharp was simply an enharmonic D flat, the flattened sixth of the main key. But the third appearance of this strange entry has a very different character. Yourself? The orchestra, after modulating to C as before now plays a real D flat followed by a fragment of the theme in D flat, then a real C sharp, followed by tragic crucible, another fragment of the yourself theme in C sharp minor, and finally repeats this C sharp three times over with increased force, and the whole theme now returns in F sharp minor . The note which initially played the role of a minor sixth becomes on its last appearance successively the flattened major third , the sharpened minor third , and finally the dominant . This is very striking. Tragic Essays? To analyse such a work is difficult and learn english daunting task which we have long hesitated to tragic hero crucible undertake.
The excuse for such a foolhardy venture can only lie in our persistent efforts to see the and great expectations work through the hero composer’s eyes, to penetrate its intimate meaning, to experience its impact, and to study the impressions it has made so far on a few who are gifted with exceptional sensitivity, as well as on the general public. Among the many diverse views that have been expressed on this score there can hardly be two that are in agreement. Some critics regard it as a monstrous insanity ; others can only see in it the fading glimmers of a dying genius ; more cautiously a few declare they find it at the moment completely unintelligible, but do not despair of achieving at least an approximate understanding of it later; the analysis majority of hero, artistically minded people regard it as an yourself, extraordinary conception, though some of its parts nevertheless remain unexplained or without apparent purpose. A small number of musicians who are temperamentally inclined to examine carefully anything that might enlarge the realm of art, and who have thought deeply about the general layout of the Choral symphony after studying the score and listening to it attentively on tragic essays crucible several occasions, assert that this work seems to them the essay english most magnificent expression of Beethoven’s genius: we believe we have said at some earlier point that this is the opinion we share. Without enquiring what purely personal ideas the composer might have wanted to express in this vast musical poem – a subject wide open to tragic hero essays crucible individual conjecture – let us see whether the describe in essay novelty of the form is not justified in this case by an intention that is quite independent of any philosophical or religious thought, which might seem equally reasonable and beautiful to tragic hero crucible anyone, be he a fervent Christian, a pantheist or an atheist, in short by an intention of a purely musical and poetic kind. Beethoven had already written eight symphonies before this one. To progress beyond the point he had already reached solely with the resources of orchestral instruments, what further means were available?
The answer is the addition of voices to instruments. But in order to observe the law of hills white elephants prompt, crescendo , and enhance in the work itself the essays crucible power of the additional resource he wanted to provide to the orchestra, it was surely necessary to allow the instruments to figure on their own in the first section of the musical canvas he intended to display… Granted this premise, it is easy to see that he must have been led to search for a mixed musical genre to learn essay english serve as link between the two major articulations of the symphony. The instrumental recitative was the bridge he had the audacity to throw between the chorus and the orchestra, over hero essays crucible, which the instruments crossed to go and join the voices. White Elephants Essay? The transition once established the composer must have wanted to announce and motivate the fusion that was about to take place. That is the point where speaking through the hero chorus leader, he exclaimed, to the sound of the instrumental recitative he had just introduced: Friends! No more sounds like these, but let us intone more pleasant songs, more filled with joy! That is, so to speak, the treaty of alliance concluded between chorus and like white essay orchestra; the same theme of the recitative, used by both orchestra and chorus, seems to constitute the oath formula. Thereafter it was up to the composer to select the text for his choral composition: for tragic hero essays crucible this Beethoven turned to Schiller and took over the Ode to describe Joy . He coloured it with countless nuances which poetry on its own could never have conveyed, and it progresses to the end acquiring ever more splendour, grandeur and brilliance.
Such is the rationale, it may be suggested more or less plausibly, for the general scheme of this immense work; let us now study its individual parts in detail. The first movement has a sombre majesty and is like no other piece written by Beethoven before. The harmony is at times excessively daring: the most original patterns, the most expressive gestures crowd in and criss-cross in every direction, but without causing any obscurity or congestion. Tragic? On the contrary the analysis rubric result has perfect clarity, and the numerous orchestral voices that plead or threaten, each in its own way and its own special style, seem to form a single voice, such is the emotional charge that drives them. This allegro maestoso , written in D minor, begins nevertheless on the chord of A without the third, in other words on the notes A and E sustained as a fifth, and played as an essays, arpeggio above and below by yourself, the first violins, violas and double-basses. The listener is therefore not sure whether he is hearing the chord of A minor, or of A major, or that of the dominant of tragic hero, D. This prolonged tonal ambiguity gives great power and character to the entry of the full orchestra on the chord of D minor. At the end of the movement there are moments that move the soul to its depths. It would be hard to hear anything more profoundly tragic than the song of the wind instruments beneath which a chromatic phrase played tremolo by the strings swells and rises gradually, like the roar of the sea before an approaching storm. This is a passage of magnificent inspiration. On several occasions in this work we will be drawing attention to clusters of notes which cannot possibly be described as chords, and we will be forced to admit that the reason for these anomalies escapes us completely.
For example on page 17 of the wonderful movement we have been describing there is a melodic passage for describe clarinets and bassoons, which is accompanied as follows in the key of C minor: the bass plays first an F sharp supporting a diminished seventh, then an hero, A flat supporting a third, fourth and augmented sixth, and finally G over which flutes and oboes play the notes E flat, G, C which gives a six-four chord. This would be an english, excellent resolution of the previous chord if the second violins and violas did not add to the harmony the two notes F natural and hero A flat which disfigure it and cause a most unpleasant confusion which fortunately is of short duration. This passage is lightly scored and completely free from any roughness; I cannot therefore understand this quadruple dissonance which is so strangely introduced and completely unmotivated. Essay? One might suppose there is an engraving error, but a careful inspection of these two bars and those that precede dispels all doubts and one remains convinced that this is really what the composer intended. The scherzo vivace which follows contains nothing of the same kind. Admittedly there are a number of pedal notes on hero essays crucible the tonic in the upper and middle voices which are sustained through the like essay dominant chord. But I have already stated my position on tragic essays crucible these pedal notes that are foreign to the harmony, and this new example is not needed to demonstrate the oliver twist and great essay excellent use they can be put to when they arise naturally from the musical logic. It is particularly through the use of rhythm that Beethoven has managed to make this delightful banter so interesting. The theme with its fugal response four bars later is full of tragic hero essays, vitality, and sparkles with wit when the response then comes a bar earlier and follows a ternary instead of the initial binary rhythm.
The central part of the scherzo is taken up with a presto in duple time full of rustic joy. The theme is deployed over an intermediary pedal note which is either the tonic or the dominant, accompanied by a counter-subject which harmonises equally well with either of the held notes, the dominant and the tonic . The melody is finally brought back by a phrase of delightful freshness in the oboe; after staying poised for a moment over the dominant major chord of D it finally blossoms in research paper, the key of F natural in a way that is hero, as graceful as it is unexpected. This is another echo of the gentle impressions that Beethoven loved so much, impressions that are aroused by the sight of a radiant and review peaceful landscape, pure air and the first rays of dawn in spring. Tragic Hero Essays? In the adagio cantabile the principle of unity is so little observed that one might think of it as two separate movements rather than one. Hills White Elephants Essay? The first melody in B flat in quadruple time is followed by hero essays crucible, a completely different melody in a literature research, D major in triple time. The first theme, slightly altered and tragic hero essays crucible varied by the first violins, appears for learn essay english the second time in the original key and tragic hero essays crucible leads to prompt the return of the melody in triple time, unchanged and hero crucible without embellishments but in the key of G major. After this the first theme finally establishes itself and describe yourself no longer allows the rival theme to compete for the listener’s attention. Repeated hearings of crucible, this wonderful adagio are needed to get completely used to such a peculiar design. As for the beauty of all these melodies, the infinite grace of the ornaments which decorate them, the feelings of critical grading rubric, sad tenderness, passionate despair and religious reverie they express, if only my words could give even an approximate idea of them, then music would have found in hero crucible, the written word a rival which even the learn essay english greatest of poets will never be able to oppose to it. It is an immense movement, and tragic essays once the listener has succumbed to its powerful charm, the only answer to the criticism that the composer has violated here the law of unity has to analysis essay grading rubric be: so much the worse for the law!
We are now close to the moment when the voices are about to join the orchestra. Cellos and double-basses intone the recitative we mentioned above, after a passage for hero essays crucible the wind instruments as harsh and violent as a cry of anger. The chord of the elephants essay major sixth, F, A and hero D, with which this presto begins, is altered by review research paper, an appogiatura on B flat, played simultaneously by flutes, oboes and clarinets; the sixth of the tragic hero key of how to review a literature research paper, D minor grinds dreadfully against the dominant and produces an excessively harsh effect. This does indeed express fury and rage, but here again I cannot see what motivates such feelings, unless the composer, before making the chorus leader sing the hero essays words: Let us intone more pleasant songs , had wanted in a strangely capricious way to vilify the orchestral harmony. Yet he seems to regret it, since in between each phrase of the recitative of the basses, he repeats, like so many memories that are dear to essay rubric his heart, fragments of the three preceding movements.
What is more, after this first recitative, he puts in the orchestra, in hero essays crucible, the midst of oliver twist and great essay, exquisitely chosen chords, the beautiful theme which is about to be sung by tragic hero essays crucible, all the how to a literature research voices on Schiller’s ode. This theme, gentle and calm in character, becomes increasingly animated and brilliant as it moves from the basses which play it first to the violins and the wind instruments. After a sudden interruption, the tragic crucible whole orchestra plays again the furious ritornello mentioned above which now introduces the vocal recitative. The first chord is again built on an F which is supposed to carry the third and the sixth and does indeed do so, but this time the composer not content with the appogiatura of B flat adds those of G, E and C sharp, with the result that ALL THE NOTES OF THE MINOR DIATONIC SCALE are played at once and produce the hideous assembly of notes: F, A, C sharp, E, G, B flat, D. Forty years ago, the French composer Martin, known as Martini, wanted to and great produce in his opera Sapho a similar howl for the orchestra, and did so by using at once all the diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic intervals of the scale at hero crucible the moment when Phaon’s mistress hurls herself into learn essay the sea – but he did not ask himself whether his attempt was appropriate and whether it enhanced or assaulted the dignity of art, though admittedly there could be no mistaking his intentions. But in this case my efforts at discovering Beethoven’s purpose are completely in vain.
I can see a formal intention, a deliberate and calculated attempt to tragic produce a double discordance, both at describe yourself the point which precede the appearance of the recitative, instrumental at first and tragic hero later vocal. I have searched hard for the reason for this idea, and I have to admit that it is unknown to me. The chorus leader, after singing his recitative on words by Beethoven himself, as we have mentioned, introduces on describe his own the theme of the Ode to hero essays Joy , with a light accompaniment of two wind instruments and papers the strings playing pizzicato . This theme recurs to the end of the symphony and is always recognisable, though its appearance keeps changing. A study of these diverse transformations is all the more absorbing as each of hero essays, them brings out a new and distinctive nuance in the expression of a single feeling, that of joy. How To Research Paper? At first this joy is full of gentleness and peace; it becomes somewhat livelier when the tragic voice of women is heard. The beat changes; the theme, sung initially in quadruple time, returns in 6/8 time in syncopated style and now takes on a more robust and agile character that has a martial quality. This is the song of a departing hero who is confident of victory; you can almost imagine his shining armour and hear the rhythmic tread of his step. A fugal theme in which the original melody can be recognised, serves for a while as subject for a lively orchestral development, which recalls the bustling activity of a crowd full of ardour… But the chorus soon re-enters and sings energetically the joyful hymn in its original simplicity, supported by argument buy, chords of the wind instruments which shadow the melody, and criss-crossed by a diatonic passage played by the whole mass of strings in unison and octaves. The andante maestoso which follows is tragic essays, a kind of chorale intoned first by the tenors and basses of the like prompt chorus, in unison with a trombone, the cellos and tragic essays double-basses. Joy here assumes a religious dimension and oliver and great becomes solemn and tragic essays crucible immense.
The chorus falls briefly silent then resumes less emphatically its spacious chords, after a passage of great beauty for orchestra alone which has an buy, organ-like quality. The imitation of the majestic instrument of Christian churches is hero, produced by flutes in the lower register, clarinets in the chalumeau register, the lower notes of the bassoons, the violas divided into two parts, upper and lower, and the cellos playing on analysis grading their open strings G and D, or the hero essays crucible low C (open string) and the C in the middle range, always in double-stopping. This piece starts in G, moves to C, then to F, and ends on a pause on the dominant seventh of D. There follows a great allegro in 6/4 where from the start are combined the beginning of the first theme, already used frequently with such variety, and the chorale of the preceding andante . Learn? The contrast between these two ideas is made even more striking by a fast variation of the joyful theme, on hero essays top of the long notes of the chorale, played not only by the first violins but also by the double-basses. Now it is impossible for double-basses to perform a succession of notes at learn essay that speed, and once again it is hard to understand how a composer as familiar as Beethoven with the art of orchestration could have committed such a lapse in writing a passage like this for hero crucible this unwieldy instrument. There is less fire and grandeur, and greater lightness in the style of the following piece: its keynote is that of innocent joy, expressed first by four solo voices and then given greater warmth through the addition of the chorus. Argument Papers? Moments of tenderness and tragic hero essays crucible religious feeling alternate twice with the joyful melody, then the tempo becomes increasingly precipitate. The whole orchestra bursts out, the percussion instruments – timpani, cymbals, triangle, bass drum – strike emphatically the strong beats of the bar. Joy resumes her sway, a popular and tumultuous joy which might look like an orgy if at the end the describe yourself voices did not pause once more on a solemn rhythm to send, in an ecstatic cry, their final greeting of love and respect for religious joy. The orchestra ends on its own, but not without interspersing its headlong rush with fragments of the first theme which the listener cannot get tired of.
A translation as accurate as possible of the German poem set by Beethoven will convey to tragic essays crucible the reader the stimulus for this profusion of musical combinations, masterly supports of unceasing inspiration and hills like white elephants obedient tools of tragic crucible, a powerful and tireless genius * . « Joy! Fair spark of the learn english gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! Your magic power unites again those whom earthly customs have forcibly separated. All men will be brothers again under your gentle wing. « Who has had the good fortune to be the friend of a friend, who has won a noble wife, let him mingle his joy with ours! Yes, any who can call even one soul on earth his own. Essays Crucible? But who cannot, let him steal away in tears from this gathering. « All beings drink joy on the breast of nature; all good and all evil men follow a path strewn with roses.
She gave us kisses and vintage, a friend who is true unto death. The worm receives the learn joy of life and the cherub stands before God! « Glad like the suns that fly through the hero crucible glorious fields of heaven, hurry, brothers, on your way, joyful like a hero hastening to victory. « Millions, be embraced! This kiss to the whole world! Brothers, above the starry heaven, a dear father must have his dwelling. « You fall prostrate, o you millions? World, do you sense the creator? Seek him above the starry heaven!
He must dwell over the stars! « Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! « Daughter of Elysium, joy, fair spark of the white elephants essay prompt gods!! » Of all the composer’s symphonies this is the most difficult to perform; it requires patient and repeated study, and in particular a good conductor. It also requires a body of singers all the tragic hero essays larger since evidently the chorus must cover the critical grading rubric orchestra in many places. In addition, the way the music is written for the words and the excessive height of some of the choral parts make voice production very difficult and reduce considerably the essays crucible volume and describe yourself in essay power of the sound.
Be that as it may, when Beethoven had finished his work and hero could contemplate the majestic dimensions of the monument he had just built, he must have said to himself: «Death may come now, but my task is accomplished.» * Note: the following is our own translation of Schiller's German text. The Hector Berlioz Website was created by Michel Austin and Monir Tayeb on 18 July 1997;
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essay right womens From Past to essays crucible Present. A World Wide Movement. In spite of this recognition of the fundamental importance of women achieving the vote, attention paid to the history of like its long struggle has been marginalized. And, the reasons for the depth of its opposition ignored. Why, for example, did it take until May, 2005, for women in Kuwait to finally achieve their full voting rights in their national elections? It is commonly believed that female suffrage was desired and fought for essays, only in England and the United States.
Yet dynamic struggles for women#146;s basic democratic right appeared in how to a literature research paper, many countries in tragic hero crucible, the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Though these movements differed in their reasons and tactics, the fight for female suffrage, along with other women#146;s rights concerns, cut across many national boundaries. By exploring the following topics, this essay attempts to argument papers buy help rectify the narrow and unexamined view of female suffrage. By the turn of the twentieth century women#146;s reform was truly an international movement, one in which ideas and tactics used in hero, one country served as models for like white elephants, use in another. The strength of the 19th/early 20th century struggle for women#146;s suffrage was its transnational nature. Cooperation between women of various nations gave each the resources they needed to overcome their marginalisation in essays crucible, the politics of their own nations. Essay. In the later decades of the tragic hero essays 19th century, the expansion of the telegraph and growth of women#146;s press allowed the discussion about women's status and roles to be communicated from country to country. Improvements in oliver twist and great expectations, transportation facilitated like-minded women and tragic hero men to attend international gathering where they met and argument papers organized. The momentum of women#146;s suffrage was bolstered by such international movements as:
The International Woman Suffrage Association: The International Woman Suffrage Association, established between 1899 and 1902, held its first meeting in Berlin in 1904. Essays Crucible. A series of Congresses followed, each with the aim of improving women#146;s rights, and each providing a stimulus for hills like, similar transforming movements throughout the world. At the Alliances#146; seventh meeting in Budapest in 1913, euphoria about success was in the air, causing American Carrie Chapman Catt to claim: #147;Our movement has reached the last stage. Parliaments have stopped laughing at woman suffrage, and politicians have begun to dodge!#148; World-Wide Temperance Movement: Perhaps no other cause helped the women suffrage movement as much as temperance. The Women#146;s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was established in the United States in 1874 as a Protestant reform movement. In 1884, its powerful, influential leader, Frances Willard, formed the World#146;s Women#146;s Christian Temperance Union, which was spearheaded mostly by missionaries working in non-western and southern countries. When Willard saw the link between women voting and temperance, and encouraged her membership to work for the vote, the WCTU leadership skills and organizational resources everywhere provided an hero essays enormous boast to sometimes flagging suffrage causes. International Socialism: In 1907 international socialism decided to support women#146;s suffrage. Socialists were bent on organizing working class women.
Since bans against female party membership existed within most traditional political parties, Socialists, having to organize women separately from men, managed to create successful female oriented movements in some countries. Most Socialists went beyond civic issues to describe in essay link suffrage to a fundamental challenge to crucible gender relations. German Socialists, for example, demanded sexual emancipation and more control for women within their families as well as the a literature research vote. Socialist tactics also influenced militant suffragism after the 1890s. Most effective was a section within the British movement, the Women#146;s Social and Political Union (WSPU), which used aggressive tactics of political confrontation to bring attention to the suffrage cause.
Groups in other nations imitated the British, such as the suffragettes in Argentina and the United States. And, in 1912 in Nanking, the Chinese Woman Suffrage Alliance broke windows and stormed the parliament building demanding equality of the sexes and women#146;s right to vote. The League of Nations and United Nations: The establishment of essays these international bodies significantly forwarded the goal of universal female suffrage. In 1946 a Commission on Women was established, and the Convention of the Political Rights for Women was adopted in 1952. Inter-regional and Pan-national Organizations: Region specific coalitions also strengthened individual movements. Although Latin American women participated in several inter-American and European conferences, they had more success when they formed supportive alliances within the South American continent. The first South American International Feminine Congress took place in Buenos Aires in 1910. And, although the 1928 founded Inter-American Commission of Women at first was driven by North American issues, it increasingly geared itself to the needs of Latin American women. By the 1940s, the Commission had become an almost exclusively Latin American organization. Pan-Pacific women#146;s networks also became effective advocates of women#146;s political equality, as did those within countries with great regional diversity. Review A Literature Research Paper. As an example, women in India by hero essays, the end of the hills elephants nineteenth century were forming their own organizations.
The first all-India organization, the crucible Women#146;s Indian Association was established in 1917, and by 1918 was holding gatherings all over India in learn english, support of women#146;s franchise. International Council of Women, Berlin, 1904. Women#146;s struggle for suffrage was long and sometimes bitter. In most cases women won the right to vote in uneven stages. Full suffrage occurs when all groups of women are included in national voting and can run for any political office. In most cases women won the right to hero crucible vote in uneven stages. New Zealand in 1893 was first. Liberalism was a strong force in this pioneering land which increasingly rejected what it viewed as archaic attitudes from the #147;Old World.#148; The support of social reform issues, including temperance, gave New Zealand suffragists the edge they needed.
The now famous #147;Women#146;s Suffrage Petition#148; is credited with being a major force for this success. Signed by close to one quarter of the female adult population, the petition was the largest of its kind in New Zealand and other western countries. It is comprised of 546 sheets of paper, all glued together to form one continuous roll 274 metres long, with the signatures of over 10,000 adult women. A few Maori women signed, but at argument papers, this time they mainly were concerned with achieving political participation rights for the whole tribe. The New Zealand breakthrough sent ripples throughout the world. New Zealand women suffrage supporters were invited to hero crucible many countries to visit, lecture, and essay grading rubric even join in demonstrations. Contingent of New Zealanders. Supporting British Suffragists in a Parade.
In Europe, Finland, Norway and Iceland were among the first to grant female suffrage. Most other western governments only extended suffrage to women during or just after WWI, even though women#146;s rights had been widely debated in their societies for many decades. Even though suffrage movements in the United States were large and vigorous in the early twentieth century, it took women there seventy-two years from first claiming the franchise in 1848 to achieving it in tragic, 1920. It was an equally long process in learn english, Britain where women#146;s important work in WWI provided an opportunity for the government to act on suffrage without seeming to capitulate to the tactics of the more militant arm of England's #147;suffragette#148; movement. France was one of the last in Europe to enfranchise women, even though the demand for women#146;s rights was first voiced by tragic essays crucible, Olympe de Gouge during the French Revolution, and it was in critical analysis essay, France that the most radical critique of tragic essays crucible women#146;s subordination was developed. French suffragists, however, throughout the early part of the 20th century faced opposition from politicians, many of critical grading whom were Socialists who feared women would support Catholicism and right-wing political conservatism. French women won the vote as late as 1944. French women, nonetheless, fared better than the Swiss.
It took efforts of the Swiss Federation for Women#146;s Suffrage from 1909 to 1971 before women in Switzerland were allowed to vote in national elections, and not until 1989 could women in the Appenzell Interiour Rhodes canton vote in their local elections. In colonized countries, women demanded the right to essays crucible vote not just from stable republics, but from colonial powers. Anti-colonial nationalist movements in oliver and great, some cases encompassed women#146;s suffrage. For example, in India in 1919, poet and political activist Sarojini Naidu headed a small deputation of tragic hero essays women to England to present the case for review research, female suffrage before a select committee set up to create a proposal for constitution reforms aimed at the inclusion of some Indians in crucible, government. Twist. Although the British committee found the proposition preposterous, they allowed future Indian provincial legislatures to grant or refuse the franchise to women. To the essays British surprise, many did, making it possible within a short span of time for women to be represented, however limited, on a par with men. Universal suffrage for all adults over 21 was not achieved, however, until it became part of India#146;s 1950 Constitution.
Women in newly independent states in Africa typically won the vote around the essay year 1960. On winning national independence, most of the tragic essays ex-colonized countries created constitutions which guaranteed the franchise to both men and women. In other countries, like South Africa where only whites were allowed to vote for members of the central government, white women gained the essay right to vote for central government in 1930, while black and colored women voted for the first time in 1994. Today only a few countries do not extend suffrage to hero crucible women, or extend only limited suffrage. Critical Analysis Grading. In Bhutan there is only one vote per family in village-level elections. In Lebanon women have to have proof of essays education before they vote. In Oman, only 175 people chosen by the government, mostly male, vote, and Kuwait only in oliver and great essay, 2005 granted women the right to vote in the 2007 elections. Tragic Hero. Some countries, like Saudi Arabia, which have denied the hills like white essay prompt vote to men as well as women, recently opened the vote in provisional elections to men.
Women in Bahrain Voting for the First Time. Reasons for granting female suffrage have varied. Sometimes responses to political change, or to societal anxieties, forwarded the cause. In Sweden, for tragic hero, example, women#146;s suffrage seems to have been an attempt to ward off more radical changes. In Germany, the ending of imperial rule in 1918 opened the door for women to push for the vote. Learn English. In Canada, the tragic crucible federal government used female suffrage as a political tool, enfranchising army nurses and female relatives of twist and great essay soldiers serving overseas in order to secure an election victory. A #147;nativist#148; argument also influenced the opinion of some in Canada, and in other parts of the world with large non-Northern European immigrant ethnic and racial minorities. One pro-suffrage argument in Canada was that white British Canadian women deserved the tragic hero essays vote because the franchise had already been entrusted to argument papers naturalized male immigrants from Central Europe. In the United States the same argument was used, as was the fact that African American males had already won the tragic hero vote before white women. The same reasoning was used by argument papers buy, some white settlers in New Zealand, anxious about essays crucible, indigenous peoples#146; access to political rights when it was denied to white women. More common was the incorporation of female suffrage into general reform movements.
The push for female political power sometimes occurred when it was clear that without political power little would change for buy, women, even with the passage of substantive reforms. Concepts of the inherent equality between men and tragic essays women, however, were not the dominate reasons given for suffrage. Most believed that women, as women, had different and special contributions to hills like elephants make. Being most concerned with the welfare of their families, women would best bring this special knowledge into the political arena. A principle temperance argument was that women were more likely to vote for crucible, prohibition as a way to safeguard the family. Economic reasons for female suffrage were utilized as well. One stressed that once women were full citizens they would be in a position to press for equal salaries. Also, women#146;s economic independence depended on learn, their ability to have a say in laws regarding their right to work and improvement in their working conditions.
In the colonized states, the tragic crucible colonizers used the #147;woman question#148; to justify their dominance, claiming that women in their subject nations were #147;backward#148; and in need of #147;uplifting.#148; Ignoring the demands of women in their own countries, they were sometimes more willing to push for women#146;s reforms abroad. On the other hand, nationalistic movements in argument, colonized and other non-western nations began to link attempts at modernization with an improvement in the status of women. In many instances, liberal nationalists, many of them male, needed the active support of women to help fulfill their dream of an independent, modern state. Kimura Komako in essays crucible, New York City studying. methods of American women suffragists. The question of why female suffrage was so difficult to achieve has been answered in argument, different ways. #149; Suffrage Challenged the Existing Order: Custom and laws in many countries had placed men as supreme in public sphere and within the family. Deep cultural beliefs in male/female differences in altitudes and abilities supported this situation, and giving the women the tragic essays vote posed a direct threat to male powers and privileges. Changes in women#146;s reforms, such as access to education or property rights, were justified because they were viewed as an improvement in women#146;s social position. Suffrage, on the other hand, challenged the existing order by threatening the basis of learn english women#146;s subordination in society. Granting suffrage was a revolutionary act.
Conservative Kuwait lawmakers recently blocked women#146;s vote by arguing that giving women would essentially double women#146;s power. Essays. Citing claims that Islam and twist essay Kuwaiti custom bar women from holding office, the head of the Parliament#146;s human rights committee in tragic hero essays, May, 2005, said that men #147;are technically the head of the nation here.#148; #149; Many Women didn#146;t Want it. This rationale swayed many a male legislator. Argument Papers Buy. It is true that at times even well educated women in countries with high percentages of hero crucible female illiteracy joined men who claimed that as long as the majority of women were still illiterate and ignorant, it would be dangerous to critical analysis extend them the vote. The anti-suffrage groups in the U.S., for example, were mainly led by women. New York City, 1920. #149; Fear of tragic essays a Lose of Female rights.
Some women and men worried that if the concept of male #147;protection#148; of essay women were broken, women would be forced to compete with men in tragic hero crucible, areas which they were not prepared to. Giving women political independence would even change male/female roles in the family structure, severely damaging it. #149; Women#146;s Essential Femininity would be Sacrificed. Most women did not want to papers give up what they saw as essential characteristics of tragic essays their female nature if voting meant that they would have to enter the rough and disorderly realm of oliver twist expectations politics. There were fears that when women entered the public arena their #147;natural#148; roles of wife and essays crucible mother would be undermined. In South America, feminists were most successful when they developed ideas for improving women#146;s condition that did not challenge some basic social values.
Suffrage became only one part of the process of social change which recognized the need first to address women#146;s problems associated with their health and work. Feminist and suffrage supporters in non-western regions tended to be accused of blindly imitating Western women, who were perceived as aggressive and shameless. Japanese women#146;s internationalism was attacked using this very argument. Oliver. In the years leading up to tragic hero World War II, members of the Japanese Diet increasingly portrayed women#146;s suffrage as immoral and as running counter to Japanese customs. #149; National Needs Come First: In countries fighting for their independence from colonial rule there was pressure on how to review, women to wait their turn. Even Gandhi, who had brought women into the public struggle for self sufficiency from Great Britain, stated that although he wanted women to take their proper place by tragic crucible, the side of men, the timing was wrong for a #147;votes for learn essay english, women#148; campaign; women instead should use their energies #147;helping their men against the common foe.#148; Women suffrage supporters, too, tended to be more nationalistic than feminist, arguing that votes for women were necessary so that they could imbue their children with ideas of nationalism.
#149; Resistance of Liberal/Left Politicians: Some supporters of progressive legislation worried that acts by women#146;s militant suffrage would harm the #147;larger#148; cause of progressive politics. There further was concern that once given the vote, women might all vote for conservative parties. Crucible. Women in Mexico sadly missed the oliver and great expectations chance to gain suffrage in 1930s because of essays crucible these fears. In 1934, General Lázaro Cárdenas drafted a bill to implement female suffrage, which was passed by both the Senate and Chamber of argument papers Deputies, was ratified by the states, and essays crucible only needed formal declaration to learn english be made into law. That declaration never came. Tragic Hero Essays Crucible. The presence of a number of street demonstrations, a threatened hunger strikes by feminists, and fears that women would be unduly influenced by the clerical vote, unnerved Cárdenas at the last moment.
Since the suffrage campaign was not a mass movement, it was easy to let the needed declaration slip away. Mexican women did not receive federal vote until 1958. #149; Suffrage Granted and the Denied: Suffrage, or its promise, has been granted and oliver essay then retracted at various times. During the liberalization phase of Japan#146;s Meiji government in the 1880s, it seemed that Japan#146;s #147;first feminists#148; were going to achieve their goal of political participation. But all was ended in hero, 1889 with the passing of laws which not only hills like elephants prompt denied women voting rights, but even the right to tragic hero essays crucible join political parties. In the 1920s, Japanese feminists campaigned again, but the describe yourself in essay growing imperialism of the Meiji state and rising tide of tragic hero essays crucible Japanese militarism in the early 1930s turned Japanese suffragists back. When the Japanese military took control of the country in the 1930s, all democratizing movements were suppressed.
It took people like Ichikawa Fusae decades of arguing that women#146;s suffrage was a fundamental human right before it was enshrined in twist and great essay, the new Japanese constitution of 1945. In 1956 in Egypt, thirty-three years after feminists had first demanded suffrage, the revolutionary government granted women the right to vote. But from the start, the state and official Islam obstructed women#146;s political rights by banning feminist organizations and suppressing the public expression of their views. Thus the same year that the state granted women the right to vote, women were suppressed as independent political actors. Similarly Iran, which had granted women suffrage in 1963 and passed numerous women#146;s equal rights legislation in the 70s, repealed all these gains when the tragic crucible revolutionary government of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini came to power in 1979. Women were eliminated from all decision-making positions within the government, dress requirements were enforced, and women#146;s organizations were declared corrupt and disbanded. The future looks brighter today.
A growing urban, middle class is making some progress by situating women#146;s rights within the cultural framework of Iran, and oliver and great expectations essay noting that in order to modernize, Iran must improve the status of women. Irish Cartoon, 1913. Suffrage has not been an automatic stepping stone to full equality for women. One problem was that once suffrage was achieved, the common ground among women fighting for it was lost. Fears that participation in politics was #147;unladylike#148; remained, as did the tragic old resistance and hostile attitudes against it.
This means that major changes in analysis, women#146;s political activities, other than exercising their right to vote, have been long in coming. Today, women are struggling to gain equal participation in tragic essays, political office alongside men. Of interest is the use in over 41 countries of analysis essay parity quotas and quota laws to achieve political gender balance. Responding to strong pressure by women#146;s organizations, gender quotas have appeared in many new constitutions, like the one of Rwanda, and recently in the constitution of Iraq. Hero Essays Crucible. This means that a certain number of parliamentary seats are reserved for women.
The seats are distributed among the political parties in proportion to rubric the number of seats awarded in parliament. In South Africa, a municipal law stipulates that 50 percent of all candidates for the local office have to crucible be women. India in 1992 enacted a 33 percent policy to reserve seats for women in Parliament and throughout the State Government. The final effectiveness of this policy is unknown, but so far, as many as one million women have gotten an opportunity to enter institutions as members and office bearers; many more have participated in elections and as campaigners for critical, state legislatures. Most dramatic has been the change in the landscape of local politics. In some cases, women for the first time have sat with village leaders, and sometimes even had a turn heading village affairs. Demonstration for hero essays, parity in the Lower House of Parliament.
Ellen Dubois, #147;Woman Suffrage: The View from the Pacific,#148; Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 69, No. 4, Marlene Le Gates, #147;Making Waves: A History of Feminism in yourself, Western Society,#148; Copp Clark, Ltd., 1996. Robin Morgan, editor, #147;Sisterhood is Global: The International Women#146;s Movement Anthology,#148; Anchor Press, Doubleday, 1984. Karen Offen, #147;European Feminism: 1700-1950: A Political History,#148; Stanford University Press, 2000.
#147;Suffrage Beyond: International Feminist Perspectives#148;ø, edited by Caroline Daley Melanie Nolan, New York University Press, 1994. A History of the tragic hero Women's Rights Movement (Suggested by Barbara Kelley's Middle School Students) Lyn Reese is the author of all the information on how to review a literature, this website.
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Currency analysis of hero essays crucible US dollar and RMB. Period to 1994: Prior to 1994, China maintained a dual exchange rate system. This consisted of an official fixed exchange rate system, which was used by the government, and a relatively market-based exchange rate system that was used by importers and exporters in “swap markets”. The two exchange rates differed significantly. For example, the official exchange rate with the rubric dollar in 1993 was 5. 77 Yuan versus 8. 70 Yuan in hero essays the swap markets. The foreign exchange was highly restricted in hills like elephants essay prompt order to limit imports, resulting in a large black market for tragic hero essays crucible, foreign exchange. We will write a custom essay sample.
on Currency analysis of US dollar and RMB or any similar. topic specifically for you. From 1994 to 2005: In 1994, the Chinese government unified the two exchange rate systems at an initial rate of 8. 70 Yuan to the dollar, which eventually was allowed to rise to 8. 28 by 1997 and was then kept relatively constant until July 2005. From 1994 until July 2005, China maintained a policy of pegging the RMB to the U. S. dollar at an exchange rate of roughly 8. 28 Yuan to the dollar and critical analysis rubric, Chinese central bank maintained this peg by buying (or selling) as many dollar-denominated assets in exchange for newly printed Yuan as needed to eliminate excess demand (supply) for the Yuan. The peg appears to have been largely intended to promote a relatively stable environment for foreign trade and investment in China. From 2005 to 2008: From 2005, Chinese government started to reform the peg. The Chinese government modified its currency policy on July 21, 2005 and the exchange rate of the U. S. dollar against hero, the RMB would be adjusted from learn essay english 8. 28 Yuan to 8. 11, an appreciation of 2. 1%. The government announced that the RMB’s exchange rate would become “adjustable, based on market supply and tragic crucible, demand with reference to exchange rate movements of currencies in a basket”. The situation in critical analysis essay the next three years would be described into “ management float” which is the market forces determined the general 1 1 direction of the RMB’s movement. Hero Essays! As we know that from critical analysis essay grading rubric July 21, 2005 to July 21, 2008 the dollar-RMB exchange rate.
Page 2 Currency analysis of US dollar and RMB Essay. went from tragic hero crucible 8. 11 to 6. Analysis Essay Rubric! 83, an appreciation of tragic essays 18. 7%. Critical Analysis Essay! From 2008 to 2010: China halted its currency appreciation policy around mid-July 2008, mainly because of declining global demand for Chinese products that resulted from the effects of the global financial crisis. The global financial crisis from 2008 to 2009 will be discussed later in the report. The Chinese government intervened to prevent any further appreciation of the RMB to the dollar because of the declining exports and the huge unemployment rate in hero crucible 2009. The RMB/dollar exchange rate was held relatively constant at 6. 83 through around mid-June 2010. From 2010 to now: On June 19, 2010, the People’s Bank of learn China (PBC), stated that, it had decided to tragic hero essays “proceed further with reform of the RMB exchange rate regime and to enhance the RMB exchange rate flexibility “and “it is important to in essay avoid any sharp and massive fluctuations of the RMB exchange rate”.
After that, the RMB’s exchange rate with the tragic hero dollar has gone up and how to review research, down since RMB appreciation was resumed, but overall, it has appreciated. From June 19, 2010, to July 10, 2013, the Yuan/dollar exchange rate went from hero essays crucible 6. Learn Essay English! 83 to 6. 17, an appreciation of 10. 7%. Most of the appreciation occurred in 2010 and 2011. From January 1, 2012, to July 10, 2013, the RMB appreciated by only 2. 1% against the dollar.
Analysis Factors that affect currency Aside from factors such as interest rate and inflation, the exchange rate is one of the most important determinants of a country’s relative level of tragic essays economic health. Exchange rates play a vital role in a country’s level of like elephants essay trade, which is critical to essays crucible most every free market economy in english the world. Hero! For this reason, exchange rates are among the most watched analyzed and governmentally manipulated economic measures. How exchange rate 2 2 movements affect a nation’s trading relationships with other nations. A higher currency makes a country’s exports more expensive and imports cheaper in foreign markets; a lower currency makes a country’s exports cheaper and its imports more expensive in foreign markets. A higher exchange rate can be. expected to lower the country’s balance of learn essay trade, while a lower exchange rate would increase it. The exchange rate between the U. S. dollar and the Chinese Yuan has been a matter of contention between the two governments for quite some time. Put simply, the U. S. accuses China of manipulating the currency exchange rate. Strictly speaking, that is exactly right, as it must be for unilaterally fixed exchange rates.
In practice, the USD/CNY currency rate trades at a rate higher where it would be in a free-floating market, making China’s exports cheaper than they would otherwise be and making imports into China correspondingly more expensive. The U. Hero Crucible! S. has tried many different ways to get China to adjust its position on the currency issue such as negotiations, threats and papers buy, trying to line up allies in the fight. Most recently, the Senate passed a bill aimed squarely at the Chinese – though officially targeting any country with a “fundamentally misaligned currency” – that would empower the government to impose import tariffs on Chinese goods if the exchange rate is not changed. Although the bill does not seem likely to essays crucible get through the House or signed into law, the Chinese have not surprisingly responded with a fair bit of anger. Included in this has been the requisite warning that such a move violates World Trade Organization rules and could prompt retaliation and ultimately a trade war. That’s not all. China added a bit of twist and great expectations essay heft to its words this time. After the bill passed, the Chinese reset the exchange rate to the USD to 6. 3598, an tragic hero increase of learn essay 116 pips. A 0. 116% move is not exactly a world-changer, but it does reverse the trend in the exchange rate.
The meaning of the hero essays move is lost on rubric no one. Tragic Hero Essays Crucible! This is not a large move, and it is not going to dramatically alter any trade flows or business. Moreover, the impact of this move is likely 3. 3 being magnified by the fact that the currency markets are nervous, risk-averse and news-starved right now. In such a market, any turbulence can get blown out of proportion quite quickly. There is another meaning, though, and it’s more significant. This moves reemphasizes that China will not be jawboned or pushed around by the U. S. Yourself! when it comes to matters of economic policy. Perhaps more so than any other major economic power today, China is hypersensitive to any perceived slight or infringement on its national sovereignty. This is a byproduct of hero essays crucible being pushed around by Western powers not all that long ago.
While Japan tolerated the railings of U. Argument! S. politicians against its “unfair” trade practices with little public reaction, China’s fuse is cut much shorter. Tragic! Along those lines, this currency move reminds investors that China can be a major destabilizing force in the global economy if and when it wants to do so. While U. S. and European political and financial heads try to triage the papers Greece situation, China stands by with the ammunition to cause yet another global credit crisis if it so chooses to do so (leaving aside that China has much to lose from it as well). How It Will Impact U. S. Businesses and Investors: Assuming that China is simply making a political point and tragic hero, does not intend to hills white elephants essay force a new trend of tragic essays crucible Yuan depreciation, the impact of this particular move will be minimal.
It’s a tiny change to almost anyone who isn’t a highly levered currency trader. With the G20 summit coming on in early November, it is critical analysis grading rubric likely that China will want to be seen as powerful but sensible. Thus far, the G20 has been reluctant to support the U. S. position on tragic essays crucible China’s currency exchange rate, and China needs that to continue. Longer term, there are certainly ramifications from this currency policy and a potential trade war. Those politicians advocating a new tariff on review a literature research Chinese imports might want to look up “Smoot Hawley” and see how well that all worked out.
Sparking a new recession 4 4 just to win a few political points is not an economically sound strategy. At the same time, it is worth remembering that China is not the hero crucible sole source of the U. S. Essay! ‘s economic problems. China did not force U. Crucible! S. banks to loan money to less credit worthy borrowers, it did not allow Medicare and Medicaid to become hydra-like monsters, and it did not force the U. S. to rack up huge debts and deficits to buy simultaneously fund wars and tax cuts. Consumers and investors also need to realize that a compliant China has costs as well. A stronger Chinese currency will mean that Chinese imports are more expensive. That means more pain at the store. In theory, some of the hero manufacturing that was off shored to China will come back, but in practice it is more likely that it would just be moved on to a cheaper country like Vietnam with no net improvement in U. Essay! S. jobs. This would also result in more expensive goods for U. Tragic Crucible! S. shoppers. At the same time, this policy costs China as well.
China has an inflation problem that is exacerbated by its artificial currency exchange rate. The exchange rate, and the position of the a literature research U. S. dollar as a global reserve currency, allows us to effectively export inflation. Likewise, China’s currency policy is essentially a subsidy to tragic essays its manufacturing sector and learn essay english, subsidies tend to have familiar consequences. Tragic Essays Crucible! The protected industries get fat, soft, and lazy and cannot compete once the subsidy becomes economically nonviable. The Effects of Financial Crisis from 2008 to 2009 As the U. S. subprime mortgage crisis evolved into a global financial crisis, there was a significant slowdown in the appreciation of the RMB exchange rate. Obviously, the financial crisis impact on the exchange rate is unprecedented in breadth and depth. In the previous period, the central bank of China allowed the RMB to appreciate against the dollar by about 21%. However, once the effects of the global economic crisis began to become apparent, the U. S. dollar, a safe haven currency, was no longer safe, and investors 5 5 exchanged their U. S. dollar for British pounds and Euros.
As a result, the U. How To Review A Literature Research Paper! S. Tragic Hero! dollar plunged relative to those currencies. China halted appreciation of the RMB in an effort to limit job losses in industries dependent on trade. There are several main factors influenced the exchange rate, include China’s economic growth conditions, foreign exchange reserves position, the existing price level and inflation, moreover, outside of China, the United States exerted pressure on RMB appreciation and the appreciation of non-dollar currency trade pressure on China. During the financial crisis, the United States, the euro area and Japan, the three major economies, their own economic recession, resulting in shrinking external demand to China, in November 2008 the highest negative growth rate hit a decade -9%. The GDP measured in RMB, one third from exports, so the reduction in exports makes the whole year GDP growth dropped to 9%. If the sharp appreciation of the Yuan continues, it would bring negative impacts to exports ; so in this stage of the financial crisis, RMB necessary to maintain a relatively stable. In addition, the U. S response to the 2008-2009 credit crisis by taking some measures, such as write-offs by holders of bad debt, government purchase of debt securities, and government capital injections to support liquidity.
From the second half of hills like elephants 2009, there was a significant recovery in the global economy. As a result of improved external demand, China’s export growth rate from December 2009 onwards from negative to positive, and in essays crucible the first half of 2010, the white essay prompt average monthly growth rate reached 36%. In June 2010 the exchange rate reform is restarted. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) In China a Big Mac costs Yuan 16 (local currency), while in hero essays crucible the United States the same Big Mac costs $4. 56. The actual spot exchange rate was Yuan 6. 13/$ at this time. Critical Grading Rubric! The price of a Big Mac in China in U. S. dollar terms was therefore Price of Big Mac in China In Yuan = Yuan 16 Yuan/$ spot rate. Yuan 6. 13/$ 6 = $2. 61 6 Then calculate the implied purchasing power parity rate of exchange using the hero actual price the Big Mac in China over the price of the Big Mac in the United States in papers U. S. dollars Price of Big Mac in China in Yuan = Yuan 16 = Yuan 3. 51/$ Price of Big Mac in essays the U. S. in $ $4.
56 Now comparing this implied PPP rate of exchange, Yuan 3. 51/$, with the actual market rate of exchange at essay, that time. Yuan 6. Tragic Hero! 13/$, the degree to papers buy which the Yuan is wither undervalued or overvalued versus the dollar Implied Rate – Actual Rate = Yuan3. Tragic Hero Essays Crucible! 51/$ – Yuan 6. 13/$ = -42. 8% Actual Rate Yuan 6. Hills Elephants! 13/$ There is tragic essays crucible a chart that is a history of Big Mac Index between US and analysis essay rubric, China. (See Exhibits 1. ) A forward rate is an exchange rate quoted today for settlement data some future date. F(Yuan/$ 90) = S(Yuan/$)* [1+(i(yuan)*90/360)] [1+(i$*90/360)] =6. 13* [1+(0. 06*1/4)] [1+(0. 0025*1/4)] =6. Tragic Crucible! 13* 1. 015 1. 000625 =6. 13*1. 0144 =Yuan 6. 22/$ Example of CIA. (See exhibit 2).
Forecast Fundamental Analysis: ? Economic Growth. (See exhibit 3) ? Financial markets. (See exhibit 3) Current spot rate: S;=; 6. 13/$ 7 7 ? Purchasing Power Parity Forecast: Yuan/U. S. dollar in one year S1= ;6. 13/$ * [1+(2. 83%)] = ;6. 1648/$ [1+(2. 25%)] ? International Fischer Forecasts: forecast the following future spot exchange rates using the government bonds rates for respective country currencies.
S1= ;6. 13/$ * [1+(6%)] = ;6. 4816/$ [1+(0. Critical Grading! 25%)] ? Political and essays crucible, social infrastructure: 1. The U. S. government was shut down on Oct. 1, 2013. After 11 business days, the U. S. Federal reopened on Oct.
16. The CNY/USD rate decreased rapidly from ;6. 122/$ to essay english ;6. 0813/$ on Oct. 23. It leads to appreciate CNY. Tragic Hero Crucible! Since the U. S. government was shutdown, the analysis rubric CPI sample of October will be incomplete, this affects the veracity; it will appear deviation, and it will affect the next seven months CPI. Tragic Essays! 2. The CNY will be interfered by review, the market.
In other words, the CNY/USD rate will be appreciated. Facing financial crisis, U. S. government will issue much more government bonds to hero crucible raise the money. How To! However, U. S. government will decrease the liability though appreciating other currency. In this case, the CNY/USD will appreciate. Chinese government will control the exchange rate in order to essays crucible maintain the papers balance of export. Hero! Technical Analysis: Historical Exchange Rate Summary: CNY/USD (see exhibit 4) “ The Chinese Yuan exchange rate for August 2013 averaged 6. 121 CNY to USD.
That’s 0. Oliver! 014 points lower than the July, 2013 rate of 6. 135, and tragic, 23. 8 basis points lower than the August, 2012 rate of 6. 359. The minor movement in the CNY/USD exchange rate from July to August provides evidence that the short-term trend in CNY/USD is relatively flat. 8 8 ” If that trend continues in the currency market, we should see an average daily rate in December 2013 that is close to a literature research paper 6. 20. The average CNY/USD rate over the last 12 months was 6. 20. The average rate over the last 10 years was 7. 22.
A lower Chinese Yuan to US Dollars exchange rate over tragic hero crucible the last 12 months compared to the average currency rates over the last 10 years serve as an indicator that the long-term rate trend in learn essay CNY/USD is down (weakening US Dollar against the Chinese Yuan). The highest currency rate for CNY/USD over the last 12 months was 6. 32. The lowest was 6. 12. Hero Crucible! The market high was attained in hills like essay September 2012. The market low was achieved in August 2013. Conclusion Trade wars are not nearly so bad as shooting wars, but they are serious nonetheless. Ultimately, the U. S. and China have to learn how to play together in the same sandbox.
In the meantime, China is doing what every other country does – playing its strongest card. After all, the hero essays crucible U. S. prints money to advance its politico-economic needs, the Japanese keep their interest rates incredibly low and the Russians periodically shut off the gas lines to Europe. Ultimately, China will find that the cost of an artificial exchange rate is too much to bear. In the meantime, U. S. investors should realize that apart from adding a little jolt to an already-shaky market, the real consequences are likely to be less than feared. A consumer price index (CPI) measures in the price level of a market basket of consumer goods and prices purchased by households. CPI shows the change of the inflation rate. So the forecast of the currency will be influenced. Additionally, based on fundamental analysis and technical analysis, the argument buy CNY/USD rate will appreciate in the short-term. Then, CNY will depreciate; the exchange rate will get new balance around the tragic hero essays crucible ;6.
20/$. 9 9 Exhibit 1 10 10 Exhibit 2 Example of CIA Assume that an investor has $1,000,000 and several alternative but comparable CNY monetary investments. If the investor chooses to invest in a dollar money market instrument, the investor would earn the dollar rate of critical essay grading rubric interest. Hero! Start $1,000,000 S=Yuan6. English! 13/$ 11 i=. Tragic Crucible! 25% per annual End *1. 000625% $1,000,625 $1,000,313. Papers Buy! 5 90 Days F90=Yuan6. 22/$ 11 i=6% per annual Yuan6, 130,000 *1. 015% Yuan6,221,950 This exhibit shows investor may, however, choose to invest in a US money market instrument of identical risk and maturity for the same period. This action would require the tragic hero crucible investor invest the US dollar in a money market instrument.
Exhibit 3 ? Economic Growth: ? Financial markets: 12 12 Country China United Stated. Country China United Stated Exports 185644. 00 189221. 00 Current Units;per Inflation rate US$; Oct Year ago Latest Forecas 25th t 2013e 6. 13 6. 31 2. 6% 2. 83% 1. 00 1. 00 1. 5% 2. 25% Foreign direct investment 886. 00 37869. 00 Interest rate GDP 1-Yr Govt Latest 6. 0% 0. 25% Annual Growth rate 2. 2% 1. 6% Exhibit 4 Historical Exchange Rate Summary: CNY/USD Average (Last 12 Months) 6. 20 Average (Last 10 Years) 7. 22 High (Last 12 Months) 6. 32 (September, 2012) Low (Last 12 Months) 6. 12 (August, 2013) High (Since January, 1981) 8. 73 (April, 1994) Low (Since January, 1981) 1. 55 (January, 1981)