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The Life Of A Poet Essay
Art Essay: a Complete Guide to essay Creating a Masterpiece of Your Essay. Here you'll find the information on what an art essay is, its types and on how to write it effectively. If you need an art analysis essay to be well-structured and accurately written contact us, please. Essay? An art essay is poet, a type of essay focusing on the analysis of a given piece of art. Art is generally referred to such genres as painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, and essays, other types of human activity. The art essay, therefore, can be written on any of the above-described subcategories. In this article, we will review some basic principles of analyzing the most common kinds of poet art. In Theology Of Culture? Before reading further, you may look through our art essay topics list containing 70 most popular topics about arts:
An art analysis essay can be of two major types: comparative and formal. Comparative art essays are aimed at comparing two or more pieces of art with the aim of identifying the similarities and differences between them. In turn, formal art essays, serve the purpose of analyzing an art form, identifying its most salient features. Comparative analysis of an art form is based on the formal analysis. Essay? When you are doing a comparative analysis of a piece or pieces of art, you should first analyze it according to the canons of the formal approach, and then they are compared and contrasted against each other. There are two possible strategies to pursue in this case. The first strategy is called lumping, where you can analyze all details of admissions essay exhibit A and poet, then of exhibit B. The second strategy is often referred to as splitting when all details of exhibit A and exhibit B are analyzed in parallel. The formal analysis of an art piece simply means that the form is the john on personal, main object of scrutiny. Such aspects as color, line, space, and mass are analyzed in the first place.
In most cases, there is certain symbolism behind each fragment of the piece of art, so they need to be analyzed carefully too. When analyzing a piece of art from poet a formal standpoint, be sure to address such questions as: The name of the artist. The period when this piece of art was created. The historic context behind the analyzed piece of art. Background of the artist. What is the physical condition of the work?
Is it typical for the period? What movement does it belong to? Depending on essay editing, the piece of art you are looking at, you may utilize different approaches in writing your art essay. For example, if you are going to write about a piece of architecture, then you should mention aspects like materials, size, shape, function. If you are looking at a painting, you are mostly interested in colors, forms, line, the depicted object, symbolism, hues, and light. If you still have questions about writing an art essay or need one to be written, feel free to contact us or place an order.
The Art of poet essay Effective Problem Solving. Here is an john locke identity article on the art of poet problem solving. Essay Question? The opportunities for problem solving are so ubiquitous, coming every day to essay most people, that many do it quite naturally – and yet very effectively. The Top 10 Mistakes Made When Writing Essays (Part 1) Our experts have written this top 10 essay writing pitfalls based on in theology of culture, their writing experience. Essay? Top 10 Mistakes Made During Essay Writing (Part 2) This is a continuation of multicultural 'top 10 essay writing mistakes' written by poet essay our expert writers. Avoiding these pitfalls will help you write a perfect essay! Enter your email address to receive exclusive members-only discounts.
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It qualifies as a research paper type of assignment on our order placement list. We do handle rewriting of assignments. Poet? Simply let us know how many pages are needed to be changed and we will deliver it to you on or before the multicultural teaching, date specified. Make sure you choose Editing/rewriting in the Academic Level section. University level, Bachelor's refers to the academic level to poet essay be written. If you are an undergraduate studying at the university, then that is stanford, what you should select. The vast majority of our papers do receive a 2:1 or better. We suggest you selecting the level of difficulty in accordance with your expectations. We generally allow our most experienced writers to pick-up orders themselves, as long as they have the relevant qualifications. When a new order comes in, we circulate a notice to all writers in that field, and someone who is available and poet, interested in your topic will chose to work on your project. Of Culture? Our junior or less experienced writers require administrators' approval before they can start on the job.
Writers have competitive incentives to work towards and are well looked after, which means that we attract and poet essay, retain the admissions essay editing, very best writers in this industry. Yes, we have an accumulative discount policy for returning customers, starting at 3% to 15% off every new order. Poet Essay? Every new order you place counts towards the total ordered amount thus increasing the discount level. It means, that if you, for example, have $640 worth of orders (thus qualifying for 6% discount), the new order of $100 that you place will bring your totals to $740 and will be calculated at 7% off rate. English? Our system is completely automated and adjusted to the degree of maximum user convenience. All you have to do is give us your assignment requirements and poet, pay at the time of placing the order. English? Once we are notified of your payment we start to work on your paper immediately. Each project is assigned a unique identification number which gives you the poet, possibility to track your order online.
It also allows you to log into admissions editing your personalized control panel and poet, communicate with the writer whos doing the job for you. Once the paper is completed it is delivered to your email. Please read more on the ordering procedure. Our 100% customer satisfaction policy guarantees you that you may request as many revisions as you find it necessary. To request a revision for stanford, the completed paper, please login to essay your control panel and click on a Request Revision link. You certainly can email us the sources for your paper once you've ordered, our email address is firstname.lastname@example.org. Our support representatives check email 24x7 and on personal, will add the essay, files you send to your order. You might want to specify your order number to expedite the process. Alternatively, you can upload the files manually, after logging in to your personal control panel, the files will go directly to the writer. We can certainly provide you with a 2:1 level writing. But, because of differing standards of grading between universities (and even professors) a guarantee of grade is near impossible for in theology of culture, any writing service, we suggest you to be careful of those that do.
However, we do guarantee we will work on your paper until you are completely satisfied with it, if we don't get it right the first time we'll revise it until we do. We do guarantee the highest standards of the papers we produce. Poet? However we cannot guarantee your grade. We also guarantee completely plagiarism-free papers as we check all of essays on proverbs them with the poet, latest version of plagiarism-detection software before delivering to essays the customer. In case you find any plagiarism though we guarantee the full money refund. NEED HELP? Start a Live Chat with an Operator, contact us +1-845-228-8552 or send a message. A service of Insight Innovations LLC, Phoenix, AZ. Please enter your phone number to poet get a call from our Academic Success Manager. We care about your privacy.
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The Life Of A Poet Essay
New SAT and ACT Score Ranges for 360 Colleges and Universities. Students taking the new SAT need to essay, be able to determine how their scores fit into the competitive landscape of college admission. A new SAT score is not equivalent to the same score on the old SAT and must be translated via a concordance. Paper! Colleges will not report new SAT scores from enrolled students until spring 2018, and guide books will not include the new figures until summer 2018. In the meantime, Compass has compiled the estimated new SAT score ranges for 360 popular colleges and universities, public and private, chosen to represent a wide array of four-year postsecondary institutions in the U.S. The new SAT scores in the table below and in the downloadable PDF represent the most recently reported old SAT scores translated via concordance into poet new SAT scores.* You can use these estimated new SAT ranges, as well as the actual ACT ranges, to better understand the typical test scores of enrolled students. These scores should not be viewed as cutoffs or qualifying scores. This list is intended as a broad snapshot of the john locke on personal identity competitive landscape of college admission, viewed through the lens of test scores.
Students taking a holistic approach to their college search will undoubtedly consider many other wonderful colleges not included in this list. The analysis can be similarly applied to essay, other colleges by using our simplified concordance tables to take old college guide scores and paper translate them to new SAT scoring. Be sure to use the poet essay CR+M tables for colleges that don’t provide Writing scores. For more information about college admission testing, please visit compassprep.com/guide . Expand for Analysis of New SAT's Impact on research paper Scores. One impact of the new SAT is essay, that scores have shifted higher across virtually the entire 200-800 and 400-1600 score ranges. This inflation has also tended to compress the 25th-75th percentile ranges. To use a traffic jam analogy, the highest scores have little place to move at the same time that lower scores keep inching forward. For example, the on personal identity old SAT range for poet essay Critical Reading + Math at Amherst was 1360-1560 but is now 1430-1570. Harvard, where the 75th percentile was already at 1600 for stanford essay the class of 2015, is projected to have the most significant compression.
The university’s range is estimated to go from 1410-1600 to 1480-1600 — there is essay, simply no way that the multicultural teaching research paper highest scores can move higher. CalTech, which already had the narrowest range in the country is estimated to poet, move from 1500-1600 to 1530-1600. Colleges with ranges closer to 600-700 will see the inflationary effect without as much compression. For example, University of California, Santa Barbara is essays in theology, likely to see a change from poet 1130-1370 to teaching research, 1210-1440. It’s important to note that this result is independent of the move from the 600-2400 total score to the 400-1600 total score. Poet Essay! The inflationary and “traffic jam” effects are consistent across section, test, and on proverbs total scores. The score changes do not imply that it is harder to essay, get into a particular college. They do impact the way that families should think about scores.
The traditional shorthands for “what is a good score” were always inadequate, and they now need to be rethought again. or Test Flexible. In most cases, we were able to essays in theology, use information directly from the poet Common Data Sets (CDS) produced by colleges and shared by their institutional research departments. College! The CDS format is an agreed upon way of reporting information about poet essay a college — not just test scores and admission rates. Locke On Personal! For test scores, the data are based on an incoming group of first-year students. For example, the 2014-15 CDS for a college has statistics on students entering in the fall of poet essay 2014 (most of whom graduated high school in admissions editing 2014).
Most of the college guides from major publishers currently use the poet 2014-15 data. Where possible, we have used the more recent 2015-16 CDS, which has data for students entering fall 2015. When CDS data were not available, we found information from college fact books or other data sources with similar definitions. We used the john on personal identity College Board’s new SAT to old SAT concordances to translate 25th and 75th percentile scores on poet essay the old SAT to comparable scores on the new SAT. This conversion makes certain assumptions about the distribution of scores above and below those values. When old SAT Math scores were available, we concorded them to new SAT Math scores. When new SAT Critical Reading and locke on personal identity Writing scores were available, we used the poet concordance table that translates CR+W to the single 200-800 EBRW score of the of culture new SAT.
Some schools do not use or do not report SAT Writing. In those cases, we used the concordance from essay SAT CR to SAT Reading score (20-40) and then converted it to the 200-800 scale by multiplying by stanford essay, 20. SAT Total (400-1600) scores are the sum of SAT EBRW and SAT Math. This does not necessarily produce the same result as if a school reported the 25th percentile Total score and 75th percentile Total score. However, colleges do not report 400-1600 or 600-2400 score in the Common Data Set, and it has been the practice of poet most publishers to free college essays, simply sum the component scores. Art graduated magna cum laude from Harvard University, where he was the top-ranked liberal arts student in poet essay his class. Art pioneered the one-on-one approach to test prep in California in 1989 and co-founded Compass Education Group in college essays 2004 in order to bring the best ideas and poet tutors into students' homes and computers. Although he has attained perfect scores on all flavors of the SAT and ACT, he is routinely beaten in backgammon. Art, my junior son recieved his new SAT score and he made a 1540.
He has mid 700’s in math1,math2,chemistry a 730 and plans on taking lit. SATII which he will get high 700’s if not 800. He took the old SAT two years ago and got a 2230. He has 8AP classes under his belt all 5’s and 4’s except two 3’s. He will finish next year,his senior year with AP statistics and probably a 5 or 4, so nine qualified AP’s in all. Considering that except for his junior and essay senior year, which he is poet essay, attending Stanford online high school and will finish this year with straight A’s, do you think since he was homeschooled all the essays of culture years prior to that he should take the ACT also,just to give the essay colleges more to go on? I have not heard any college prefer homeschoolers take both the SAT and john identity ACT, and it would not be useful in poet essay your son’s case. It is certainly true that homeschoolers face added testing requirements — usually in the form of essay editing Subject Tests. With Math, Chemistry, and Literature (soon) in hand, he is in good shape there, as well.
One of the reasons why colleges accept the poet essay SAT and ACT interchangeably is that they provide similar insights. My son has taken the most rigorous courses offered by his school and has done very well. He scored (old SAT) 650 CR, 800 Math and 780 writing. Locke! We talked to a few colleges about their policies on poet essay old SAT vs. new SAT. Surprisingly we heard from an Ivy League admissions staff that they will not consider the stanford question writing on essay old SAT.
They will simply compare scores on admissions essay editing old SAT reading/math vs. the new SAT. Have you heard how colleges will treat old SAT vs. the essay new one? Thanks!l. Michael, I answered your question in a separate post, but I am going to stanford essay, duplicate my response here for completeness: The response you got is indicative of the lack of essay respect that the Writing test always received on the old SAT — and the misunderstandings surrounding it. The old SAT and new SAT are treated as totally different tests, which is why a concordance is needed in english on proverbs the same way that one is needed between the SAT and ACT. If you mean “Are colleges separately considering the pools of students applying with old SATs and new SATs?,” the poet answer is stanford essay question, “No.” The College Board maintains that the “best” concordance between the old SAT and poet essay the new SAT is from CR+M+W to admissions editing, EBRW+M.
The admission office is both right and wrong. Wrong: Although the poet essay essay is not part of the teaching paper new SAT score, “writing” is very much a part of the new test. Essay! Right: Many colleges never fully incorporated Writing and are more comfortable using CR+M to EBRW+M. To allow for this, College Board does provide this concordance. After doing the conversion from old to essay editing, new, you should see a link or option to “See an poet essay, estimate based on essays on proverbs Critical Reading + Math only.” In your son’s case, the essay CR+M estimate converts to a 1490 on the new SAT. We’ve also provided a table with the CR+M concordance.
Unfortunately, there is no universal rule as to how colleges will convert among old SAT, new SAT, and essays on proverbs ACT, which is why College Board has provided them a number of options. Thank you very much for your timely response and insights! In your opinion, should my son take ACT or the new SAT since his CR is relatively low. Do colleges emphasize more on the total score or individual section score? His reach/match schools are Cornell, Dartmouth, Tuft’s, Emory, USC, Wash U, and Cargenie Mellon.
He has taken most challenging courses (e.g. Multivariable calculus, differential equations, computer science etc..) offered by his school and maintains a 4.0 unweighted GPA. He has presented biology research paper at a national conference and will be interning at scripps research institute. In addition, he is poet essay, a competitive swimmer since he was 7. He really would like to focus on essays and SAT subject tests now. Your suggestions will be much appreciated! I’d put a good amount of weight in how your son did on the PSAT to help make the ACT / new SAT decision. English! Since it sounds like your son is quite comfortable with STEM, I imagine the science of ACT Science is not going to scare him off. But its demand for relentless reading pace can disadvantage some students. I’d recommend that he take a released ACT and mimic test day conditions (exact timing, no disallowed breaks, etc.).
Your son’s situation is very similar to John’s daughter’s (I just posted a reply). Three-quarters of the new SAT, it could be argued, is made up of areas that play to your son’s strengths — Math and poet essay Writing/Language. Colleges love to hide behind the word “holistic” when answering questions such as yours. Section scores and total scores both come into play. A student applying to STEM programs, for example, is going to want to essays in theology, be 650CR/800M rather than the other way around. For colleges that emphasize the CR+M portions of the old SAT, your son’s 780W may not receive the weight it deserves. Cornell is a good example of a school that never cared much for SAT Writing. I don’t like seeing students doing more testing than they need to poet essay, do, but I also know how important it is to feel that one’s testing portfolio is as at least as strong as the other components of an application. With that last part in mind, I think it could be worthwhile to test again. I would try to decide soon between the new SAT and ACT and then plan for Sept or Oct testing. Thank you very much for your suggestions!
My son is interested in studying Econ with a minor in Computer Science or Math. Since he is stronger in STEM than English, do you see any advantage of applying “undeclared”? I try not to venture to english essays, far afield from poet my expertise in testing. That said, it’s likely that your son will put together a more convincing application if he is forthright about his goals. His strong STEM scores seem completely compatible with Econ/CS/Math. Thank you for this information. Where, though, did you hear that colleges won’t report new scores until 2018 and guidebooks until a little later? Few colleges publish class profiles until students are on admissions essay editing campus, so some numbers will start showing up in the fall of 2017. However, wide-scale, uniform reporting is done through surveys such as the poet Common Data Set (College Board, Peterson’s, and john locke on personal U.S.
News) and IPEDS (Dept. of Education). The CDS is based on enrolled students and is collected over the course of the academic year. In other words, colleges will begin putting the numbers together in late 2017 and finish by spring 2018. The major guidebooks join this information with their own data collection efforts and will publish in Aug/Sept of 2018. If you look at essay a currently available version of U.S. Free College Essays! News, for example, you’ll see that the poet essay data comes from the essay on personal identity 2014-2015 CDS. This information is based on poet the HS class of 2014 (technically on the incoming college freshman class of 2018). Essays In Theology! Most of those students took the SAT in 2013! The admission and reporting cycles create a dark period when a major shift takes place. We saw this happen when the SAT I became SAT Reasoning and Writing was added.
At the time, the change was not as visible because the essay CR and M sections were considered equated to essays on proverbs, the older test. Poet! It will be interesting to see how colleges, CDS, and publishers handle the fact that many in english essays the class of essay 2017 will be applying with old SAT scores. i would be extremely thankful if you replied me. i have a couple of essay queries that you may help me with. Kindly reply asap. Thanks in advance #128578; i am student who is looking to poet essay, pursue a undergraduate program in economics. Kindly suggest whether i should pursue Bsc or Ba in english on proverbs economics. Also, if you could suggest me a list of top 5 colleges in poet the us for an economics degree, that would be great. See, i am an international applicant so i intend to obtain a good amount of financial aid. Also, for these colleges what is the appropriate NEW SAT score range ? I know my questions are bit off the topic and require a long answer but i would be beholden to you for such help.
Thanking you in advance. College counseling is not my area of expertise, but US News and USA Today have lists of what they consider the top undergraduate economics programs. These also happen to essays, be some of the most competitive colleges in the country. You can lookup the new SAT score ranges of these schools using the Compass 360 page right here. Many other colleges in the U.S. have excellent economics programs. The College Board has a search tool that allows you to lookup colleges by poet, major. My daughter will be a senior in high school next year. She took the english on proverbs new SAT and got a 660 for Math and a 650 in Reading. Her father is insisting she take the test again to poet, try for a higher score. I am saying she can wait until we get her ACT scores from the test she took last weekend, and that her scores aren’t bad since the SAT board is saying they are 92nd %tile. She is at a state residential high school that only takes the top 1% of students, has lots of unique experiences like a year long study of artificial intelligence that resulted in a published paper, and has been active in clubs.
She is looking at specific colleges – Creighton, Kalamazoo, St. Lawrence, Bradley, St.John/St. Benedict, and Knox. We need a person not invested in free college essays her success in life to give a non biased opinion. Her end goal is to become a pediatrician. Now is a good time of year to assess where your daughter stands and what you should do moving forward, because you can make decisions without the rush of spring test dates.
Your daughter should get her ACT scores (at least the multiple-choice portion) next week. The next upcoming testing opportunities are September (ACT) and October (SAT). Among the options would be 1) Sit tight. Poet! No reason for additional testing. 2) Retake the SAT. 3) Retake the ACT. 4) Retake both. Let’s discard #4 right away. As a rising senior, she should be concentrating on admissions essay editing her best opportunity. You can compare her SAT and ACT scores using the new concordance tables.
One question to consider is “What is the goal of poet higher scores?” For some students, it is about trying to editing, do well enough to make a “reach” school. For other students it is about improving their chances at their target list of colleges. It sounds like your daughter fits in essay the latter group. She has identified an excellent set of colleges, and free essays her SAT score is already well-aligned with those colleges. College Board has made a mess of the poet essay transition to the new test by confusing parents and students with faulty percentiles.
There are “National” percentiles and “User” percentiles, for example. Although “User” is closer to what we would consider the standard definition, even there they have had to base the numbers off of free college essays a sample study. If we convert your daughter’s 1310 into a score on the old SAT (CR+M), it would be a 1250. Poet! That score was the 85th percentile for the class of 2015. The good news is that you don’t have to worry much about how students did across the country.
You should be most concerned about how your daughter did relative to students applying to her selected colleges. While few universities make available applicant scores, we do know that her scores would likely put her above the mean of the freshman class of 2021 at her target schools. That said, her scores alone are not so high that they will differentiate her from teaching paper other applicants. What would happen if your daughter retook the test and essay her scores went down? I did a quick check of the mentioned colleges, and they almost all superscore the SAT. John Locke! In all cases they recognize Score Choice.
So a lower score would not hurt your daughter and a mixed score (up in EBRW and down in M) would benefit her. Retaking the SAT is essay, not that hard. It involves a test fee and a miserable 4 hours on a Saturday morning in the fall. Truly preparing for the retake is the rub. Repeating an exam without some form of additional preparation will usually result in similar scores. In order for her to raise her scores, she’ll need to stanford question, study for the test. Poet Essay! She’ll build on english what she did right and what she did wrong. She’ll need to poet, put it all together on test day. In short, she has to be willing to work for a higher score.
So I’ve left to the end the most important question to consider. Is she interested in in theology that? A thoughtful program of self-study or commercial preparation need not (should not!) conflict with her college applications and other pursuits. But she will need to essay, feel invested. I can’t claim a “non-biased opinion” because I do test preparation and test advising for a living. English Essays! I do know what added joy there is in working with a student who understands the goal of essay her efforts and can also appreciate that there is an end in stanford question sight. How is a new SAT score of 1360 considered ? Is it competitive enough to essay, be considered in an Ivy league school assuming that my rest of the application is strong enough ? Your score would be low for the most competitive schools such as the Ivies. While those colleges take a “holistic” review and essay do not have cutoff scores, most of their applicants will have 1400+ scores on poet the new SAT. is it possible with a 1340 on the new Sat to be considered for a presidential scholarship at a mid-tier university. Ive never been interested in IVy leagues along with alot of AP test taken and passed. Also 4+ GPA weighted. and 3.96 unweighted.
I’m afraid that there are too many variables to give you a good answer. I am assuming that you are referring to “Presidential” or “Trustee” Or “Honors” scholarships awarded by many universities as opposed to the U.S. Presidential Scholars program, which is incredibly competitive (only 161 awards per year). Most colleges maintain a website with information about the minimum qualifications for stanford essay awards. Poet Essay! Some programs are automatic for in theology of culture qualifiers, and others involve an application and essay competition. Your GPA sounds strong. Your SAT score may be a bit weaker for merit scholarships, but the range of programs is enormous. Teaching Paper! Best of luck.
Hello I recently retook the New SAT in June after getting a 1340 on the March SAT and ended up with a 1420. Since the next Date, Oct 1st, would be cutting it too close when receiving my scores back for poet essay college admissions, where do I currently stand when competing for more competitive schools such as Ivies or slightly lesser competitive ones like Rice or Emory. It is important to keep in mind that test scores are only john locke on personal one component — and not the most important one — in the admission process. You can use the 25th-75th percentile estimates to give yourself a rough idea of where your scores stack up. In general, scores closer to poet, the 75th percentile than the 25th percentile would at essay least mean that scores should not be a drag on the average student’s application. The trick in holistic admission is that one can’t always define “average.” Certain talents may impress admission officers. Poet! Certain characteristics may work against you at one school but not another. What chance, if any, will a 1480 (New SAT) or a superscore of 1490 get as far as merit scholarships? The landscape of merit scholarships is as wide as the college landscape — there are hundreds or thousands of variations. Essays! Many merit scholarships have GPA and poet essay SAT (or ACT) score minimums.
In some cases those numbers qualify a student for scholarship dollars. In other cases, the minimums allow a student to enter a competition for essays scholarships. I’ll word it this way — there are precious few merit scholarships where your score would take you out of the running. I have taken the new SAT twice already and got the essay same score of 1260 both times. Essay Editing! The only essay exception is english on proverbs, that instead of doing 630 and 630, the second time I did 640, 620 on each part. My goal is to go to NYU or USC. Should I take the essay SAT a third time or do I still have a chance to get in with those scores ? USC and NYU are both so competitive that a 1260 is usually not sufficient. Even students with scores near the stanford 25th percentile of admitted students at those schools (around 1350) have a decreased chance of admission. I have been following your posts throughout the Compass website with much interest. Without exception, you show incredible insight, wisdom and patience.
You will most likely need all three for essay this question. My child has done quite well. He took the Old SAT once and the new SAT once. If you superscore the Old SAT (CR dropping the writing) then he would have a 1600. While I know schools aren’t superscoring in admissions editing this manner, I have nevertheless been looking at the 75th percentile listings that are in your chart with some interest.
You show a handful of schools that show the 75th percentile at poet 1600 or even 1590. If you look at the size of the editing admitted incoming freshmen class for even one of these schools, it does not seem possible that the top 25% could all have scored a perfect 1600 since presumably there will be less than that number of poet perfect 1600s in the entire country, much less having the odds of all of those perfect scores attending a single school resulting in a 75th percentile listing of 1600. Am I missing something? How can the 75th percentile be 1600 for research paper one school, much less 4 or 5 schools? Mathematically (I am admittedly not math oriented), it seems that the poet 75th percentiles would have to essays on proverbs, be at least in the 1570 to 1590 range even for the most elite schools. In short, are these somewhat inflated? Thanks again for your insight….and patience, Good questions. In your child’s case, I would recommend using the concordance tables to take his new scores back into the old.
The reason I say that is that all of the “true” college numbers are reported as old SAT scores. You can then compare those scores to the 25th – 75th scores reported by the colleges (you can find these in poet essay a number of places such as US New or the College Board’s college selection tool. Essays! As you point out, you do not want to superscore these, because the colleges won’t. They may evaluate all of the scores holistically, so it is poet, still good to know, for example, that one of the essay Math SAT scores is better than the other. There are several assumptions underlying our table of poet essay new score ranges. Essays! First, there is the assumption that the concordance tables are accurate! I think they are pretty good. The important assumption is that the admitted classes for 2017 will be similar to earlier classes. If this is true, then the individual Math and EBRW scores should be accurate. The total 400-1600 score is poet essay, a bit trickier. Multicultural Paper! There were two main options.
The more correct way would be to concord all of the values into the total score. The other option is to simply add the two scores. We decided that 1) just about all guidebooks used the sum 2) it’s less confusing for students and essay parents (“Why don’t these add up?”) and 3) the differences are not large. You are correct, though, that there would be a slight overstatement, because the essay students that get 790 on EBRW are not the poet same students who get 790 on M. You are best off comparing the individual scores. You bring up a fascinating question. About 2,000 students got a 1600 on the CR+M on the old SAT.
I think that’s the best starting point. The “easier” new SAT means that we might see closer to 3,000 students. Those students end up at lost of schools, but my guess is that they are highly concentrated among 6-10 schools. The schools we estimate to have a 75th percentile of 1600 would probably “consume” about 1500-2000 of free college essays those. That may not be that far off. Ultimately it’s academic as 1570, 1580, etc. are essentially equivalent from an admission officer’s perspective. i have taken the new sat and poet essay scored 1420.also i have subject tests 760 math and multicultural teaching 700 chemisry.i am looking for a merit based scholarship could i get ful ride at essay any universty in us? reccomend me if there is any college or universty.i am an international student. Many colleges limit the financial aid available to international students. This means that the aid that is available is highly competitive. This is not my area of expertise, so I would suggest a resource such as the U.S. State Department’s guide to studying in the U.S.
The site includes tools for essay searching for financial aid. It looks that the author simply added up the other two columns to get the column “SAT Total 25th – 75th percentile”. But that’s extremely misleading. Students in poet the 75th percentile for Math may not be also in the 75th percentile for john essay on personal identity EBRW. So the actual total scores for the 75th percentile are lower, probably quite lower while the actual total scores for the 25th are higher than what are shown here.
I appreciate your feedback. As the co-author, I can confirm that we have added EBRW and Math to obtain the Total score. This is explained in the Data Methodology footnote: “This does not necessarily produce the same result as if a school reported the poet essay 25th percentile Total score and english essays 75th percentile Total score. However, colleges do not report 400-1600 or 600-2400 score in the Common Data Set, and it has been the poet essay practice of most publishers to teaching research paper, simply sum the component scores.” We had to decide whether it was better to leave off the Total score or to present it in this way. Since we knew many students and parents think of essay a “1410” or a “1250,” we decided to include it. Admissions Editing! A few colleges have historically presented inter-quartile combined scores. In these cases, the differences from the sum-of-the-scores method proved to be minor. It’s important that all such scores be viewed skeptically. Most colleges and guidebooks provide only poet essay scores for enrolled students, for example. The average scores of enrolling students, though, are lower than that of accepted students.
I did the new SAT and essays received a good EBRW. Essay! However the admissions editing Reading and Writing differ by 7 on the 40 scale. Considering that colleges have given the old Critical Reading more weight than they do for Writing, should I retake the SAT to poet essay, improve my Reading section? That sort of discrepancy is fairy large (140 points if we considered them 200-800 scores), but it is stanford essay question, not unexpected in an international student. Poet Essay! Grammar rules tend to be easier to master than the close reading skills required on EBR. Colleges gave more weight to the old Critical Reading SAT because of teaching tradition (it pre-dated Writing) and poet essay because there was skepticism about the essays Writing test (much of it swirling around the essay). Most colleges will look at EBRW as the equivalent of an old Verbal Score.
I don’t think many will try to parse out the poet essay differences between the sections. Free College! The obvious question is, “Will you improve your Reading score?” If you feel that you underperformed, then you should re-test. If Reading was in line with the official practice tests, then you should consider whether or not you have the time and resources required to raise your score. My junior son received his new SAT score and he made a 1540. Essay! This was the research first time that he took the SAT (except for 7th grade through DUKE TIP) . He got 800 on the Reading and Writing section and 740 on the Math section. He also took the essay and he got 8, 7, 7. Do you think that rather than retake the SAT it would be enough if he takes the poet SAT II Math subject test to free, show colleges that he is a good Math student? He wants to apply to highly selective colleges. Poet Essay! He also has 2 subject tests, Biology 760 and World History 800. He wants to study medicine or veterinary medicine.
It looks like I may have neglected to get back to you on paper this — my apologies. I think that his testing portfolio will be in poet excellent shape if he can post a good Math 2 score. Essay On Personal Identity! There is little benefit in trying to move up from a 1540. Although some of the most selective colleges superscore, it is a lower percentage than even highly competitive schools. My son earned a 34 on ACT (English 36, Reading 36, Science 33, Math 31), and poet he just received his scores for the new SAT of 1480 and a 7 out of 8 on the SAT Writing. He is very upset over the SAT score being lower than he feels he needs for a competitive school, and so we are wondering if it would be a good idea to not have the SAT scores sent to colleges? He has already sent his ACT score, and although I feel his SAT score is respectable, I feel that advice from your would be very helpful. He is the Editor in john locke identity Chief of the Yearbook, Treasurer of National Honor Society, Vice-President of Key Club, Marching Band, etc.. Poet Essay! He has taken 8 AP classes with scores of all 4’s and 5’s. English! He had two surgeries in essay 9th grade, which affected his grades then, and so he only has an overall GPA of 3.53 as a Senior.
I feel appreciative of any advice you may offer, as I honestly do not know whether his SAT scores will hurt his chances of essay identity applying for Ivy schools. Have a great day: Your son’s SAT score is respectable; it just so happens that his ACT score is better. Because SAT and ACT scores fill the same niche for poet admission officers, there is no benefit in submitting both in your son’s case. His ACT score wins. There are some colleges (hello, Yale!) that expect students to send all scores.
Even those colleges are generally looking at essay the more “supportive” scores. Overlapping a couple of topics here…would a score of 1500 on the new SAT confirm pSAT scores to qualify for National Merit Scholarship finalist? My daughter went into essay the SAT overly confident after scoring 35 on her SAT, and chose not to put in any prep time for english essays on proverbs the test. She is now disappointed with her score. A 1500 is well above the level needed to qualify as a Finalist. You can calculate an SAT Selection Index (SSI) the essay same way the of culture Selection Index is calculated from PSAT/NMSQT scores. I personally find the easiest way as doubling the poet essay EBRW score, adding the Math score, and dropping a zero. The confirming level for the SSI has been set at 209 for the class of 2017. Stanford Essay Question! I can’t calculate your daughter’s exact SSI only knowing the poet essay 1500 total score, but I can calculate the essays on proverbs very LOWEST that it could be.
If I assume a 700 EBRW and poet 800 Math, her SSI would be (700?2) + 800 = 2200; drop a zero = 220. Multicultural Paper! While her ACT score is stronger, her SAT score will not hold her back in qualifying as a Finalist. Art, my two daughters attended private women’s colleges in Massachusetts, Mt. Holyoke and Wellesley. Neither had degrees that one would associate with off the essay bus success, (Economics 2013 and and Anthropolgy Dec 2016) Both have high paying jobs and both have been promoted repeatedly. (Anthropolgy, health care company, promoted 4 politions in admissions essay editing 10 months, Ecobomics 3 ;positions in 6 months) One thing I think people don’t realize is essay, there’s more to college than the name. An undergrads chances of getting into Harvard are almost nil, yet their chances of getting into Harvard Grad school are quite high, if they go to an affilaite college and have leadership experience in their jobs. IMO, people with daughters that don’t look at essays in theology of culture the 7 sisters are fools.
Both of my daughters know the CEO’s of their companies. The level of confidence and leadership a woman gets from these colleges is essay, worth more than what they learn in a classroom. When I look at my daughters, I don’t see me. I didn’t raise them. Stanford Question! They were raised by the girl scouts, 4h, European exchange programs and finally, women’s colleges that focus on developing female leaders.
Life isn’t a hotrserace. Thank you for sharing the example of your daughters. It’s easy to get caught up in essay college admission and forget that life is long, college is short. Success comes from so many places and in essay question so many forms. Of course no one would mistake Mt. Holyoke and Wellesley as anything but excellent colleges. Poet! It’s a shame that they are sometimes overlooked.
Hi I’m a high school junior. I am taking the SAT next Saturday. I scored a 1420 on my psat, but I feel like I didn’t fully prepare for it and I felt like I could have done better. Essay Editing! I’ve taken 6 APs, and I plan to take 5 more next year. Essay! Do I even stand a chance at an Ivy League? Your PSAT won’t impact your admission chances, so you have plenty of opportunities to put together a great testing portfolio.
If you haven’t already made plans, be sure to consider Subject Tests in May or June. Ivy League admission is always a competitive race that is hard to predict. Your grades will be the number 1 factor. Good luck on free college the SAT! sir, if we are getting upto 1000 sat scrore, is it sure that we will get addmission in universities which require less score than it? Test scores are just one of essay many factors that colleges use for admission. Except in stanford essay question limited circumstances, an poet essay, SAT score alone will not guarantee that you get into a university. My daughter is a Junior at a top rated public HS in MA. She just received her second round of SAT scores. A Super Score puts her at in theology 1490. She took the essay Biology subject test in 9th grade and received a 700.
She’ll have 6 APs by the time she completes her Senior year. Her GPA is a weighted 4.68 out of a possible 4.8 (adjusted North for Honors and AP Selections). She’s interested in Brown as a reach and Bowdoin, Tufts, Amherst as targets and Conn College, Bucknell as safeties. She’s got 7 letters in two sports, a class officer, NHS, Theater etc… Her interests lie in biosciences but she’s a well rounded student who enjoys a broad liberal arts curriculum. 1) Can you handicap the essays school list above? She loves Brown and we know well the take rate is low but she’ll interview exceptionally well. 2) Is it worth taking a swing at the SATs again? 3) Worth trying additional subject tests or a retake of BIO since that was 9th grade? Appreciate any insights. My knowledge goes deep in essay college admission testing, but I try to recognize my limits in essay identity college admission expertise. I’ll beg out of #1 and try to answer #2 and poet #3.
Raising her SAT score could help her chances at her top schools. She is certainly in range with her 1490, but the locke essay on personal overall figured include many “hooked” students (if she is at recruitable level in essay either of her sports, that would be a big boost). She’ll need 2 Subject Tests at essays in theology Brown and Tufts. Repeating Bio is poet, largely dependent on how her knowledge has improved or degraded. If she has kept up in Biology, I’d encourage her to consider a repeat (a student who really doesn’t want to stanford essay, do a repeat is a student who shouldn’t do a repeat). I believe that all of the schools you’ve listed recognize Score Choice, so she only essay has to worry about sending her best efforts. Lately I’ve been reading several lively discussions about the accuracy – or not – of the SAT concordance. In particular, as colleges release their ED statistics, the concordance appears to be low by some 10 – 40 points, especially at the 700 and above level. Middle 50% Critical Reading: 710-790. Middle 50% Math: 750-800. Middle 50% Evidence Based Reading and teaching research paper Writing: 710-760.
Middle 50% Math: 730-790. Middle 50% ACT: 33-34. I’ve seen similar figures in scores from Boston College, Williams, Virginia and essay U Georgia. Would you care to share anything you might be seeing or hearing on this subject? This is a topic I’ve looked at closely the essay last couple of weeks as we developed a presentation for college counselors.
In addition to the schools you mentioned, I looked at poet essay 2020 and 2021 ED data for GaTech, Dartmouth, and Georgetown. Essays In Theology! I’ve also analyzed PSAT and SAT data for multiple classes and sub-groups. My evidence is that it is not a problem with the essay concordance, per se. In other words, all of the pure testing evidence shows the expected increase in scores (at least within a reasonable range). It’s not a familiar role for me to defend College Board, but it seems that they did a reasonable job. I’ll add the caveat that the place on the scale where it is hardest to verify the success of the concordance is in the 750-800 range that comes into play at essays in theology many of these colleges. We are left with student behavior and college behavior/policies to best explain what we are seeing.
I’m not sure that we’ll ever be fully able to explain things without a research study involving colleges and the College Board. Essay! I doubt that will happen, because the old SAT is a non-issue going forward. Some parts of the explanation are less speculative than others. First, there has been a significant shift to stanford question, the ACT in the applicant pool. Among the high scoring students at poet essay these schools, it represents the biggest shift in history. Similarly, there was a burst of activity of students taking the english essays old SAT pre-March. Few of the colleges provide a distribution of results for both the class of 2020 and 2021 across the different tests. Poet! If we assume that there was a bias among high scoring students toward the ACT or toward the old SAT, then we would expect to see lower than expected new SAT scores. Stanford Question! This bias would also be more likely with ED/EA students, as they often want to poet essay, get testing done early, and the new SAT represented a real problem with that plan. There is also a chance that the self-selection bias led to sub-optimal decisions in testing patterns and in preparation.
Did the english on proverbs student who would have tried to go from a 700/700 old SAT decide not to retake with a 730/740 new SAT? And even if they wanted to, did they have the time? There is also the poet essay possibility that students’ preparation for the new SAT was inadequate. At minimum, they didn’t have Oct-Jan junior year tests to free college, inform their new SAT decisions. Score choice and superscoring effects would be interesting to essay, parse out. In Theology Of Culture! The latter certainly worked against SAT takers this year. ED/EA applicants were probably fairly evenly split between old SAT and new SAT testing, yet their scores are in poet separate buckets for superscoring. ACT early testers and ACT late testers had the opportunity to multicultural, superscore all of their dates. The impact of poet essay Score Choice is less clear, but it’s yet another place for sub-optimal decisions. Did students release the “right” scores?
Also unclear in most cases are the essay question definitions used by essay, colleges. If a student submitted old and essays of culture new SAT scores, how did colleges report them in their press releases? If they based it on “best scores,” were those best scores determined via concordance? The area of behavior that we are all most intrigued by is how colleges thought about the new scores. Did they, in a sense, misuse them? Did admission officers, for instance, retain hard-coded pathways in poet their brains that treated everything above 750 as interchangeable?
Some have speculated that because colleges did not explicitly use the concordance — Georgetown and UVa being obvious examples — that this automatically disadvantaged one group or the other. That’s not necessarily the case. Multicultural Paper! Some colleges choose not to use an SAT/ACT concordance, yet they are able to come to reasonable conclusions through intra-group comparisons. I’d like to say that this will all be sorted out with Regular Decision, but I’m certain that it won’t be. It looks like the class of poet 2018 will represent the first opportunity to see where ACT and new SAT scores really fall out in the new landscape. Fascinating! Thank you very much. #128578;
My son is a high school junior. He took a SAT prep class the summer before junior year and scored a 1480 on essays of culture the new SAT in essay Dec 2016. He re-took the new SAT on March 25th and his school is administering a SAT on April 11th. He aspires to apply to schools that are quite competitive, Rice, Brown, Duke etc. He hopes to admissions, get a higher than 1530 score but is using mostly a more practice strategy rather than new study skills. He has taken the subject Bio SAT sophomore year and got a 730. He plans to try the Math Lvl II SAT and Chemistry SAT on May 6th. He is taking AP Calc AB and AP Chemistry as a junior. 1. Should he try the ACT? He is not fast at reading comprehension. 2. Subject Chemistry: does studying for essay the AP Chemistry exam usually cover the subject Chem study material?
3. Does he need to carve out essays, time to study for the Math LvL II SAT or is the content similar to the math on the new SAT? 4. At what SAT score point (1500? 1530?) this June should he stop trying the SAT and hold with his score, his unweighted GPA is around a 3.9. Does taking the SAT repeatedly actually improve one’s score? Sorry for the delay. I hope things went well for your son! 1. Poet Essay! He should take a practice ACT — one released by ACT — under timed conditions.
I recommend that students base decisions off of scores rather than off rules of thumb — every student is different. If he ends up scoring in the mid-1500’s, I don’t think there is much of an admissions editing, advantage to taking the ACT. 2. Yes. Poet Essay! In general, the AP Chemistry test expects a deeper knowledge than the Chemistry Subject Test. They are different enough, though, that I encourage your son to take a practice test or two in the Subject Test format (it will only take him 1 hour per test and john essay identity a little time to review his errors). The Relationship Analysis questions are like nothing on the AP (or on any other Subject Test). 3. Math 2 is considerably more advanced than the poet essay math on the new SAT. Only in the most basic sense is SAT prep directly relevant to Math 2, I’m afraid. 4. The first part is not one that I can answer for your son.
After all, it’s your son — not me — who has to do the work. As you might imagine, the chance of going down increases with higher scores. Essay Question! It’s preparing for the test — not repetition alone — that will raise his score. Hello, I got a 1550 on the new SAT with a perfect 800 math, and essay a 7/8 on the essay. Would this be considered a strong enough score for admissions to schools like University of english on proverbs Pennsylvania or Harvard? Or should I consider retaking? You should not retake the test. Poet Essay! A higher score will not tip a decision. Make sure you have your Subject Test scores in place and focus on editing your applications (and grades, of course!). First, thank you for taking time reading my question.
My junior son’s new SAT score came out essay, yesterday, he scored perfect score in Math ( 800) and 670 in English, that made his New Sat score to 98 percentiles, he will focus on his 4 SAT subjects tests and admissions 2 AP tests in May and June 2017– he likes to be in Biology/ pre med or Medical fields in college and his dream school is Stanford Univ ( duh!)’ he plans to take 5 APs including AP Biology, BC Calculus AP Environmental Bio. Poet! He is also in school Math team, outdoor track Varsity team, indoor track Varsity team and the president/ founder of school badminton clubs, National Honor Society member– he competed in teaching paper State indoor track, outdoor track, Math and History in essay sophomore and junior year as well. In Theology! He also taking Bio Medicine in the society college and essay scored A+ last summer. Do you think he needs to take another SAT test or ACT test? He says he doesn’t need to take any ACT but I’m not sure about essays on proverbs this, also, could you suggests us if there’s anything he needs to do to poet, let the colleges he plans to imply feel ” impressed”? Thank you so much!! Your son has a great “resume,” and I’d hate to see test scores hold him back. His 670 is weak for colleges at english his dream level, so I would recommend retaking the SAT or, at poet minimum, taking a practice ACT and seeing how he performs. Stanford Question! I’m not a college counselor, so I don’t feel qualified to poet, handle the “impressed” part of multicultural research your question. My son has a new SAT score of essay 1560 and he is 99% percentile as per in theology of culture, SAT.
He has all AP subkects and he has B+ in all. Also he is involved in extensive music program throughout his High school. He is in Marching Band as a section leader and poet also part of essays of culture School Jazz Band which he travels around the world and in different states for competition. His goal yp get into UPENN Brown or Johns Hopkins school. What are his chance and what he can do to get scholarships from IVY league schools. Poet! Your reply is appreciated. While I feel qualified to address test scores, I don’t feel qualified to admissions editing, address chances for admission — there are simply too many factors involved. Ivy League schools do not offer academic scholarships.
Instead, they base financial aid on financial need. Other competitive colleges do have merit-based aid, so the Ivy League should not be used as a general rule. This may have already been addressed and I overlooked it. I am wondering about how SAT scores are read. If a student takes the poet essay test ore than once, do schools look at stanford question the highest subject on each to create a compiled score or do they just take the poet essay highest total text score? Combining the highest section scores to make a new total score is referred to colloquially as “superscoring.” Most colleges now superscore, but there are notable exceptions. We have another post that provides the superscoring policies of the Compass 360. I am a 11th Grade international student applying for university in the fall.
My dream school is Stanford, to study economics/civil engineering. I got a score of 1550 (M800+English750) on the New SAT last year. Should I take the Subject Tests? You need to free college, consider how well you might perform (practice tests are available). As an essay, international student, you face intense competition at one of the essay most competitive colleges in the country.
Subject Tests can help you demonstrate your academic achievements. On the other hand, weak Subject Test scores will not help strengthen your “testing portfolio.” If you can get in the 750-800 range, I would recommend Subject Tests. Stanford, by the way, makes an exception to its “all test scores” requirement for Subject Tests, so you can always keep your scores to poet, yourself. I am a high school sophomore looking to get into highly selective schools such as UChicago, Northwestern, WashU in St. Louis, etc.
Freshman year I got a 1240 on the PSAT, and a 27 on the ACT. This year I got a 1320 and essays a 32. I’m fairly certain I will be able raise my scores again next year. Do you think where I’m at with my test scores gives me a shot at being accepted? Also do you think it is worthwhile for me to essay, take subject tests, I would probably do math and chemistry.
It sounds like you are on the right path. As you can see from the score ranges, the schools you are looking at have extremely high 25th-75th percentile ranges. You’ll want to get into the 34-36 range to feel comfortable about your score. Keep in mind that an ACT score should be viewed more as a “ticket to play” rather than as something that will get you admitted. It’s difficult, in other words, to teaching, be accepted with a low score, but a high score is no guarantee of success — so many other factors are involved. Subject Tests are useful if you do very well on them. Essay! The good news is that College Board just released 2 new chemistry tests (available in essay bookstores) and will be releasing new math tests in the fall. This means that you can see how you would do on essay actual exams. Essays! I would not recommend taking them unless you are applying to a Subject Tests Required college and essay can achieve at least a 700+ (750+ is ideal). My rising senior son new SAT is 1360 (Math 670, and EBRW 690). his lowest grade is 93 in high school, and his GPA is 3.97-4.12.
He has taken 6 APs and will take another 5 AP in senior year. Admissions Essay! His dream college is Georgia institute of Technology. we are GA residents. Do you think he need improve his SAT further, particularly Math score? I’m not equipped to gauge your son’s chances at poet essay GaTech overall, but I’ll give you some data points to consider. For the class of 2017 (college class of 2021), GaTech announced that the essays in theology of culture average SAT score for accepted students was 1458. Acceptance rates for GA residents run twice that of non-residents, but the school does not breakout the characteristics of each group (at least not that I found).
GaTech also said that admitted students averaged 10.6 college level courses. It’s interesting how close your son’s 11 APs would be to this average. Your son’s 1360 is toward the low end of scores for enrolled students, which indicates that he’d likely benefit from poet essay a higher score. I want to study in USA. Do I have to give only SAT 1 to get admission in john identity university or SAT Subject is required too? Pleasse sir help me.
I am a bit nervous about it. I want to be an engineer. I have no SAT Scores yet. My test is next month. I hope to get more than 1200 marks. Are these scores enough? Some people say that besides SAT 1 and SAT Subject I have to participate in TOEFL too. Is it correct? I’m afraid that full answers to your questions are far too complex to deal with here. Most colleges do not require Subject Tests for U.S. students, but a greater number expect them from international students, because colleges are less likely to poet, be familiar with an applicant’s academic training. You’ll need to visit each college’s website to free college, see details for international applicants, as we have not compiled that information.
You can use the numbers on this page to essay, understand how competitive your SAT scores are. You’ll want to question, examine schools where your scores put you into poet essay the 25th to 75th percentile of enrolled students. Requirements for TOEFL will also vary. If your schooling has been in English, you may be able to multicultural, skip the essay TOEFL. Of Culture! Students studying in a language other than English should plan on poet taking TOEFL.
Again, your best bet is to check with the individual colleges. Good luck. Superscoring ACT and SAT and Score Choice. 2017 Compass Education Group. SAT, PSAT, ACT, ISEE, SSAT, HSPT and AP are registered trademarks not owned by Compass Education Group.
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100 Must-Read Books: The Essential Man#8217;s Library. Written by: Jason Lankow, Ross Crooks, Joshua Ritchie, and Brett McKay. There are the poet essay books you read, and then there are the books that change your life. We can all look back on the books that have shaped our perspective on admissions politics, religion, money, and love. Some will even become a source of inspiration for the rest of your life. From a seemingly infinite list of books of anecdotal or literal merit, we have narrowed down the top 100 books that have shaped the lives of individual men while also helping define broader cultural ideas of what it means to be a man. Whether it be a book on adventure, war, or manners, there is so much to learn about life#8217;s great questions from these gems. Let us know in the comments which of these you loved, hated, and the books that meant a lot to you and should have made the list (you can even get really indignant about your favorite book). Essay. And without further ado, this is our list. Essay Identity. To see a list of poet just the titles and authors names for admissions editing easy printing, click here.
Set on the East Coast in essay the roaring #8217;20s, this American novel is a classic. From it we learn that often the wanting of something is essays in theology better than actually having it. It is relevant to every man#8217;s life. Poet. Furthermore, one true friend is worth infinitely more than a multitude of acquaintances. #8220;He smiled understandingly #8212; much more than understandingly. It was one of those rare smiles… It faced #8212; or seemed to face #8212; the whole external world for an instant, and then concentrated on you with an irresistible prejudice in your favor.#8221; Considered by most to be the authoritative text on statesmanship and power (how to obtain it as well as an illustration of its trappings), although certainly a shrewd one. #8220;From this arises an stanford, argument: whether it is better to be loved than feared. I reply that one should like to be both one and the other; but since it is difficult to join them together, it is much safer to be feared than to be loved when one of the two must be lacking.#8221; Essentially, Machiavelli advocates letting your people have their property and women, but making sure that they know what you are capable of doing if they step out of line. Through the beloved Billy Pilgrim, we see the central themes of Vonnegut#8217;s humanism along with his satirical take on how disgusting it is when humans don#8217;t use their (limited) free will to prevent simple atrocities. A great example of how we use humor to deal with hardship, and the conflict between the poet essay way heroism is conveyed through stories for john locke essay identity actions in situations that perhaps could have been avoided altogether. #8220;So then I understood. It was war that made her so angry. Essay. She didn#8217;t want her babies or anybody else#8217;s babies killed in wars. And she thought wars were partly encouraged by books and locke essay movies.#8221; If you are already worried about the information that your computer is poet collecting from you, re-read this one and you will feel much better!
Or, perhaps, you will throw your computer in a river. This is the classic text for the will of the individual to maintain his privacy and free will, and how easy it is at the end of it all to stanford essay question just try to blend in and go with the flow to avoid making things even worse by essay, speaking out. #8220;But it was all right, everything was all right, the struggle was finished. He had won the victory over himself. He loved Big Brother.#8221; Since every man can use a fair portion of philosophy in his literary diet, the origin of legitimate western thought might be a good place to start. Plato#8217;s most well known work breaks down topics of which you should have a fundamental understanding such as government, justice, and political theory. The final work of Dostoevsky (commonly accepted English spelling of the locke essay name) has a lot of meat to chew on#8230;it strikes at the core of who we are and essay what drives us. Ultimately, for all of our strength and wisdom as individuals, we are often frustrated by our failures to do what we know we must do (or at least think we should do) and need the power of john locke essay on personal forgiveness in our lives. Poet. Many important thinkers consider this to be one of (if not the most) important masterpiece of literature, including Sigmund Freud and Franz Kafka (who did not think quite alike, to say the least). #8220;So long as man remains free he strives for nothing so incessantly and so painfully as to find some one to in theology worship.#8221; Holden Caufield, if nothing else, should serve as a point of poet reference for the angst and cynicism that you perhaps once had, or ideally never had. If you thought like him when you were 16 or 17 years old, you are forgiven. If you still identify with him, you need to find some more joy, somehow#8230;fake it #8217;til you make it.
Do something. The fundamental work on free market policies: #8220;It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to john locke on personal their own self interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and poet never talk to them of our own necessities but of locke essay their advantages.#8221; Want an education in economics? This book is a great start. Set in the Spanish Civil War, this novel explores who man becomes when faced with the prospect of his own death.
It is worthwhile for all of us to consider what we would give our lives for, as this defines what and who we truly love. This is one of the great examples of how war has shaped men, past and present, and has in part defined the poet essay image of admissions essay editing a true hero who is courageous even when it has brutal consequences. #8220;You learned the dry-mouthed, fear-purged purging ecstasy of battle and poet essay you fought that summer and essay question that fall for all the essay poor in college essays the world against all tyranny, for all the things you believed in essay and for the new world you had been educated into.#8221; Arguably the best work from the ever-quotable Wilde, this novel is a guide for how to live a life of pure decadence. It is paper packed with impeccable wit, clever one-liners, and an excessive amount of egotistical vanity. At the very least, this book will show you the essay glory and the pitfalls of being the best looking chap around. One of the most controversial books of locke essay its time, the poet essay Joads are #8220;Okies#8221; who head west to stanford essay the fertile valleys of poet essay California during the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s. Because of the social solutions that the book proposed, and its depiction of john identity work camp conditions, some groups attacked the novel as communist propaganda. However, it was widely read as a result of the poet essay national attention, and is a classic example of a man doing what he had to do for his family and persevering through all plights and multicultural research paper conditions.
#8220;Fear the time when the strikes stop while the great owners live for every little beaten strike is proof that the step is being taken…fear the time when Manself will not suffer and die for a concept, for this one quality is the foundation of Manself, and this one quality is essay man, distinctive in the universe.#8221; With a revolutionary and controversial view of the future, Huxley#8217;s satiric take on the #8220;utopia#8221; of tomorrow has provoked reader#8217;s thoughts for free decades. Depictions of genetically enhanced embryos predisposed to a specific social class cast warning signs for technological interference with human life. Poet. This is not a Dr. Phil self-help book. Citing intimate examples from the likes of Rockefeller, Charles Schwab, and FDR, this comprehensive guide is all about how to get ahead in on proverbs business, relationships, and life. Read one chapter a day for the rest of poet essay your life. It will make you a far better man than you would ever be without it. The tale of a domesticated dog forced to adapt to a life of work in Alaska during the teaching research paper Yukon gold rush. Most of essay us can recall rooting for john Buck in the ferocious battle to be the leader of the poet essay pack. Make sure that you embrace the admissions essay benefits of poet essay competition to push yourself to become better in your work, but do it without biting and/or killing co-workers. #8220;#8230;men, groping in the Arctic darkness, had found a yellow metal#8230;These men wanted dogs, and question the dogs they wanted were heavy dogs, with strong muscles by which to toil, and furry coats to protect them from the frost.#8221; The Rise of poet Theodore Roosevelt shows what made Theodore Roosevelt the great man he was.
Reading this book will inspire you to identity get off the couch and start moving in your life. Harvard graduate, New York Assemblyman, rancher, historian, author of several books, New York City Police Commissioner, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Governor of New York, and commanding officer of the Rough Riders are all titles that TR had before he became president at 42. Every boy can stand to poet learn a bit of old fashioned resourcefulness from their pops. Finding yourself on a deserted island is surely the way to learn these skills in a hurry. Tree forts, treasure hunting, and in theology constant adventure mark the poet essay Swiss Family#8217;s 10-year run. Lesson number one? Shipwrecks make for some good literature. An idealistic vision from the man who fueled the Beat Generation, a life on the road without concern for free wealth or even stability, rather an enjoyment of surroundings, whatever they may be. This is a great book for reminding us to get away from technology, at least for poet a day, to appreciate nature and some of the stanford essay question more simple pleasures of poet essay life. Don#8217;t feel inferior to the beatniks if you still like driving your car#8230;don#8217;t ever let hipsters give you guilt trips. #8220;I felt like lying down by the side of the stanford essay question trail and remembering it all. The woods do that to you, they always look familiar, long lost, like the face of poet a long-dead relative, like an english essays, old dream#8230;#8221;
(2-for-1 special) Though the authorship is disputed, the place of these two epics in the man canon is not. Roughly based around the events of the Trojan War, these poems are likely a great collection of common Greek folklore surrounding the events in those days of essay fierce political turmoil. It is rumored that there were 10 epics in all, and 8 were lost over multicultural teaching research, time. This may be a blessing in disguise, because, if they were around, you would never get to poet the rest of teaching this list. The logic here is simple: any book which has the influence to have coined terminology commonly used in our society for decades on end should be perused based solely on principle. Nothing is essay worse than a man being caught using language of stanford which he is unfamiliar with its proper meaning or origin. Also, it is a great book. Poet Essay. A bit of isolation never hurt any man. Thoreau spent two years, two months and two days writing this book in Walden, a cabin tucked deep in the woods near Concord, Massachusetts. This work of non-fiction describes the changing of the seasons over essay, the course of a year and was intended to give the author an escape from society in order to achieve a more objective point of poet essay view.
A real man would take this sabbatical himself, but the question book should suffice for those of you who are employed. Primal instincts. With only the most basic of needs to consider, human nature takes a different approach. A fictional study of the struggle for power and the unspeakable things that man (or child) will do when taken outside the order of civilization. There is nothing more manly than a bout with the Devil. An entertaining commentary on the atheistic social bureaucracy in Moscow in the 1930s wherein Lucifer himself pays the town a visit to poet essay make light of their skepticism regarding the spiritual realm. #8220;As a result he decided to admissions essay abandon the main thoroughfares and make his way through the side streets and essay back alleys where people were less nosy, and there was less chance that a barefoot man would be pestered about long johns that stubbornly refused to look like trousers.#8221; Written as the autobiography of Rabo Karabekian, of course with Vonnegut#8217;s own war experiences drawn upon as inspiration to the aging artist who narrates his own story. It is a hilarious take on abstract art, and takes jabs at both the inflated self-importance of the artist and the people who simply refuse to look beneath the surface. #8220;My soul knows my meat is doing bad things, and is embarrassed. But my meat just keeps right on doing bad, dumb things.#8221; Exploring the #8220;virtue#8221; of living for ourselves, this monster of a book (1,084 pages in my version) is certainly worth plowing through as it is simply a great story.
The fundamental concept is that our world falls apart when individuals stop seeking their own satisfaction through personal achievement and feel a sense of entitlement to the accomplishments and work of others. Essay. This book challenges us on many levels#8230;you may find it conflicting with your value of other people, her treatment of poet essay God, or any other beliefs you already hold. Yet, who can argue with, #8220;The most depraved type of human being #8230; (is) the man without a purpose.#8221; As Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams he found himself transformed in his bed into a monstrous vermin. None of us want this to editing happen. Well, most of us don#8217;t. Kafka employed terms from poet, law and free politics, and was always concerned about some vague, oppressive bureaucracy that sought his ruin, though seeming cool and essay detached. We can take something from the very approach of Kafka to his work and find a balance between reading too much meaning into essays, an event and, on the contrary, caring too little and essay being completely disillusioned. Just like The Da Vinci Code, but on hallucinogenic mushrooms#8230;and written 30 years prior. A psychedelic story of free college a wandering musical troupe that settle down to open #8220;Captain Kendrick#8217;s Memorial Hot Dog Wildlife Preserve,#8221; and somehow get mixed up with the essay Vatican.
The motto: #8220;The principal difference between an adventurer and a suicide is that the adventurer leaves himself a margin of escape (the narrower the margin, the greater the adventure).#8221; This National Book Award winner was more right on in 1985 than Delillo could have possibly known. English Essays On Proverbs. The drug Dylar is the essay supposed answer to man#8217;s fear of death, yet causes users to lose their minds. This is an stanford essay, extremely enjoyable read, particularly relevant and funny in its examination of how people act in a climate of fear (hello Homeland Security) and under a #8220;hail of bullets#8221; from advertisers and imaginary enemies alike. The lesson: secretly hold out for the wonder drug and/or fountain of youth, but live each day like it might be your last#8230;in a good way#8230;and still show up to essay work unless you really, really know it is your last day on question earth. Just buy it and put it on essay your bookshelf and remember this from the book: #8220;A man of genius makes no mistakes.
His errors are volitional and are the portals of discovery.#8221; We suspect that even those who have written their doctoral thesis on the book only pretend to have read every word, but a good friend of mine said not to essay on personal question an academic on things of this nature, so if you encounter someone who has built a career around Joyce, don#8217;t ask if they actually read it. The Young Man#8217;s Guide is poet essay a thorough resource which deals with the formation of character in a young man with regard to the mind, manners, and morals. It also has a good amount of insight on the topics of marriage and business. A strong foundational book for a young man asking the practical questions of how to essays on proverbs live life while minimizing both terrible temporal mistakes and, well…the wrath of God. As is stated in poet essay the introduction, it is admissions essay editing Alcott#8217;s intention to influence young men such that they contradict the stereotypes of thoughtlessness, rashness and an unwillingness to poet essay be advised or taught. Alcott was prescient in writing this book and would probably roll over in his grave if he saw the modern race of man-babies that play X-Box for 20 hours each week and are perpetually bartending their way through junior college.
This Western novel written in 1985 is not only considered to of culture be McCarthy#8217;s personal masterpiece, but also one of the greatest books of the 20th century. As the title suggests, the story is marked by extreme violence and contains many religious references. Isn#8217;t that what the history of man is all about? Through a collection of poet short stories that take you from a Bikers for Jesus convention to the 13-year-olds with semi-automatic machine guns in Liberia, Johnson uses rich prose to examine the role of teaching research paper a man as a potted plant, observing his surroundings and soaking it up. In this story, horrific violence in seeming other worlds contrasts with the comparatively safe process of self-discovery in different U.S. subcultures. This will absolutely open your eyes to poet essay the simultaneous beauty and horror of our world, and remarkably, he does it without sounding condescending, jaded and of culture bitter#8230;he is just there, and you will absolutely see everything that he sees. #8220;In the Ogaden, life comes hard, but these have won through yet another day, unlike all the others they#8217;ve lost to sickness, famine, massacres, battles.
The villagers sit close together, everyone touching someone else, steeped in a contentment that seems, at this moment, perpetual. It occurs to essay the writer that the secret way to happiness is in knowing a lot of dead people.#8221; One of the most amazing aspects of this masterpiece is that it was written by Dostoevsky as part of his resolve to deal with some serious financial hardships. The lesson isn#8217;t to quit your job and write that novel you#8217;ve been meaning to write#8230;but many of us can relate to that sense of personal ambition and pride in the face of fear and financial stress. Again, take the moral lessons from the characters#8217; mistakes, don#8217;t model your life after them. #8220;#8216;Oh God, how loathsome it all is! and can I, can I possibly….No, it#8217;s nonsense, it#8217;s rubbish!#8217; he added resolutely. #8216;And how could such an atrocious thing come into my head? What filthy things my heart is capable of.'#8221; #8230;Ah, the classic moral dilemma arising from something as simple as a justified murder. The mysterious drifter is multicultural teaching research always an intriguing protagonist. One of Hesse#8217;s best known works, Steppenwolf gained much popularity through the Beat and hippy genenerations of the poet 50s and question 60s which related to his common theme of search for poet spirituality outside the boundaries of society. An example of what we can learn about being better men from the multicultural perspective of a woman (de Pizan pictured above, instructing her son).
She wrote this classic in poet the 15th Century, a time period not known as the free essays peak of poet essay gender equality. Of course, we can project this into our work and not use the text as the of culture foundation to build a neighborhood militia group. Essay. #8220;No one is afraid to do what he is essays in theology of culture confident of having learned well. A small force which is highly trained in the conflicts of war is more apt to victory: a raw and untrained horde is always exposed to slaughter.#8221; Written in poet the 6th Century, this has been one of the most influential texts in strategy and planning, especially emphasizing an ability to essays on proverbs adapt to changing circumstances and environments rather than having a rigid plan and staying the poet essay course through to disaster. #8220;So it is said that if you know your enemies and know yourself, you will fight without danger in battles. If you only know yourself, but not your opponent, you may win or may lose. If you know neither yourself nor your enemy, you will always endanger yourself.#8221; Considered by many to be the greatest work of fiction, it is multicultural teaching research paper a goldmine of essay quotes surrounding a central theme that could be summed up by #8220;all that glisters is not gold.#8221; This is also a great reminder that it is great to be a dreamer and a visionary, but remember to keep (at least somewhat) grounded in reality. #8220;I would do what I pleased, and doing what I pleased, I should have my will, and having my will, I should be contented; and when one is essay question contented, there is no more to be desired; and when there is no more to be desired, there is an poet, end of admissions essay it.#8221; This one is tough, because you want it but you don#8217;t#8230;but a wise friend once said, upon being flattered for his world travels, #8220;Yeah, well you go to all these places always knowing that one day you will come back to somewhere.#8221; We all have friends who are, or some of us may be personally, drifters, soaking up each place like a sponge, and then leaving for the next whistlestop.
It is the classic battle between stability/same vs. mobility/change. In the end, the self-centered opting out of human interaction might not be quite as romantic as you hoped. All good things in poet proportion dear friends. His realization (#8220;Happiness Only Real When Shared#8221;) is the great counter-balance to that primitive urge to walk alone into essay, the wild. Or at essay, least think about the teaching research fact that snow melts, and rivers get higher.
This epic vision of afterlife is valuable because it challenges us to examine the roots of what we believe and why, and the role of faith in our lives. Further, it is a vision of a world (or worlds) beyond our every day concerns, which is particularly fascinating because it was very much influenced by poet essay, both Muslim and Catholic thoughts, beliefs and history. The precursor to the Lord of the Rings trilogy, this is a good one to read (or re-read) in advance of the recent movie adaptation which is being directed by Guillermo del Toro ( Pan#8217;s Labyrinth ). This is the foundation of it all, and this passage demonstrates the effect on all men (and dwarves) when faced with the prospect of power. #8220;Their mere fleeting glimpses of treasure which they had caught as they went along had rekindled all the fire of their dwarfish hearts; and when the essays heart of a dwarf, even the most respectable, is wakened by gold and by poet essay, jewels, he grows suddenly bold, and he may become fierce.#8221; Roosevelt#8217;s own account of his experience commanding the Rough Riders in the Spanish-American War. A great war history from a man who lived it himself. From his account, a man can learn what it means to be a true leader. TR set the example for his men and they followed because they simply respected him. Considered by Steinbeck himself to be the free essays work that he had been preparing for throughout his entire life.
If you have had the chance to read this, or if anyone has ever talked about this book to you#8230;perhaps you have been graced to poet read or even hear an essays of culture, excerpt from the legendary opening to Chapter 13: Sometimes a kind of glory lights up the mind of a man. It happens to nearly everyone. You can feel it growing or preparing like a fuse burning toward dynamite[#8230;]Then a man pours outward, a torrent of him, and yet he is not diminished. And I guess a man#8217;s importance in essay the world can be measured by the quality and number of his glories. It is a lonely thing but it relates us to the world. It is the mother of all creativeness, and it sets each man separate from all other men. Written during the English Civil War, Hobbes#8217; work is one of the foremost authorities in essays in theology political theory and contributed greatly to Enlightenment philosophy. Leviathan#8217;s primary concern is the centralized power of the sovereign state existing to maintain order and peace both within and essay without. A valuable resource, as a man never knows when he is research going to be commissioned with the poet essay task of forming a new government. #8220;In the first place, I put for essay a general inclination of all mankind, a perpetual and restless desire of power after power, that ceaseth only in death.#8221; The author#8217;s fictional depiction of the Guadalcanal Campaign during WWII. Portraying various wartime activities most would consider repulsive, Jones gives account without judgment.
With the current events of Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo Bay, this work is very relevant today. A satirical depiction of the social climate in essay the South just before the turn of the century, #8220; Huck Finn #8221; is largely considered to be the first Great American Novel. Twain#8217;s take on essays on proverbs the issue of racism and poet essay slavery was initially criticized upon publication and remains largely controversial to this day. College. From the man that gave pointers to Alexander the Great we can all take note. His writings created the first comprehensive system of philosophy, including morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics, and metaphysics.
Though it is thought that much of Aristotle#8217;s work has been lost over the years, it is poet not a bad idea to take in the surviving words from one of the founding figures of Western Philosophy. #8220;Now if some men excelled others in admissions essay editing the same degree in which gods and heroes are supposed to excel mankind in general#8230; so that the superiority of the governors was undisputed and patent to their subjects, it would clearly be better that once for poet all the one class should rule and the others serve. But since this is unattainable, and kings have no marked superiority over their subjects#8230; it is obviously necessary on essays on proverbs many grounds that all the poet citizens alike should take their turn of governing and being governed.#8221; This is the book that started the question Boy Scout movement. Poet. If you#8217;re a former Boy Scout, you#8217;ll be amazed at the amount of useful information the first edition manual has compared to multicultural teaching paper Scout manuals today. In addition to teaching essential scouting skills, the first edition of the Boy Scout Handbook also includes stories of adventure and bravery that will excite and inspire any man. A poet, musician, and expert swordsman. That is a true Renaissance Man. Unfortunately, Cyrano had a tragically large nose which affected his confidence enough to keep him from professing his love for the fair Roxanne, even on his deathbed. I wasn#8217;t exaggerating when I used the word #8220;tragic.#8221; Also, one must respect the play responsible for introducing the word #8220;panache#8221; to essay the English language.
For its honest and graphic depiction of sex, this book was deemed #8220;pornographic#8221; by state courts upon college essays its New York publishing in 1961. This ruling, however, was later overturned by essay, the U.S. Supreme Court and admissions editing the book became very influential in poet the sexual revolution of the 60s and 70s. A fictional Civil War era romance between a New England lawyer and a southern belle, written by the #8220;American Churchill#8221; but often mistaken for the British Prime Minister who shared the same name. Out of respect for the American#8217;s work, the British Churchill offered to add his middle initial to any of his own published writings to avoid confusion. Taking place in World War II, this is widely considered to stanford be one of the poet best war novels ever written. As a young man, Mailer showed extraordinary insight into power relationships between the soldiers and their superiors. Further, the soldiers also deal with various degrees of compassion while fighting to maintain a belief in the capacity of free college humanity to be good while engaging in the brutality of war and being forced to follow orders against their ideals in some cases. Essay. A prime example of his superb insight into the workings of many systems and organizational structures, which is still relevant in essays of culture today#8217;s wars and corporations alike: #8220;To make an Army work you have to have every man in it fitted into a fear ladder#8230; The Army functions best when you#8217;re frightened of the man above you, and contemptuous of your subordinates.#8221; A classic from our youth, the main character (Brian) deals with his parents#8217; strained relationship by fleeing into the wilderness for a sort of accidental, self-inflicted rite of passage.
Perhaps the greatest pearl of wisdom comes early in the book, foreshadowing his quest for survival: #8220;All flying is easy. Just takes learning. Like everything else. Like everything else.#8221; An advanced politics lesson under the guise of poet essay a childish farm tale. The allegorical story representing Soviet totalitarianism simplifies social systems to locke essay identity show the endless corruption and manipulation that stems from the struggle for poet power. Also, it takes no small amount of courage to take jabs at Mr. Stalin himself. Gentleman?
No. Man? Most certainly. Having been raised by locke, apes gives our protagonist more than a leg up on the competition when it comes to survival skills. He was a pretty big hit with the ladies as well. Originally published in the All-Story Magazine in 1912, Tarzan of the Apes led to 23 sequels and poet many more depictions of the famous character in locke essay on personal identity various other forms of media. With his denunciation of philosophers before him as lacking critical thought and poet mindlessly adhering to Christian tenets, Nietzsche took philosophy beyond religion, thus founding the stanford Existentialist Movement.
Questioning even the most basic of poet truths, Nietzsche writes that #8220;from every point of view the essays erroneousness of the world in which we believe we live is the surest and firmest thing we can get our eyes on.#8221; Staging a complete overhaul of the philosophical landscape is beyond ambitious and worthy of your attention. No matter what your beliefs, it is good to examine why you believe what you believe without fear of what you might discover. Composed of 85 articles, The Federalist Papers served to essay explain and essays in theology of culture encourage ratification of the U.S. Constitution. The majority of the essays were penned by Hamilton and published in The Independent Journal and essay The New York Packet . It is rumored that Hamilton used up most of paper his wisdom in the writing process, as he later lost his life in poet essay a duel, which is essentially two men in close proximity firing bullets at each other without trying to get out of the way. If you ever find yourself on on proverbs a boat in essay search of essay editing a savage beast, and you encounter a boat that is looking for some of their missing friends that seem to have been attacked by that same whale that you are looking for, take a minute and think. Cost: Possibly your life. Benefit: You kill a big whale. AND you get some serious props. #8220;By this, he seemed to mean, not only that the most reliable and useful courage was that which arises from the fair estimation of the encountered peril, but that an essay, utterly fearless man is essays a far more dangerous comrade than a coward.#8221; Lay to rest all situational conundrums you encounter in daily life.
From hosting guests to appropriate behavior at social events, Post#8217;s pointers enable a gentleman to deal with any difficult scenario with confidence and poise. Before you get too excited about having your clone or some other cyborg cleaning your house and picking up the poet essay dry cleaning#8230;just remember that the cost of the convenience might be the life of your brother, your wife, your friend, and stanford question eventually when you track the rogue creature down, you will come really close to revenge but just get sick and die. And to top it off, somehow people will dress up as the beast and also feel sympathy towards him, because it wasn#8217;t even his fault that he was created. He just wanted to be loved by poet, his creator, and free college essays when he didn#8217;t get it, he went crazy. Just have kids and tell them to clean your house, and love them so that they don#8217;t act like the monster. The longest of Shakespeare#8217;s plays, it is a tragedy that has been remade repeatedly, and with good reason as it explores the depths of man#8217;s desire for revenge. Poet. 400 years after it was written, it is still powerful enough to make us root for Hamlet to college essays avenge his father#8217;s death, even as some superior morality might call for essay mercy. Paper. #8220;There#8217;s a divinity that shapes our ends, Rough-hew them how we will.#8221; What is poet essay a man#8217;s library without some literature on America#8217;s favorite pastime? Dubbed #8220;The finest American book on sports,#8221; The Boys of Summer is an account of the Brooklyn Dodgers leading up to their 1955 World Series victory. Kahn#8217;s depiction of some of the game#8217;s greatest legends like Gil Hodges and Duke Snyder is so inspiring to make a man desire another shot on the diamond. A classic coming-of-age story about two boys, set around the time of the Second World War. Dealing with one of the boy#8217;s jealousy of another, and the tragic accident resulting from it, the novel mourns and reflects on the specific moment when all innocence is lost.
After all, a boy cannot go on thinking life is essay about ice cream and tree forts forever. Written from the perspective of Lieutenant #8220;Tenente#8221; Frederic Henry it is a novel of epic manly proportions. As an American ambulance driver with the Italian army in essay WWI, Henry is research injured by a mortar and while in the infirmary falls in love with his British nurse, Catherine Barkley. After healing and having impregnated nurse Barkley, Henry returns to his unit, only to narrowly escape fratricide. Henry goes AWOL and he and his bird flee to neutral Switzerland where they live a peaceful existence until Barkley dies during childbirth.
In typical Hemingway fashion, he mourns her death by simply walking back to his hotel in the rain. Perhaps the most popular piece of 20th century #8220;existential#8221; literature. The Stranger addresses murder and remorse (or lack thereof), God and atheism, destiny and justice, and consequently, indifference. Camus#8217; anti-hero, Meursault is perhaps the ultimate man #8212; unable to cry at his own funeral, and poet one of the final lines of the novel reads, #8220;#8230; I had only to wish that there be a large crowd of spectators the day of my execution and that they greet me with cries of hate.#8221; Camus gets a special nod for his manliness for free essays being an active member in the French Resistance during WWII. Poet. And you probably thought no Frenchmen would be on this list. Robinson Crusoe deals with mastery and morality.
It addresses the ability of mankind to master his surroundings through hard work, and patience and essay faith, which eventually enable him to survive on an. unknown island and able to cope with the difficult terrain, less-than-friendly natives and basically every wicked trial that comes his way. The morality addressed in poet essay this book is the eponymous protagonist#8217;s rejection of his father#8217;s advice to locke on personal identity accept the happiness of the middle class life from which he was born. Against the wishes of his family, he runs off to sea to find adventure. It is not until Crusoe literally recreates a primitive approximation of that middle class life for himself on his island that he is freed. A story about the ill-fate of a poor pearl diver, Kino and his wife and infant. Poet. The Pearl starts with Kino#8217;s son Coyotito having been stung by a scorpion, and being as though they are so poor, Kino has to dive to find a pearl to sell in-order to pay for his son#8217;s medical attention. After finding the largest Pearl known to his region, word spreads and everyone is essays after his score. Eventually his son recovers naturally and the fate of the Pearl consumes the entire region, including Kino. Kino does all he can to poet essay protect his beloved family while fleeing north to sell the pearl for teaching a better life for them. Eventually, a bounty hunter#8217;s stray bullet kills his son, and upon realizing the misfortune this great treasure brought him Kino hurls it back into the sea.
A melancholy ending yes, an endorsement of socialism perhaps#8230;but as a reflection of what a man will do for his family, it is pretty spot-on. Poet. The stream of consciousness drifting (see the 120 foot long manuscript scroll above) has helped us experience that sacred institution of locke on personal just going , and using our own language to poet essay experience the rapid unfolding of a new town as a rich flash in a pan. Lucky for all of of culture us, he has saved us the trouble of essay popping Benzedrine for multicultural teaching paper 3 weeks and poet experiencing our own mad visions, and we can simply join his world without ferociously grinding our teeth (though Kerouac said it was made possible by coffee alone). If you haven#8217;t read it, get it now please. If you have, you know that you will never complain about a long drive again, whether alone or with the boys. Aside from the frilly shirts, I don#8217;t think there was anything more masculine than pirates up until Tom Selleck#8217;s birth. Stevenson#8217;s creation of college Treasure Island has forever changed our view of the pirate world. His secret maps marked with an #8216;X#8217; and hidden gold have enchanted readers for over a century. Essay. #8220;Here it is about gentlemen of fortune.
They lives rough, and they risk swinging, but they eat and drink like fighting-cocks, and when a cruise is done, why, it#8217;s hundreds of pounds instead of in theology hundreds of farthings in their pockets.#8221; First published in 1980, 11 years after the author#8217;s suicide, this New Orleans-based novel went on to win Toole the Pulitzer Prize in Fiction. A perfect comedy of errors centered around the character of poet Ignatius J. Reilly, a lazy and socially ignorant, but intelligent man who still lives with his mother at the age of essays of culture 30. Poet Essay. This book serves as a guide for what a man ought not to be, while providing sound entertainment all the while. Italian novelist and philosopher Umberto Eco first published this work in 1988, which tells the story of three friends who create their own historical conspiracy to entertain themselves. #8220;The Plan#8221; becomes more intelligent and complex, and they begin to make believers of others, and even themselves.
As they become wrapped up in a series of events beyond their control, the book displays the inherent credulity of college man. Getting lost in a #8220;Choose Your Own Adventure#8221; that becomes a reality is every grown boy#8217;s dream. In this unique odyssey, Theroux recounts his journey through Europe, the Middle East, India, and essay Southeast Asia on the continent#8217;s fabled trains #8212; the Orient Express, the Golden Arrow to Kuala Lumpur, the free college Mandalay Express and essay the Trans-Siberian Express. His well-documented and entertaining adventures have come to be considered a classic in the travel literature genre. This journal satisfies the vicarious traveler and inspires the adventurous man. Free. In this book Kierkegard creates a case study from the famous bible story (Genesis 22) from when Abraham is famously commanded by God to sacrifice his son Isaac. Kierkegaard uses the story as an poet essay, opportunity to question the philosophy of religion, the relationship between philosophy and religion, the nature of God and faith, faith#8217;s relationship with ethics and morality, and the difficulty of being authentically religious. It is manly to ask questions about the bigger things there is of culture more to life than sports. Essay. Undaunted Courage is a compelling account of the Lewis and Clark expedition through the Louisiana Territory.
The book is thoroughly researched and extremely well written. The bravery and courage of the explorers should inspire any man. John Milton#8217;s Paradise Lost is a timeless hard-to-read classic. Its imagery has shaped how the Western world views Christianity, sin, the fall, life, death, heaven, and hell. Unlike many of his predecessors, Milton concentrated on more humanist elements. Reading Milton might or might not change your view of God and man, but absorbing him will change your love of language. The words are vivid and powerful and beg to be read aloud. A man, no matter his class or situation, needs a healthy appreciation for the simple folk. The working class; the laborers compose the backbone of society. Steinbeck#8217;s Cannery Row depicts a cross-section of this community, located on a strip of sardine canneries, in the late Depression era.
This area has a life of its own, and is as much a character of the book as any of the admissions community members themselves. The novel not only paints a picture of a difficult time that has passed, but gives honest insight into the human condition that is essay timeless. #8220;Because he loved true things he tried to explain#8221; Written in 1890, the American Boys Handy Book is filled with different activities a boy can do during each season. Activities include kite making, how to make to make blow guns, and bird watching. This book is an excellent resource for dads who want to provide their sons entertainment that doesn#8217;t involve video games. This book details the author#8217;s fateful ascent up Mt. Everest in which eight other climbers were killed in a storm.
Perhaps the most inspiring story is that of one climber who was left for dead, but awakened 12 hours after being abandoned and hiked back to camp in sub-zero weather. John Identity. This man is an example to all men that when the will of survival is strong enough, a man can overcome any obstacle. The author wrote King Solomon#8217;s Mines specifically for boys. The story follows English explorers who penetrate the deepest part of poet essay Africa to find the treasure of King Solomon. Stanford Essay. A great book to read with your son at poet, bedtime. Essay Question. You#8217;ll both be entertained and instill in poet your son a sense of manly adventure. Our protagonist here, Myshkin, is an example of a selfless love, moving to marry a woman to save her from falling into the arms of Rogozhin, who represents darkness.
Remind any of you good ol#8217; boys of that girl in high school who kept running back to the man who didn#8217;t deserve her affections? Well, in this case, the girl runs back to Rogozhin, who, in spite of and perhaps because of his deep passion, rewarded her by#8230;killing her. Essays In Theology. Myshkin is considered the #8220;idiot#8221; because of his innocence and trust in the best of humanity as it could be, and in the end, his optimism and love for essay humanity are his undoing in the face of a dark, materialistic society. The lesson: don#8217;t marry a woman to save her from another man#8230;although, come to think of the end of Super Mario Bros#8230; You#8217;ve seen the movie, now read the book that inspired it. Locke On Personal. This book is an poet essay, American classic.
A River Runs Through It follows an essay question, older brother#8217;s attempt to save his talented brother from self destruction in one last fly fishing trip. Set in Montana#8217;s beautiful Blackfoot River country, the author fills the story with vivid descriptions of fishing and nature that engages the reader to ponder important life questions. From the story we learn that sometimes the essay people we love the most are the hardest to help. #8220;So it is#8230;that we can seldom help anybody. Either we don#8217;t know what part to give or maybe we don#8217;t like to give any part of ourselves.
Then, more often than not, the part that is needed is not wanted. And even more often, we do not have the part that is needed.#8221; The haphazard discovery of scientifically engineered half-human, half-animals on a remote island is an experience that has the potential to english put some hair on your chest. Living with the #8220;Beast Folk#8221; for a year then returning to life as normal in London proves to be exceedingly more difficult for the protagonist. Malcolm X is poet quite possibly one of the most controversial public figures from the Civil Rights Movement. His autobiography shows what a complex individual Malcolm X was. We see his transformation from ignorance and in theology of culture despair to knowledge and spiritual awakening. His emphasis on the principal of self-reliance and taking a stand for your rights resonates with every man. Essay. Nobody can give you freedom. Nobody can give you equality or justice or anything. If you#8217;re a man, you take it. On Proverbs. Theodore Rex is a biography of Teddy Roosevelt that covers his eight years as President.
From this book we learn what a man can do if they have unwavering determination. Essay. During his eight years as President of the United States, Roosevelt created the national parks system, saw the essays in theology of culture completion of the Panama Canal, and poet essay went after unethical trusts and monopolies. John Locke Essay. TR created the modern presidency. If only poet essay, we had more leaders like him. The ultimate tale of betrayal and revenge, and perhaps one of the best stories of all time.
Edmund Dantes, who shortly after being promoted to captain of his ship, and essays in theology just days before his marriage to his beloved fiance Mercedes, is brutally betrayed by those he trusts, arrested for poet treason and college consequently taken to a prison on an island off the French coast. The story goes on poet to tell of his life after escape from prison, his finding the greatest treasure in all the world, and admissions editing re-entering the society as a wealthy, educated and sophisticated Count. He plots his revenge, which he ultimately denies himself when forced to decide between it and his love for his Mercedes. Through this choice his justice is ultimately served. It is a great novel that you most likely won#8217;t be able to put down until you have it finished, even if you have already seen the movie. Poet Essay. A classic war novel that depicts how war can destroy a man. The book begins with young, idealistic German men, going of to fight in WWI believing their cause is just. After experiencing the horrors of trench warfare and shell shock these young men leave the war disillusioned and numb. #8220;I am young, I am twenty years old; yet I know nothing of life but despair, death, fear, and multicultural teaching paper fatuous superficiality cast over an abyss of sorrow. I see how peoples are set against one another, and in silence, unknowingly, foolishly, obediently, innocently slay one another.#8221; As boys, men often have romantic and idealized visions of war. The reality of war, though, is hard and brutal. In order to survive and poet essay thrive in war, a man must transform himself into something bigger.
The Red Badge of Courage follows a teenager#8217;s enlistment into essays, the Union Army during the Civil War. He enlists with dreams of glory, but soon those dreams are replaced with doubt and fear. In the end, the young protagonist digs deep and finds the courage and confidence he needs to be a successful soldier. #8220;They gazed about poet them with looks of uplifted pride, feeling new trust in the grim, always confident weapons in their hands. And they were men.#8221; If you wish to be a great man, you must learn from great men. One of the best ways to do that is through reading the biographies of great men. Free Essays. Plutarch#8217;s Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans lets us into the lives of poet essay some of english essays on proverbs histories greatest men.
From these writings we learn the importance that a man#8217;s character can have on influencing the world around him. His biography on poet essay Alexander the Great is especially inspiring. Essays In Theology Of Culture. A Strenuous Life is a collection of speeches and essays by Roosevelt on essay the importance of building the character of john locke on personal men and poet essay women in on personal identity order for the American Republic to succeed. From it we learn that eschewing the life of poet essay ease and luxury are necessary for a country to thrive. Despite being one of the most religious industrialized nations, America#8217;s religious literacy is horrible. On Personal Identity. If asked to name one of the Ten Commandments or one of essay Jesus#8217; apostles, many Americans wouldn#8217;t be able to do it. Admissions Essay Editing. The problem is half the books on these lists make Biblical references that must be known by the reader for them to understand the message of that book.
If a Western man desires to understand the culture that surrounds him, he needs to have a thorough understanding of the Book that has shaped that culture. In addition, the Bible is full of ancient counsel and advice that is applicable to today#8217;s man, whether you#8217;re a believer in God or not. #8220;When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man I put away childish things.#8221; I Corinthians 13:11. Lonesome Dove is essay quite possibly the greatest Western novel ever written. Essays. The story follows two-long time friends on a cattle drive from the Rio Grande to Montana. Along the way they encounter outlaws, Indians, and essay old flames. Be warned. This book is a best, but reading it is definitely worth it. After you read the book, make sure to watch the mini-series. There#8217;s nothing more manly than a good hard-boiled detective novel. The Maltese Falcon is filled with ambiguities in essays morality.
Sam Spade, the main character in the book is a hardened and cynical man. But underneath his rough exterior is a man with a sense of idealism. Is it possible to do good even if you#8217;re a bad person? It#8217;s a book that will entertain as well as make you think. #8220;When a man#8217;s partner is killed, he#8217;s supposed to do something about it. Essay. It doesn#8217;t make any difference what you thought of him.
He was your partner and on proverbs you#8217;re supposed to do something about it.#8221; The Long Goodbye is the poet last book in the Phillip Marlowe detective series. Like any good hard-boiled detective novel, this one is full of gangsters and beautiful femme fatales. Multicultural. In The Long Goodbye , Marlowe befriends a down-on-his law war veteran and helps him back on poet his feet. Little did Marlowe know that his relationship with this man would wind him up in essays trouble. Essay. This book makes for great weekend and locke on personal bed time reading.
Atticus Finch embodies all the traits that a noble man should have. Atticus teaches us to fight for essay what#8217;s, even when everyone else around you thinks you#8217;re wrong. He teaches his children to in theology never judge a man until you#8217;ve walked in their shoes; that we should recognize that people have both good and bad qualities, but focus on the good more. #8220;Courage is not a man with a gun in poet essay his hand. It#8217;s knowing you#8217;re licked before you begin but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what. You rarely win, but sometimes you do.#8221; This is a great book if you have a son. It#8217;s filled with activities and skills that all boys should know. Even if you don#8217;t have a son, you#8217;ll spend hours flipping through the pages reminiscing about summer days as a boy. College. You might also learn a few things, too. Subjects include the histories of poet famous battles and how to essays in theology make a bow and arrow. The Battle of poet Gettysburg was the turning point in the Civil War.
The Killer Angels recounts this great battle from the stanford question the men who played a key role in it. The author attempts to get in the minds of General Lee and Colonel Longstreet and poet decipher their thoughts and motivations leading up to the fateful battle. After reading this, you#8217;ll understand why many historians say the Civil War was the last romantic war ever fought. It shouldn#8217;t be a surprise that Ben Franklin#8217;s Autobiography is on the list. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin is considered by many historians to be America#8217;s first self-help book.
In edition to sharing his life#8217;s story, Franklin explains how a man can make himself a success. His story begins with Franklin as boy walking around barefoot and with rolls in his pocket and ends with him being a successful businessman, scientist, and statesman. #8220;Having emerged from the poverty and obscurity in which I was born and english essays bred, to poet essay a state of affluence and some degree of reputation in the world, and having gone so far through life with a considerable share of felicity, the conducing means I made use of, which with the blessing of God so well succeeded, my posterity may like to know, as they may find some of them suitable to their own situations, and free therefore fit to be imitated.#8221; If we don#8217;t learn from the past, we#8217;re doomed to repeat it. The Histories by Herodetus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. The Founding Fathers looked to Herodetus#8217; histories to learn from the poet essay mistakes that the ancient Greeks made with democracy. From the histories we get the identity best description of the Battle of Marathon. Despite being thousands of years old, many of the poet essay problems that ancient Greeks faced, we still face today. This book isn#8217;t about war itself, but rather the it#8217;s about the admissions essay editing life of a soldier in Hawaii before the bombing of Pearl Harbor. The main character, Private Robert E. Lee Prewitt is a non-conformist in a profession that demands conformity.
His rebelliousness slowly destroys him as the story progresses. The book takes a look at the effect military subculture can have a on essay a man. What makes American#8217;s American? According to Fredrick Jackson Turner, it was the existence of the frontier that shaped America. Identity. While Turner#8217;s thesis has been disputed, no one can deny the effect that the wide open frontier had on the American psyche. If you#8217;d like to understand a part of poet essay what made the American man, read this essay. Quite possibly the most widely read book on philosophy. The book is set as a cross-country motorcycle trip by a father and son. The book focuses on the importance of quality in a culture obsessed with quantity. Ralph Waldo Emerson is one of America#8217;s greatest philosophers. In his essay, Self Reliance , Emerson stressed the locke essay on personal identity importance of individualism and the importance of living by your conscious.
A man should not conform or live a life of false consistency.They should march to the beat of their own drummer. Poet. #8220;It is easy in the world to live after the world#8217;s opinion; it is easy in solitude after own own; but the multicultural paper great man is he who in the midst of the essay crowd keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude.#8221; To see a list of just the titles and in theology of culture authors names for easy printing, click here.
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Shakspeare or the Poet (Essay) | English Learners
essay on poet essay hybridity This article presents a critique of the notion of hybridity which has, in college essays, recent years, become increasingly popular within genre studies and has been applied chiefly, though not exclusively, to essay generic experimentation in contemporary literature. English. In this article I seek to essay show that the main reasons for this are that the concept conveniently fits the semantics of the field of genre studies which has largely been structured by genetic analogies, and admissions essay editing because its use within postcolonial studies to describe the allegedly subversive potential of ‘mixing’ has inspired many critics to apply the notion of ‘hybridity’ to literature which combines different genres in their fictional critique of essay, hegemonic discourses. Against this trend, I argue that the concept necessarily produces insufficient results and should be substituted for locke on personal identity, a more prolific alternative – generic blending. David Duff defines generic hybridization as “[t]he process by which two or more genres combine to form a new genre or subgenre; or by poet essay, which elements of two or more genres are combined in a single work” (“Key Concepts” xiv). At first glance, this explanation is both plausible and illuminating. Intuitively, the term ‘hybridization’ appears to capture quite neatly the forms of overt experimentation with genre conventions often considered characteristic of contemporary literature (Hassan 170) and college other art forms. There is frequent talk of the ‘blurring’ or even ‘dissolution’ of essay, genre boundaries (Hutcheon 9; Duff, “Introduction” 16). According to Ian Gregson, the allegedly ‘postmodern’ form of magic realism presents an example of john locke identity, a hybrid genre, because it “collides fairy tale with the poet essay, realist strategies of the english on proverbs, traditional European novel” (Gregson 75). Ansgar Nunning, on the other hand, speaks of a “proliferation of hybrid genres […]” ( Mapping the Field 282) which integrate factual material into fictional narratives, such as “the ‘New Journalism’ and the ‘nonfiction novels,’ ‘historiographic metafiction,’ ‘documentary fiction,’ a revisionist type of ‘postmodernist historical novel,’ ‘uchronian fantasy,’ ‘parahistorical novels,’ and ‘factifiction’” (ibid.). In medical terms, ‘hybridity’ has become such a common and accepted diagnosis with regard to contemporary literature that a closer examination of individual ‘patients’ more often than not only seeks to identify textual ‘symptoms’ but do not questioning the value and validity of the ‘condition’ itself.
Despite its popularity and ubiquity, however, ‘hybridity’ is essay, ultimately both inadequate for a fruitful interpretation of innovative uses of generic forms, and misleading as to the functions and effects of genre, for three reasons: 1) it harks back to english essays on proverbs a highly problematic discursive tradition; 2) the conjunctional and homogenizing logic underlying the concept is inherently flawed; and 3) it continues to describe genre in terms of text-intrinsic features rather than with regard to the cognitive processes involved in, and effects produced by, different forms of genre usage. Essay. At first sight, the discussion surrounding the validity of ‘hybridity’ to describe genres may appear as theoretical nitpicking. However, I contend that the john locke essay on personal identity, fixation on poet this conception not only detracts critics from the many different facets of generic experimentation in contemporary literature, but is also misleading in terms of the true political potential of installing and subverting specific genre conventions. What is at stake in this debate is therefore nothing less than an adequate understanding of the significance of genre (not only) in contemporary literature. The proliferation of the notion of hybridity within genre studies is, first and foremost, a token of the lingering influence of a biological conception of literary genres.
That genres present cultural constructs rather than organic entities in Ferdinand Brunetiere’s sense is universally acknowledged nowadays and, as a result, the essays of culture, biological species paradigm is rarely drawn on explicitly within genre criticism today. Nevertheless, its semantics – the poet, notion of the individual text ‘belonging’ to a specific class, the idea of a uni-directional development, or ‘evolution’ of that class, the concept of ‘kinship’ between certain texts and classes of texts – has become so naturalized that it still continues to structure our thinking about genres. Stanford Essay. This becomes manifest, for essay, example, in the recent popularity of the of culture, notion of ‘family resemblance’ in genre studies. With regard to genre, the poet, analogy is used to describe the way in which texts grouped together under a generic label relate to one another, each genre presenting a ‘family’ and college the texts associated with the poet, same as the ‘family members.’ Its popularity can in free, parts be attributed to the appealing openness of this concept (Fishelov, Metaphors 54), as its fuzziness at poet first glance seems to provide a felicitous analogy to the relationship between different texts subsumed under a genre. However, the adoption of this metaphor from the field of language philosophy to that of genre theory can partly be attributed to another, often overlooked, factor: the family presents another schema that is nowadays conceived mostly in terms of genetics; it shares many semantic features with the biological species analogy and english essays on proverbs therefore lends itself easily to an application to literary genres. Essay. Genetic conceptions of genre always face the problem that in literature there is no underlying code that can be analyzed with the help of scientific methods. Biological relations are unequivocal (the underlying source for all phenotypic resemblance within a family is genetic makeup), whereas genre membership is not. The concept of ‘hybridity’ deriving from admissions editing, genetics, its application to poet essay literary genres is riddled with such inconsistencies. Despite the prevalent view that the notion can serve to multicultural undermine or even explode traditional categories and taxonomies, it remains inextricably caught up in their essentialist logic, as becomes clear if we consider the application of the term in essay, biology. According to Amar Acheraiou, Charles Darwin was the first to use the term in its modern sense in his experiments with cross-fertilization in plants: “The concept of ‘hybridity’ then had a purely biological dimension and suggested fixed essence” (88). The underlying genetic logic implies maybe not classificatory unequivocality (after all, borderline cases and mutations are part and parcel of the evolutionary paradigm), but certainly unequivocality of development and principal exclusivity of the categories: the liger may be impossible to john identity categorize as either lion or tiger, but this does not render the distinction between the two species problematic or obsolete. Essay. Because its parentage (and therefore its genetic makeup) is quite clear, it can be integrated into the existing taxonomical system, allocating it a place between the two parental species.
Far from problematizing the integrity of the college, classification system, hybrids can serve to measure the poet, genetic distance between, and multicultural teaching paper compatibility of, two species and thus ultimately illustrate the principles of common descent and progressive diversification that underlie the notion of evolution. Distinctness thus presents a necessary prerequisite for hybridization. Ideas of distinctness and compatibility consequently also structure conceptions of literary hybridity. Thus, both Christin Galster (15) and Klaudia Seibel (137) stress the distinctness and heterogeneity of the literary classes as a precondition for the formation of hybrids at the outset of their studies on literary hybrids. According to Julia Ernst’s definition, the term ‘hybrid genres’ denotes literary forms that unite characteristics of different genres and poet can therefore not only not be adequately described with the college, genre designations used in essay, the Western poetic tradition, but also explode conventional genre typologies (267). However, unlike biological species, which are classified on the principle of essays, descent, generic attribution occurs on the basis of vastly disparate and incommensurable criteria: “[g]enres can be defined socially, historically, functionally, authorially, politically, stylistically, arbitrarily, idiosyncratically, or by a combination of any of these” (Stockwell 28). Generic equivocality is a logical consequence of the unsystematicity of generic labeling. With regard to the notion of hybridity, this disparateness of criteria presents significant conceptual difficulties, because it means that generic categories are by no means mutually exclusive or distinct. While the genre designation ‘short story’ is understood mainly in terms of certain formal and narrative conventions (e.g. length, focalization, abrupt beginning and poet ‘open ending’), ‘ghost story’ refers to a specific theme, usually complemented by a high level of indeterminacy (e.g. unreliable narration, discrepancy of awareness between reader and narrator, rising tension).
Evidently, there is no clear boundary between these two genres that can blur or be violated. As none of the key characteristics that play a role in english essays on proverbs, the attribution of a text to the genres ‘short story’ and ‘ghost story’ are in direct opposition to one another, it is not hard to essay imagine a text that fits into our conception of both genres. Saying that such a combination constitutes a hybrid is like saying that a motorbike is a hybrid because it combines the notion of ‘bike’ with that of a motorized vehicle, or that a house cat is a hybrid because it can be classified both as a predator and as a pet. Due to this incommensurability of criteria texts can always be attributed to more than one genre, according to which features are foregrounded: “how texts are grouped depends on which features the english on proverbs, classifier has selected to observe – common prosody, organization, tone, aim, or effect on the reader, for example” (Devitt 7). Thus, Robinson Crusoe can variously be labelled as a) an ‘Erziehungsroman’, as it portrays the development of a young man rebelling against social and familial constraints into the epitome of a self-made man; b) a ‘utopia’, if one comprehends the work first and poet essay foremost in terms of social critique and Robinson’s insular society as a Puritan alternative to England; c) a ‘picaresque’, if one focuses on the “strange surprising adventures” promised in free, the title and poet the protagonist’s cunning; d) as a ‘myth’, if one considers the work in terms of free essays, its socio-historical significance, as the exemplification of “characteristic aspirations of Western man” (Watt 95); e) as the prototypical ‘robinsonade’ (Broich 58), for which setting, character constellation and poet essay the motif of the struggle against college, nature are central; f) or simply as a novel. Does the circumstance that the text uses characteristics of various genres make Robinson Crusoe a generic hybrid?
I argue that it does not, but Galster indeed believes that hybridity and hybridization can be found within all historical eras and genres (16) and essay consequently analyzes novels from Defoe to Wilkie Collins as examples for hybrid novels. This already indicates the limited heuristic value of the concept of hybridity – which texts, then, do not fall under the category ‘hybrid’? Here, Seibel proposes an interesting solution by free essays, drawing on Marie-Laure Ryan’s taxonomy of generic worlds (Ryan 34), which distinguishes genres in terms of specific accessibility relations. Ryan defines (often obscure) genres such as ‘historical fabulation’, ‘science fiction’ and ‘Jabberwockism’ by delineating which dimensions of that genre correspond to ‘the actual world’ (e.g. natural laws and shared language). Seibel suggests that a text that combines two genres which are, according to Ryan’s table, incompatible with regard to one or more dimensions of accessibility present strong instances of generic “contamination” (Seibel 142). However, Ryan’s positivistic conception of poet essay, reality not only disregards forms of ontological and epistemological doubt, as well as the existence of many alternative reality designs, but the binary system underlying her classification also reveals a static and normative understanding of genre and implies that the non-compliance with generic standards is john locke on personal, tantamount to generic exclusion. Mutual exclusivity of the categories and uniformity of criteria present the logical premises for diagnosing biological hybridity. Because texts can be described with the help of various generic labels, there is poet essay, not a single text that can only be understood as representing a single genre. The absence of consistent criteria for classifying genres means that no two genres are entirely incompatible.
This leads to a surprising diagnosis: due to the unsystematic nature of genre attribution, different genres can logically be combined much more freely than is generally acknowledged within genre theory. The ease with which we can mix elements from different genres has so far been overlooked or ignored because it threatens to undermine the dominant conception of genre as something located inside the text that renders a text an paper instance of that genre. This container model of genre needs overhauling and we will return to it later. For now, we can say that the answer to poet the question “‘Why Can We Have Romantic Realism and not Doggy Cats?’” (Harshav qtd. in Fishelov, Metaphors 20) is the absence of an english essays underlying systematicity and not, as Fishelov declares, that “hybridization in poet essay, literature is […] more common than hybridization in nature […]” ( Metaphors 20). The Political Dimension of ‘Hybridity’ As we have seen, the concept of generic hybridity perforce relies on an essentialist genre conception, as it depends on the ascription of a fundamental, even ‘natural’, difference between two genres and thus neglects both the essays, diversity and adaptability of genre usage. Without such a static normative model it would be impossible to ascribe the essay, status of ‘hybrid’ to an individual text or genre. The allegation of essentialism may appear surprising if we consider the proliferous application of the concept of hybridity in postcolonial studies, which are directed explicitly against essentialist conceptions of culture. As the term’s ubiquity within genre criticism is intricately connected to its career within the postcolonial discourse, it is free essays, necessary to digress a little and consider its uses and connotations with regard to colonial power structures.
Heterogeneity presenting a precondition for hybridization, the poet, application of the college, label ‘hybrid’ to the offspring of “[…] human parents of different races, halfbreed […]” (“Hybrid”) played a significant role in discursively establishing a fundamental difference between colonizer and colonized. Poet. From 1980 onwards, the in theology, term has, as Monika Fludernik explains, been appropriated and poet essay revaluated in the context of the postcolonialism debate (10), most famously by Homi K. Bhabha, who proposes to employ it to dislodge authority and domination: Hybridity is a problematic of colonial representation and individuation that reverses the effects of the colonialist disavowal, so that other ‘denied’ knowledges enter upon the dominant discourse and estrange the basis of in theology of culture, authority – its rules of recognition […]. Hybridity reverses the poet, formal process of disavowal so that the research paper, violent dislocation of the act of colonization becomes the poet, conditionality of colonial discourse [author’s emphases]. (114) Thus, Fludernik observes, “[h]ybridity revalues, that is to say: reconstitutes, colonial identity through deformation and displacement and by means of strategies of subversion. The reversal occurs by means of the inversion of the gaze – from the colonizer on the knowable colonial subject and back to the colonizer” (27) – as an “act of civil disobedience” (31). Fludernik thus describes a shift in the use of the term from a tool used for the oppression of colonized subjects to one of emancipation for same subjects, which implies the inversion of the values ascribed to each side of the binary.
It is, however, difficult to assess in how far the english essays on proverbs, term has within the postcolonial discourse become progressively dissociated from the biological paradigm from which it derives: The term hybridity, from its moorings in sexual cross-fertilization, racial intermixture and intermarriage, has now drifted free to connote (rather than denote) a variety of interstitial and antagonistic set-ups which are clearly linked to a ‘subaltern’ (Gramsci, Spivak) perspective and a positive revaluation of hybridity. Hybridity comes to function as a key concept of cultural diversity in which racial ‘impurity’ has been reinscribed as a subversive multiplicity and as progressive (but not unidirectional) agency. (Fludernik 21) The question is in how far this shift includes a change in the way we conceive of poet, hybridity itself and in how far the term continues to transport some of the john essay identity, implications that served to legitimize hegemonic thought. Fludernik’s explanation proves quite illuminating in this respect. Her mention of ‘agency’ (a notion that is entirely alien to biological conceptions of hybridity) indicates the first, as does as her emphasis on the verb ‘connote’ which implies a certain cognitive detachment from the essay, term’s origin. Indeed, the term is more and john locke on personal more often used as largely synonymous to ‘pluralism’ or ‘multiplicity,’ inviting charges of “theoretical vagueness and ‘elasticity’ of the concept itself” (Acheraiou 102). At the same time, somewhat paradoxically, the very notion of ‘interstice’, the space between, shows the concept’s continued reliance on a binary, essentialist model, as the essay, two poles are still understood as oppositional in nature (not only in structure). Stanford Question. In other words: the concept of poet essay, ‘hybridity’ is thinkable only in connection with its opposite – that of research, ‘purity’ – which is located at both poles. Fludernik argues that the formerly negative notion of poet, impurity has come to be viewed as positive. This revaluation, however, can hardly be said to present a “transcendence of binary oppositions” (Fludernik 11); instead it is an inverse repetition of a logic that continues to foreground the heterogeneity of colonized and colonizing subject and thus fails to grasp the complexity of both relations of essays, power and processes of identity formation.
Moreover, I argue that ‘hybridity’ presents an altogether different schema to that of multiplicity: the first is based on the logic of amalgamation, of fusion at some elementary (or essential) level, while the latter describes one of concurrence. A hybrid thus combines two heterogeneous things A and B to form a third, C, which presents an amalgam of its ‘parents’, while multiplicity describes the juxtaposition of elements from A and B, which then coexist alongside one another. Two popular metaphors for cultural diversity can serve to illustrate the difference: the melting pot presents a metaphor for poet essay, hybridity, while the salad bowl is a metaphor for pluralism. Paper. Conceiving of personal and essay cultural identity in terms of on personal identity, hybridity leads to the reduction of a person or culture to one specific dimension, that of a particular interstice, thus overlooking the diversity and complexity of individual and cultural identity. To refer to former colonies as ‘hybrid’ not only essay perpetuates the false implication that these societies were quite homogenous prior to the interference of the colonizers, but simultaneously implies that the culture of the colonizers does not have the same status. After all, what sense would it make to speak of ‘hybridization’ if all cultures were always already hybrid?
If we posit cultural hybridity as a given, would the whole hybridity discourse not become vacuous? Discursively, Julika Griem concludes, the effectiveness of english essays on proverbs, hybridity as a subversive category depends on poet the supposition of the existence of stable identities, nations, cultures and ethnicities, which present its antithesis (220-1). Hence, the notion of hybridity relies precisely on john locke essay that which it seeks to undermine, because drawing on an essentialist and binary schema necessarily results in the perpetuation of its very logic. Poet Essay. What is more, the concept reiterates the colonizer’s overemphasis on the significance of admissions essay, categories such as cultural heritage, ethnicity and nationality, which present but some of essay, many dimensions that contribute to the formation of an individual’s identity. I contend that these are not fundamentally different from of culture, other socially defined roles individuals perform on a daily basis, from that of parent to that of poet essay, employee to that of sexual partner, neighbor or consumer. Stanford Question. In other words: identities, postcolonial or otherwise, are better described as multiple than as hybrid. Cultures and identities are neither static nor natural; they present constructed worlds and poet as such they are subject to permanent revision. In how far is all this relevant to our discussion of hybrid genres?
Firstly, the john locke on personal, popularity of the notion of hybrid genres with regard to contemporary literature is clearly inspired by the concept’s success within postcolonial studies. It is quite evident that the same issues surrounding questions of identity, knowledge and power that lie at the heart of much contemporary theory (from poststructuralist to poet postcolonial and gender theoretical approaches) also inspire the literary production in general and uses of english, genre conventions in poet essay, particular. The term ‘hybridity’ in john locke essay on personal identity, its revised sense has by many been considered a viable strategy for the subversion of poet, binary hegemonic discourses. In fact, “[i]n postcolonial debates the presumed resistive impulse of hybridity is often reiterated with force and zeal, verging on conceptual dogmatism” (Acheraiou 95). Translated to the realm of literary production, this assumption ascribes to works that overtly mix genres a veritably subversive dimension: generic experimentation is considered to exemplify the strategy of essays of culture, hybridity on the level of cultural forms. It is poet essay, evident that many contemporary texts employ generic experimentation to express their critique of hegemonic discourses, but the english, mechanisms and effects of generic experimentation are much more complex and diverse than the notion of hybridity can possibly capture. Reconceptualizing Genres as Schematized World-Constructions. The first and most important step to a reconceptualization of essay, genre ‘mixing’ consists in the rejection of what Amy J. Devitt calls “a formal view of genre” (5), which departs from a container model of meaning, in of culture, which genre presents the form into which content is put. This conception of genre is not only static and normalizing, it also focuses on poet essay the finished product rather than on processes of essay, meaning-production.
Rather than conceiving genres as a set of formal features, genres should be understood as cognitive schemata (Hallet 53-71; Frow 83-7). David Rumelhart defines schemata as “[…] certain forms of rules of ‘productive imagination’ through which the understanding is able to poet apply its ‘categories’ to english on proverbs the manifold of sense-perception in the process of realizing knowledge or experience” (2). Learning thus takes the shape of pattern-acquisition, in other words: we learn to understand and experience objects, activities, ideas, situations, etc., in terms of typical spatial and functional relationships associated with them. We can then recognise either part or whole of that concept and essay through the activation of the respective schema, infer information on in theology of culture the nature of the object, activity, idea, situation, etc., that is unavailable to our sense perception: Once we have accepted a configuration of schemata, the schemata themselves provide a richness which goes far beyond our observations. Upon deciding that we have seen an automobile, we assume that it has an essay engine, headlights, and all of the standard characteristics of an automobile. We do this without the slightest hesitation. […] This allows our interpretations to far outstrip our sensory observations. In fact, once we have determined that a particular schema accounts for some event we may not be able to determine which aspects of our beliefs are based on direct sensory information and which are merely consequences of our interpretation. (Rumelhart 10) As they present the smallest units into teaching which our knowledge is packaged, Rumelhart describes schemata as “the building blocks of essay, cognition” (2). Genres present particularly complex schemata, or better: complexes of schemata. They form, through association, sets or clusters of typical features I refer to as ‘construction kits’ from which the writer can draw in his/her textual production, and which, in turn, shape the reader’s expectations towards a text.
Thus, genres, as John Frow observes, project specific worlds (73), or, more precisely, genres provide the parameters for constructing worlds: Examples of such generically projected worlds would be: the world of the tabloid press, populated by celebrities, criminals, victims, nude models, and scenarios centred on scandal, crime, and sport. Its moral tone tends to be at once moralistic and salacious, and its time is that of essays, a static continuum punctured by arbitrary events; the world of the picaresque novel, a world of sharp-witted servants and dull masters, of confidence tricks, of hunger and poet essay the constant threat of essay, poverty, of the road and the unforeseen adventure, of upward and downward mobility, of a time which is at once episodic and recurrent; the world of the Petrarchan sonnet, where lovers are constant and fair mistresses are not, where suffering or bliss are the poles between which love moves, where eyes shoot beams to poet twine souls together, and where time is that of biological decay and essays its transcendence in love or in writing […]. (Frow 86) These different worlds are evoked by the text through specific markers (Seibel 138). From the moment we pick up or purchase a book and throughout the entire process of reading, we come across numerous generic indicators in different shapes: the designation on the cover, as well as the cover design and the title of the book or text, furthermore characteristic phrases, such as “once upon a time”, and typical motifs such as space and time travel in poet, the case of science fiction or the shipwreck motif in the case of the robinsonade. We recognize these indicators which in turn activate our schematized knowledge and result in a tentative attribution to english on proverbs a specific genre (Hallet 59). This attribution then largely determines the reader’s expectations. Poet. We approach any text (as well as films, plays, paintings, music etc.) with a variety (which is, of course, determined by our socio-cultural context) of schematised world-constructs at hand, trying to find a suitable match – a process which is mostly unconscious. Thus, when we read the word ‘cowboy’, we draw on our generic knowledge of the western and consequently visualize a characteristic setting in the Old American West, a setting which includes such things as saloons, ranches, stagecoaches, sheriffs, bandits, roulette, cancan, show downs and john essay on personal identity tumbleweed, to name but a few.
Conversely, entities such as princesses, dragons and aliens do not belong to the genre’s general repertoire and poet essay their appearance would present a striking deviation from the reader’s expectations. It is normally such surprising combinations that are described in terms of hybridity, while the multicultural teaching paper, less glaring combinations go largely unnoticed, as Seibel observes (137). The notion that genres evoke schematized worlds is crucial to understanding the political dimension of genre usage, because these worlds transcend the text. Firstly, they can in various senses become institutionalized, for essay, example in the form of specialized events, publications and marketing practices, creating specific genre communities on the basis of shared ideas, tastes and free college interests. Poet Essay. Secondly, their structures and admissions essay conventions respond to specific socio-historical conditions and concerns.
In other words: the constitution of these worlds reflects and/or proposes specific world-views; changes within society consequently also affect these cultural practices and vice versa. Thus, while ‘hybridity’ describes a textual quality, a cognitive approach conceives of genres as expectations that guide literary production and reception . In order to capture this communicative dimension of genre ‘mixing’, I propose to borrow another concept from cognitive literary theory that provides a productive alternative to hybridity: conceptual blending. Conceptual Blending as an Alternative Concept for Genre ‘Mixing’ Unlike ‘hybridity,’ ‘blending’ does not describe the status of a cultural artefact, but a cognitive process – a text, genre or culture is or is not hybrid, while ‘blending’ refers to something one does . Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner describe blending as the partial projection of structural elements and schemata from one mental space onto another. Poet. Mental spaces are dynamic conceptual structures which we construct for editing, specific purposes and poet according to essay question specific situations (Fauconnier and Turner 40) and the schematized worlds we associate with particular genres present such mental spaces. Although Fauconnier and Turner’s concept clearly suggests itself for an application to literary genres, its potential has so far gone largely unnoticed within genre studies, with the notable exception of Michael Sinding, who, to my knowledge is the first and only genre critic to employ ‘blending’ to poet essay genre mixtures. Processes of blending are ubiquitous within all areas of language use; they are involved not only in the creation of parables, metaphors and other tropes, but wherever schemata from a specific realm are transferred to other realms. Thus, for example, the saying “‘[w]hen the cat’s away, the mice will play’ can be projected onto stories of the office, the classroom, infidelity, congressional oversight committees, computer antivirus utilities, and so on, over an unlimited range” (Turner 87). Most blending remains covert and unobtrusive; we only become aware of the english on proverbs, blended character of a construction when we come across surprising twists, logical inconsistencies or structural clashes, thus prompting the ‘hybridity diagnosis’. Although the essay, concept’s application to genres is, as I have shown, inherently flawed, when and how it is used is nevertheless significant because this provides an important clue as to the ways in which the quality of genre ‘mixing’ in contemporary literature may differ from stanford question, combinations of genre schemata in other periods: processes of blending are increasingly foregrounded through the deliberate disappointment of, or confrontation between, generic expectations. Blending involves the following dimensions (Fauconnier and Turner 41-2): Input Spaces : with regard to essay genre ‘mixing,’ the essays in theology of culture, mental input spaces are the world-constructs evoked by genre labels.
These include plot structures, typical settings and entities, stock characters and character constellations, expectable actions and outcomes, but also such aspects as linguistic particularities, specific social hierarchies, atmospheres and essay moral attitudes. Cross-Space Mapping : “A partial cross-space mapping connects counterparts in the input spaces” (Fauconnier and Turner 41). Everything the input spaces have in common is contained in a so-called generic space . Thus, reading a text as the instance of a genre involves identifying counterparts between our construction kit of that genre and the text at hand. Essay Editing. Cross-space mapping also enables us to blend different genres because their worlds (that is, the mental spaces we construct in relation to these genre labels) either share, or are compatible with regard to, certain elements and essay structures. The relevant aspects from the essay, input spaces are then projected onto poet essay a fourth space, the blended space , or ‘blend.’ Through the composition of particular elements and processes of completion , the blend can develop emergent structure that is not part of the inputs (Fauconnier and Turner 42-3) but results from the interaction of the admissions essay editing, newly combined elements. This new structure can then partly be projected back onto the input spaces, as will be illustrated with the help of some examples. Unlike ‘hybridity,’ the poet, concept of blending does not rely on english essays an essentialist model, but describes cognitive constructions, and therefore does not conceive of the input spaces as stable or pure.
Consequently, any blend can provide an input space for new blends. Essay. Indeed, the application of the notion of question, ‘hybridity’ from biology to colonial and postcolonial discourses to literary genres quite neatly illustrates the essay, multiple stages involved in many processes of blending. Free College Essays. Because genres evoke worlds with the help of complexes of essay, schemata, genre worlds are themselves already blended spaces and teaching can in essay, turn serve as input spaces for worlds that combine schemata from different genres. This repeatability of blending, presents the prerequisite for combining elements associated with different genres. Incidentally, this observation also provides a new perspective on generic labels such as ‘gothic thriller’ or ‘romantic comedy’, which are often understood in terms of subgenres or modes in the adjectival sense.
Contrary to these ideas, I argue that the often ad hoc coinage of such labels can be better and more simply explained as illustrating a blended space, or world, which combines elements or structures associated with two different genres. Generic Blending in Scorsese’s Taxi Driver. An example will serve illustrate how the described multistage process can help us understand different forms and effects of generic ‘mixing’ – Martin Scorsese’s cult film Taxi Driver , which mixes elements associated with the psychological thriller and such associated with the western genre. 26-year old ex-soldier Travis Bickle, who suffers from insomnia, witnesses on research paper his nightly cab tours through New York scenes of poet essay, violence, prostitution and drug abuse. “All the animals,” Travis contemplates, “come out at night – whores, skunk-pussies, buggers, queens, fairies, dopers, junkies… sick, venal. Essay Question. Someday a rain’ll come and wash all this scum off the essay, street” (qtd. in Ray 352). Disgusted by what he sees and frustrated with his failed courtship of the essays on proverbs, classy Betsy, he finally decides to take matters into his own hands. He meets the 12-year old prostitute Iris whom he decides to essay ‘save’ and kills her pimp and his henchmen in a dramatic shootout. The film thus exhibits the dark mood and vivid depiction of stanford question, violence, as well as the narrative perspective and pre-occupation with mental processes characteristic of many films labelled ‘psychological thriller’ and a plot structure and character constellation considered typical of the western. Before analyzing how the viewer integrates these two different genres, however, I would like to consider how another blend, namely that between the world of the poet essay, western and late-70s urban America, is established. The primary input spaces here are ‘New York’ and the world of the western. The cross-spatial mapping of these spaces connects the lawlessness, vice and corruption associated with the Wild West with the lawlessness, vice and corruption Travis sees in the streets of New York.
Once this connection is established, one can identify many more counterparts in stanford, the generic space: the armed robbery of a convenience store resembles the bank robberies we frequently find in westerns, New York’s prostitutes present counterparts to the ‘easy girls’ in frontier towns (Iris’s nickname, incidentally, is “Easy”), Sport’s long hair and headband recall the poet essay, stereotypical Indian, and, most importantly, the loner Travis in his taxi recalls the lonesome cowboy, who aimlessly roams the essay, wilderness on his horse. These parallels or ‘mappings’ become so suggestive to poet essay Travis that he adapts his behaviour to that of the cowboy: having decided to take matters into his own hands, he buys several revolvers, begins to practise his quick draw and tapes a knife to his cowboy boots. It is at this point that Travis’s blend becomes overt. This illustrates how blends develop emergent structure: once Travis has recognized key similarities between the locke essay on personal, input spaces, he begins to complete the structure and identifies an ‘adequate’ solution to poet essay the perceived problem – vigilantism. Scorsese’s film is particularly interesting, because while the protagonist is teaching paper, quite obviously psychopathic, it is never entirely clear whether his blend is merely the poet essay, delusion of an john essay on personal individual who is losing his grip on reality, or if it indeed corresponds to a widely accepted world-view, as the implausible ending shows Travis being congratulated for his murderous actions. Conversely, some of the insights gained within the blend can be projected back onto the input spaces: the impressions of brutality and insanity the viewer gains from Scorsese’s film can be projected back onto the western to poet essay reveal the violent logic underlying dominant conceptions of this genre, while the surprising ending can (depending on the viewer’s interpretation) lead one to college essays assume the lingering influence of the world-view associated with the western within parts of the US.
The concept of essay, blending thus also captures different dimensions of ideological critique involved in john locke identity, genre mixing. Although Taxi Driver effectively evokes the western genre, this does not mean that the viewer identifies the film as a western. Essay. Instead, viewers are more likely to understand Scorsese’s film as a psychological thriller. English. The reason for this is not so much that elements associated with the psychological thriller ‘outweigh’ those associated with the western, although the poet, contemporary urban setting may, for some, disqualify the film’s classification as a western. Essays Of Culture. The main reason for such a view, however, is the poet essay, discrepancy between the protagonist’s world-view and that of the locke essay identity, audience.
Travis interprets his surroundings as analogous to the world of the western, whereas the viewer, confronted with various signs of the essay, taxi driver’s mental decline which somewhat forestalls the identification with the protagonist, tends to understand Travis’s interpretation as a delusion, a result of his pathological state of mind. This shows that genre evocation does not necessarily lead to genre attribution. That the majority of john essay, references to a specific genre do not lead to genre attribution is a circumstance that is routinely neglected by essay, proponents of admissions editing, generic hybridity, because although Taxi Driver evokes two very different genres the film can hardly be termed a ‘hybrid’ of western and thriller. By the same token, the fact that a newspaper article refers to poet essay an event as a ‘tragedy’ does not mean that we classify it as pertaining to that literary tradition. Instead, the selective projection of schemata we associate with a particular genre enables us to college interpret new information with the help of familiar patterns which then also govern our (re)actions, as Taxi Driver dramatically illustrates. As readily available world-constructs genres provide effective models for the structuring of extra-literary realities (Hallet 60). This presents the poet, true political dimension of generic experimentation, because a text’s failure to adhere to our generic expectations leads to the foregrounding of locke on personal identity, these expectations, which renders them accessible to rational critique. Moreover, the discrepancy between generic expectations and textual actualizations may result in essay, the adjustment of our genre schemata and in theology of culture therefore ultimately also to a revision of our understanding of poet essay, extra-literary realities. This shall be illustrated with some cursory reflections on blends drawing on the fairy tale, one of the few genres where criticism often explicitly focuses on questions of ideology and pedagogy, or on what I call ‘the politics of genre’. The tales subsumed under the label ‘classical fairy tale’ gradually found their way into essay the households of the literate classes, particularly of the bourgeoisie, in the 18 th and 19 th century.
Counter to common knowledge, the poet essay, familiar versions read in english on proverbs, families and schools, such as those collected by poet, the Brothers Grimm and Charles Perrault, exhibit significant alterations compared to the oral folk versions most of them are based on (Zipes Magic Spell 2). Far from faithfully reproducing tales that were orally transmitted for generations and generations, the ‘classical’ versions were adapted for a bourgeois audiences with the purpose of promoting the morals and codes of behavior of the patriarchal bourgeois society in order to free essays prepare men and essay women for their respective roles therein: [T]he male hero learns to be active, competitive, handsome, industrious, cunning, acquisitive. Stanford Essay. His goal is money, power, and poet a woman (also associated with chattel). His jurisdiction is the open world. Essays In Theology Of Culture. His happiness depends on poet essay the just use of power. The female hero learns to be passive, obedient, self-sacrificing, hard-working, patient, and admissions editing straight-laced. Her goal is wealth, jewels and a man to protect her property rights. Poet. Her jurisdiction is the john essay, home or castle.
Her happiness depends on conformity to patriarchal rule. (Zipes Fairy Tales 57) I would argue that up until today most people’s conceptions of the fairy tale are shaped mainly by the literary versions by Perrault, the Brothers Grimm and essay Hans-Christian Andersen, which are still widely read in families, but also circulated as children’s entertainment by the mass media. This means that there is a relatively limited stock of culturally shared generic schemata, which renders the john essay on personal identity, projection of fairy tale motifs and structures to other genres and world-constructs both appealing and effective. Poet Essay. At the same time, because many of these structures are intimately tied to an ideology that is john on personal, increasingly seen as problematic, they are often evoked against themselves, that is, to reveal and poet critique their ideological bias. Thus, in essays, the last thirty years or so, there have been a growing number of rewritings of fairy tales that renegotiate the fixed gender conceptions promoted by the classical versions, often by portraying the fairy tale ‘heroine’ as active and poet essay ingenious rather than passive and college simple-minded.
To name one of many examples, the Snow White in Tarsem Singh’s 2012 adaptation Mirror Mirror grows into a proactive heroine who fights the vain and cruel queen alongside the seven dwarves. When the queen enters the forest to kill Snow White, the essay, latter locks up her male helpers, including the prince, in the dwarves’ dwelling, resolved to confront the queen on her own. She tells the prince: ‘“You know, all that time locked up in the castle, I did a lot of admissions, reading. You read so many stories where the prince saves the princess. I think it’s time we changed that ending!”’, at which the prince protests: ‘“But it’s been focused grouped and it works!”’. This meta-generic quip foregrounds the essay, cognitive process and teaching research paper implications of the poet, completion of the genre schema by linking the question, gender roles promoted by poet essay, fairy tale conventions to question audience expectations and marketability. Snow White’s fight for a different ending consequently presents an explicit critique of these preconceptions. In order to grasp the real political potential of genre it is paramount to poet understand that it is only through the familiarity with the generic schemata that the emancipatory message of subversive versions becomes effective in in theology, the reader’s mind, leading him/her to revise received genre conceptions, and thus renders the alterations socially relevant. Jack Zipes provides another intriguing example of a subversive blend: a television advert for poet essay, a cleaning agent blends the generic input spaces of the fairy tale and of advertising by on personal identity, employing the Cinderella story to illustrate the key sales argument for the product. One older sister: Cinderella, wash the floor.
Other older sister: Yeah, wash it, and then re-wax it. [Sisters leave for the ball.] Cinderella: Wash, wax, pfui. [Fairy Godmother appears.] Fairy Godmother: Phew, ammonia. That strips wax. But use Mr Clean with no ammonia. Mr Clean gets the dirt but leaves the wax shining and you get a shine. Fairy Godmother: And now off to the ball? Cinderella: Ball-schmall. Tonight’s my bowling league. ‘Bye. Essay. [author’s emphases] (Proctor and Gamble TV ad, qtd. in Zipes Magic Spell xxi)
This blend overtly deconstructs the expectations associated with both genres: firstly, instead of envying and emulating the haughty sisters and john locke essay subscribing to the upper and upper middle-class ideal of sophistication by attending a formal ball, where she could show off her beauty and find her prince, this self-determined Cinderella chooses a more working-class activity where she can roll up her sleeves and show her skills as part of a team. The ad thus exposes the essay, gender and essay class bias of the familiar fairy tale version. Secondly, the emancipatory twist also presents a critique of the essay, conservative image of the happy housewife often evoked in the promotion of household products by the marketing industry, because by using Cinderella as a model, this advert portrays housework not as the admissions essay, woman’s vocation or a familial duty, but as a chore forced upon poet essay her by teaching research paper, others, thus subtly hinting at the coercive dimension of role allocation. Despite the increase in critical engagement with the political dimension of folk and fairy tales, it remains largely unexplored how their structures shape particular extra-literary conceptions and discourses. This seems surprising considering the socializing function so often ascribed to them. While the scope of this question certainly exceeds this article, I would like to suggest that they not only continue to affect gender conceptions and received notions of poet essay, beauty and romantic love, but are also blended with other popular genres. Thus, many romantic films evoke, sometimes more, sometimes less explicitly, fairy tale motifs and metaphors, not to english essays on proverbs mention the ‘happy ever after’ formula. By the same token, the hierarchical structure of the fairy tale world tangibly inspires celebrity coverage in the popular press and on TV, because in the present age of poet, communication and globalized markets, the multicultural paper, celebrity occupies an elevated position analogous to that of the aristocracy in the feudal world of the fairy tale. Beauty, wealth and prestige structure both world-constructs, rendering the blend as effective as it is unobtrusive. This recourse to fairy tale schemata in parts of the mass media arguably partly accounts for the persistence of the seemingly anachronistic institution of poet essay, monarchy in so many Western democracies.
As in the time of Perrault and the Grimm Brothers, the fairy tale semantics still imbues the royal sphere with glamour and fuels people’s hopes and aspirations of social advancement. In this light, the recent crisis of the British monarchy could, to some extent, be attributed to the failure of the free college, projection due to an overt discrepancy between fairy tale conventions and the events surrounding the marriage between Prince Charles and Diana Spencer portrayed in poet essay, the popular media. This discrepancy becomes starkly apparent precisely because the multicultural research paper, projection at first seemed to fit very well indeed: although Diana is of noble descent, this is consistently downplayed or altogether neglected in the media’s portrayal of poet essay, her as a Cinderella-figure (Gephart 157), which allows Prince Charles to john locke on personal become Prince Charming and select the beautiful young woman as his princess. Poet Essay. More important than their ‘fairy tale wedding’ is the circumstance that the Princess of Wales came to be seen as the embodiment of the very virtues of the heroine of the classical fairy tale tradition: young and beautiful, her initial shyness made her seem both passive and obedient, while the concern she displayed for essays, the sick and poor, and her commitment to the battle against landmines, showed kindness, caring and poet selflessness. In other words: according to the gender conception associated with the classical fairy tale tradition, Diana Spencer rightfully deserved a happy ending with her Prince Charming. That she was denied this happy ending because the Prince had an john locke essay affair with a married woman arguably undermines the belief in the validity of the projection of the fairy tale court, where the adherence to the bourgeois moral code is rewarded, onto poet the British monarchy. The fairy tale happy ending can arguably be considered to represent something of a ‘symbolical contract’ between nobility and bourgeoisie, according to which the stanford question, bourgeoisie’s acceptance of the nobility’s supreme status is premised on the latter’s acceptance of bourgeois values. In the aftermath of Diana’s death, the institution of poet essay, monarchy in Britain came increasingly under scrutiny, and was openly criticized as outdated. Today, this crisis seems to have been entirely overcome. Again, the reinvigoration of the fairy tale projection can be considered to be of symbolical significance to the revitalization of monarchism: although the initial blend failed, the corrected cross-space mapping which substitutes Charles for his son in the role of Prince Charming seems to locke essay identity provide a suitable match including the desired happy ending in poet essay, the shape of a fairy tale wedding. As I have sought to show, genres are not only relevant in terms of classification, but as complexes of admissions essay editing, schemata they also present meaningful patterns that govern our interpretation of cultural artifacts, as well as of extra-textual worlds.
In this sense, for the sake of monarchism, William and Kate would do well to live up to poet essay the generic expectations of the locke essay identity, fairy tale, in other words, happily ever after. Brunetiere conceives of poet, genres as possessing a life-span that can be divided into three stages: birth, maturity, death (13). He then applies this tripartite conception of generic development to literary history, allocating to major works a specific place in the life-cycle of the genre he considers them to represent. David Fishelov, who calls for essays in theology, a revivification of certain aspects of the evolutionary paradigm ( Life , 616) presents a notable exception.  I depart from a constructivist world-concept that defines worlds as structures which are conceived as having defined boundaries, their own specific rules and poet essay laws, and exclude certain individuals or entities.  Fauconnier and Turner use ‘generic’ here in a broad sense, not in relation to artistic genres. Acheraiou, Amar. Essay. Questioning Hybridity, Postcolonialism and Globalization. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. Print. Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of poet essay, Culture.
London: Routledge, 1994. Print. Broich, Ulrich. Gattungen des modernen englischen Romans. Wiesbaden: Athenaion, 1975. Print. Brunetiere, Ferdinand. L'evolution des genres dans l'histoire de la litterature.
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Martina Allen was born in 1981 in Frankfurt/Germany. She studied English as well as Theatre, Film and Media Studies at the Goethe-University in Frankfurt and received her Master of Arts with Honours in both subjects in 2008. Since 2010, she has had several lectureships at the TU Darmstadt and currently holds a Dissertation Fellowship at the University of Konstanz/Germany. The subject of her dissertation thesis is the stanford essay, significance and discursive functions of genre in contemporary Anglophone literature.